Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield PC KG (22 September 1694 – 24 March 1773) was a British statesman and man of letters. Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an Order of chivalry, or Knighthood, originating in Medieval England, and presently bestowed on recipients Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Year 1773 ( MDCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A statesman or stateswoman or statesperson is usually a Politician or other notable figure of State who has had a long and respected career in An intellectual (from the adjective meaning "involving thought and reason" is a person who tries to use his or her Intelligence and analytical thinking,
A Whig, Lord Stanhope, as he was known until his father's death in 1726, was born in London, and educated at Cambridge and then went on the Grand Tour of the continent. The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to Year 1726 ( MDCCXXVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the The Grand Tour was the traditional travel of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class European young men of means The death of Anne and the accession of George I opened up a career for him and brought him back to England. Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714 became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 succeeding William III of England and II of George I (George Louis German Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 &ndash 11 June 1727 For the first year of his life George was the only heir to his father's and three childless His relative James Stanhope, the king's favorite minister, procured for him the place of gentleman of the bedchamber to the Prince of Wales. James Stanhope 1st Earl Stanhope, PC (c 1673 – February 5 1721) English and British statesman and soldier was born in Paris, the eldest A Lord of the Bedchamber (also known as a Gentleman of the Bedchamber was a courtier in the Royal Household of the King of the United Kingdom (and its predecessor George II (George Augustus 10 November 1683 &ndash 25 October 1760 was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (
In 1715 he entered the House of Commons as Lord Stanhope of Shelford and member for St Germans, and when the impeachment of the Duke of Ormonde came before the House, he used the occasion (5 August 1715) to put to proof his old rhetorical studies. Year 1715 ( MDCCXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords St Germans (Cornish Lannales) is a village in east Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. Impeachment is the first of two stages in a specific process for a legislative body to forcibly remove a Government official James Butler 2nd Duke of Ormonde KG, KT ( April 29, 1665 – November 16, 1745) Irish statesman and soldier son Events 642 - Battle of Maserfield - Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Bernicia. Year 1715 ( MDCCXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice
His maiden speech was youthfully fluent and dogmatic; but on its conclusion the orator was reminded with many compliments, by an honorable member, that he was six weeks short of his majority, and consequently that he was liable to a fine of £500 for speaking in the House. A maiden speech is the first speech given by a newly- elected members of a Legislature or Parliament. The age of majority is the threshold of Adulthood as it is conceptualized (and recognized or declared in Law. Lord Stanhope left the Commons with a low bow and set out for the continent. From Paris he sent the government valuable information about the Jacobite plot; and in 1716 he returned to Britain, resumed his seat, and took frequent part in the debates. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Jacobitism was (and to a limited extent remains the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England, Scotland Year 1716 ( MDCCXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a In that year came the quarrel between the king and the Prince of Wales. George II (George Augustus 10 November 1683 &ndash 25 October 1760 was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg ( Stanhope, whose political instincts obliged him to worship the rising rather than the setting sun, remained faithful to the prince, though he was too cautious to break entirely with the king's party. He was on friendly terms with the prince's mistress, Henrietta Howard, afterwards Countess of Suffolk. Henrietta Howard ( 1689 - July 26, 1767) was a mistress of King George II of Great Britain. He maintained a correspondence with this lady which earned him the hatred of the Princess of Wales. In 1723 a vote for the government got him the place of captain of the Gentlemen Pensioners. Year 1723 ( MDCCXXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Captain of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms is a UK government post usually held by the Government Chief Whip in the House of Lords. In January 1725, on the revival of the Order of the Bath, the red riband was offered to him, but was declined. Year 1725 ( MDCCXXV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British Order of chivalry founded by George
