The term Peruvian literature not only refers to literature produced in the independent Republic of Peru, but also to literature produced in the Viceroyalty of Peru during the country's colonial period, and to oral artistic forms created by diverse ethnic groups that existed in the area during the prehispanic period, such as the Quechua, the Aymara and the Chanka indigenous groups. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Created in 1542 the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled Oral tradition, oral culture and oral lore is a way for a society to transmit history, literature, law and other Knowledges The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. The Aymara are a native Ethnic group in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1
The artistic production of the pre-Hispanic period, especially art produced under the Incan Empire, is largely unknown. The Inca Empire (or Inka Empire) was the largest empire in Pre-Columbian America. Literature produced in the central-Andean region of modern-day Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia and Chile, was transmitted orally, as there were no known writing systems at the time. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. It consisted of two main poetic forms: harawis (from the Quechua language)--- a form of lyrical poetry---and hayllis--- a form of epic poetry. Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. Both forms described the daily life and rituals of the time, and were recited by a poet known as the harawec.
Orally transmitted folktales expressed the cosmology of the Andean world, and included creation and destruction myths. Many of these stories have survived until the present, thanks in no small part to the efforts of early chroniclers such as Inca Garcilaso, who rediscovered Quechua poetry, and Guamán Poma de Ayala, who preserved mythology. Their inclusion in the "official canon" was a slow process, as they were not viewed with seriousness. For instance, Jose de la Riva Agüero, in his 1905 thesis Character of the Literature of Independent Peru considered the Pre-Hispanic literary tradition "insufficient" and unimportant in the formation of any new literary tradition. It was resurrected from obscurity in the XXth century, by a number of literary scholars and anthropologists who compiled and rescued Pre-Hispanic myths and legends. Among them are:
Bendezú affirms that Quechua oral tradition constitutes a marginal system opposed to the dominant Hispanicizing force. He speaks of a great tradition of "enormous textual mass" which was marginalized and sidelined by the Western scriptural system. Luis Alberto Sánchez, on