In 1726 his father died, and Lord Stanhope became Earl of Chesterfield. Year 1726 ( MDCCXXVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Earls of Chesterfield, in the County of Derby, was a title in the Peerage of England. He took his seat in the House of Lords, and his oratory, which had been ineffective in the Commons, was suddenly appreciated. The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" Oratory is the art of (public speaking In ancient Greece and Rome, oratory was studied as a component of Rhetoric (that is composition and delivery In 1728 Chesterfield was sent to the Hague as ambassador. Year 1728 ( MDCCXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country His tact and temper, his dexterity and discrimination, enabled him to do good service, and he was rewarded with Robert Walpole's friendship, the Order of the Garter, and the position of Lord Steward. Robert Walpole 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 &ndash 18 March 1745 known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an Order of chivalry, or Knighthood, originating in Medieval England, and presently bestowed on recipients The Lord Steward or Lord Steward of the Household, in England, is an important official of the Royal Household. In 1732 there was born to him, by a certain Mlle du Bouchet, the son, Philip Stanhope, for whose advice and instruction at Westminster School were afterwards written the famous Letters to his Son. Year 1732 ( MDCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Royal College of St Peter in Westminster, almost always known as Westminster School, is one of Britain 's leading boys' Independent schools with He negotiated the second Treaty of Vienna in 1731, and in the next year, his health and fortune damaged, he resigned as ambassador and returned to Britain. The Treaty of Vienna was first signed on March 16, 1731 by Count Finzendorf and the Earl of Chesterfield. Year 1731 ( MDCCXXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Vincent la Chapelle, his cook, accepted a post at the court of William IV of Orange. Vincent La Chapelle ( 1690 or 1703 – 1745) was a French master cook to Phillip Dormer Stanhope, fourth Earl of Chesterfield, to William IV Prince of Orange and Nassau ( September 1 1711 &ndash October 22 1751) was the first hereditary Stadtholder
A few months' rest enabled him to resume his seat in the Lords, of which he was one of the acknowledged leaders. He supported the ministry, but his allegiance was not the blind fealty Walpole exacted of his followers. The Excise Bill, the great premier's favorite measure, was vehemently opposed by him in the Lords, and by his three brothers in the Commons. Walpole bent before the storm and abandoned the measure; but Chesterfield was summarily dismissed from his stewardship. For the next two years he led the opposition in the Upper House, leaving no stone unturned to effect Walpole's downfall. During this time, he resided in Grosvenor Square and got involved in the creation of a new London charity called the Foundling Hospital for which he was a founding governor. Grosvenor Square (pronounced "Grove-ner Square" is a large garden square in the exclusive Mayfair district of London, England. The Foundling Hospital in London, England was founded in 1739 by the philanthropic sea captain Thomas Coram. In 1741 he signed the protest for Walpole's dismissal and went abroad on account of his health. Year 1741 ( MDCCXLI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
He visited Voltaire at Brussels and spent some time in Paris, where he associated with the younger Crebillon, Fontenelle and Montesquieu. François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is Claude Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon ( February 13, 1707 - April 12, 1777) was a French Novelist. Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, also referred to as Bernard le Bouyer de Fontenelle ( 11 February 1657 &ndash 9 January 1757) was Charles-Louis de Secondat baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (Eng In 1742 Walpole fell, and Carteret was his real, though not his nominal successor. Year 1742 ( MDCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a John Carteret 2nd Earl Granville 7th Seigneur of Sark, PC ( 22 April 1690 &ndash 22 January 1763) commonly known by his earlier Although Walpole's administration had been overthrown largely by Chesterfield's efforts the new ministry did not count Chesterfield either in its ranks or among its supporters. He remained in opposition, distinguishing himself by the courtly bitterness of his attacks on George II, who learned to hate him violently.
In 1743 a new journal, Old England; or, the Constitutional Journal appeared. Year 1743 ( MDCCXLIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a For this paper Chesterfield wrote under the name of "Jeffrey Broadbottom. " A number of pamphlets, in some of which Chesterfield had the help of Edmund Waller, followed. A pamphlet is an unbound Booklet (that is without a hard cover or binding) Early life Edmund Waller was the eldest son of Robert Waller of Coleshill, Herts, and Anne Hampden his wife thus he was first cousin to John Hampden His energetic campaign against George II and his government won the gratitude of the Dowager Duchess of Marlborough, who left him £20,000 as a mark of her appreciation. Sarah Churchill ( née Jenyns spelt Jennings in most modern references Duchess of Marlborough (5 June 1660 (old style &ndash 18 October 1744 In 1744 the king was compelled to abandon Carteret, and the coalition or "Broad Bottom" party, led by Chesterfield and Pitt, came into office in coalition with the Pelhams. Year 1744 ( MDCCXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a In 18th century politics the broad bottom government (or 'broad bottom administration' is a government with cross-party appeal according (among others to John Stuart Shaw "The William Pitt 1st Earl of Chatham PC (15 November 1708 &ndash 11 May 1778 was a British Whig Statesman who achieved his greatest fame as Henry Pelham ( 25 September 1694 &ndash 6 March 1754) was a British Whig Statesman, who served as Prime In the troublous state of European politics the earl's conduct and experience were more useful abroad than at home, and he was sent to the Hague as ambassador a second time. The object of his mission was to persuade the Dutch to join in the War of the Austrian Succession and to arrange the details of their assistance. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748 involved nearly all the powers of Europe The success of his mission was complete; and on his return a few weeks afterwards he received the Lord-Lieutenancy of Ireland, a place he had long coveted. The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (Ard-Leifteanant na hÉireann ( Plural: Lords Lieutenant) also known as the Judiciar in the early Mediaeval period
Short as it was, Chesterfield's Irish administration was of great service to his country, and is unquestionably that part of his political life which does him most honor. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world To have conceived and carried out a policy which, with certain reservations, Burke himself might have originated and owned, is indeed no small title to regard. Edmund Burke ( 12 January, 1729 9 July, 1797) was an Irish statesman author orator Political theorist, and The Earl showed himself finely capable in practice as in theory, vigorous and tolerant, a man to be feared and a leader to be followed; he took the government entirely into his own hands, repressed the jobbery traditional to the office, established schools and manufactures, and at once conciliated and kept in check the Orange and Roman Catholic factions. The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau) a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life In 1746, however, he had to exchange the lord-lieutenancy for the place of Secretary of State. Year 1746 ( MDCCXLVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Secretary of State for the Northern Department was a position in the Cabinet of the government of the Kingdom of Great Britain up to 1782 With a curious respect for those theories his familiarity with the secret social history of France had caused him to entertain, he hoped and attempted to retain a hold over the king through the influence of Lady Yarmouth, though the futility of such means had already been demonstrated to him by his relations with Queen Caroline's "ma bonne Howard. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Amalie Sophie Marianne von Wallmoden Countess of Yarmouth ( 1 April 1704 &ndash 19 October 1765) was a mistress of George II of Great Britain " The influence of Newcastle and Sandwich, however, was too strong for him; he was thwarted and over-reached; and in 1748 he resigned the seals, and returned to cards and his books with the admirable composure which was one of his most striking characteristics. Thomas Pelham-Holles 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, KG, PC (21 July 1693 &ndash 17 November 1768 was a British John Montagu 4th Earl of Sandwich, PC, FRS ( 3 November 1718 &ndash 30 April 1792) succeeded his grandfather Year 1748 ( MDCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a He declined any knowledge of the Apology for a late Resignation, in a Letter from an English Gentleman to his Friend at The Hague, which ran through four editions in 1748, but there is little doubt that he was, at least in part, the author. Year 1748 ( MDCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a
The dukedom offered him by George II, whose ill-will his fine tact had overcome, was refused. He continued for some years to attend the Upper House, and to take part in its proceedings. In 1751, seconded by Lord Macclesfield, president of the Royal Society, and James Bradley, the eminent mathematician, he distinguished himself greatly in the debates on the calendar, and succeeded in making the new style a fact: the Act of Parliament is sometimes known as Chesterfield's Act. Year 1751 ( MDCCLI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a George Parker 2nd Earl of Macclesfield, FRS (c 1695 or 1697 &ndash March 17, 1764) was an English Astronomer. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 This article describes the English astronomer for other people sharing the name see James Bradley (disambiguation James Bradley (March 1693 The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today See also Old Style and New Style dates See also Gregorian calendar, Julian calendar The Calendar (New Style Act 1750 (also known as Deafness, however, was gradually affecting him, and he withdrew little by little from society and the practice of politics.
In 1755 occurred the famous dispute with Johnson over the dedication to the English Dictionary. Year 1755 ( MDCCLV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Samuel Johnson (often referred to as Dr Johnson) (18 September Published on 15 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language, sometimes published as Johnson's Dictionary, is among Some 8 years previously (1747) Johnson sent Chesterfield, who was then Secretary of State, a prospectus of his Dictionary, which was acknowledged by a subscription of 10 pounds. Year 1747 ( MDCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Chesterfield apparently took no further interest in the enterprise, and the book was about to appear, when he wrote two papers in the World in praise of it. It was said that Johnson was kept waiting in the anteroom when he called while the actor Colley Cibber was admitted. In any case the doctor had expected more help from a professed patron of literature, and wrote the earl the famous letter in defence of men of letters. Chesterfield's "respectable Hottentot," now identified with George, Lord Lyttelton, was long supposed, though on slender grounds, to be a portrait of Johnson.
In the mid-1750s Chesterfield offered a cogent critique of the Stamp Act passed by Grenville's parliament. The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III c George Grenville (14 October 1712 &ndash 13 November 1770 was a British Whig statesman who served in government He wrote (in a letter to his friend Lord Newcastle) about the "absurdity" of the act. It could not be properly enforced, and even if it was effective, the tax would bring in no more than 80,000 pounds per year while the cost in reduced trade from the American colonies would be at least a million pounds a year (as it happened the loss was nearly two million a year). 
He lived for some years at the Ranger's House, Chesterfield Walk, Greenwich, London. Ranger's House is a villa adjacent to Greenwich Park in the south east of London. Greenwich ( ˈɡrɛnɪtʃ GREN-itch /ˈɡrɛnɪdʒ/ GREN-idge or /ˈɡrɪnɪdʒ/ GRIN-idge is a district in south-east London,
In 1768 died Philip Stanhope, the child of so many hopes. Year 1768 ( MDCCLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The constant care bestowed by his father on his education resulted in an honorable but not particularly distinguished career for young Stanhope. His death was an overwhelming grief to Chesterfield, and the discovery that he had long been married to a lady of humble origin must have been galling in the extreme to his father after his careful instruction in worldly wisdom. Chesterfield, who had no children by his wife, Melusina von der Schulenburg, Countess of Walsingham, an illegitimate daughter of George I by Ehrengard Melusine von der Schulenburg, Duchess of Kendal and Munster, whom he married in 1733, adopted his godson, a third cousin once removed, also named Philip Stanhope (1755-1815), as heir to the title and estates. Petronilla Melusine von der Schulenburg Countess of Walsingham (1693-1778 was the illegitimate daughter of King George I of Great Britain and his long-term mistress Ehrengard Ehrengard Melusine von der Schulenburg Duchess of Kendal and Duchess of Munster ( 25 December 1667 – 10 May 1743) was born at Year 1733 ( MDCCXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Philip Stanhope 5th Earl of Chesterfield KG ( November 10 1755 &ndash August 29 1815) was the son of Arthur Charles Stanhope of He did however, bequeath to his grandsons Charles (1761-1845) and Philip (1763-1801), the children of his illegitimate son Philip, £100 annuity each and a further £10,000 between them. Extracts of his will were published in The Gentleman's Magazine in 1773. The Gentleman's Magazine was founded in London by Edward Cave in January 1731
His famous jest (which even Johnson allowed to have merit), "Tyrawley and I have been dead these two years, but we don't choose to have it known," is the best description possible of his humour and condition during the latter part of this period of decline. To the deafness was added blindness, but his memory and his fine manners only left him with life; his last words ("Give Dayrolles a chair") prove that he had neither forgotten his friend nor the way to receive him. He died on the 24 March 1773. Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Year 1773 ( MDCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Chesterfield was selfish, calculating and contemptuous; he was not naturally generous, and he practised dissimulation until it became part of his nature. In spite of his brilliant talents and of the admirable training he received, his life, on the whole, cannot be pronounced a success. His anxiety and the pains he took to become an orator have been already noticed, and Horace Walpole, who had heard all the great orators, preferred a speech of Chesterfield's to any other; yet the earl's eloquence is not to be compared with that of Pitt. Horace Walpole 4th Earl of Orford ( 24 September, 1717 &ndash 2 March, 1797) more commonly known as Horace Walpole, was a politician Samuel Johnson, according to his extraordinary biographer, James Boswell, expressed himself pointedly about the nobleman, in the following manner, ‘“This man (said he) I thought had been a Lord among wits; but I find he is only a wit among Lords!” And when his Letters to his natural son were published, he observed, that “they teach the morals of a whore, and the manners of a dancing-master. ”’ As a courtier he was utterly worsted by Robert Walpole, whose manners were anything but refined, and even by Newcastle. He desired to be known as a protector of letters and literary men; and his want of heart or head over the Dictionary dedication, though explained and excused by Croker, nonetheless inspired the famous change in a famous line "Toil, envy, want, the patron, and the jail. " His published writings have had with posterity a very indifferent success; his literary reputation rests on a volume of letters never designed to appear in print. The son for whom he worked so hard and thought so deeply failed especially where his father had most desired he should succeed.
As a politician and statesman, Chesterfield's fame rests on his short but brilliant administration of Ireland. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world As an author he was a clever essayist and epigrammatist. But he stands or fails by the Letters to his Son, first published by his son's widow Eugenia Stanhope in 1774, and the Letters to his Godson (1890). Year 1774 ( MDCCLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Letters are brilliantly written, full of elegant wisdom, of keen wit, of admirable portrait-painting, of exquisite observation and deduction.
Chesterfield County, Virginia and Chesterfield County, South Carolina in the United States were named in his honor. Chesterfield County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States. Chesterfield County is a County located in the US state of South Carolina. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Among the quotations attributed to him are:
|Parliament of Great Britain|
|Member of Parliament for St Germans|
with John Knight
Marquess of Hartington
|Member of Parliament for Lostwithiel|
with Marquess of Hartington
Sir Orlando Bridgeman
The Earl of Derby
|Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard|
The Earl of Leicester
The Duke of Dorset
The Duke of Devonshire
The Duke of Devonshire
|Lord Lieutenant of Ireland|
The Earl of Harrington
The Earl of Harrington
The Duke of Newcastle
|Peerage of England|
|Earl of Chesterfield|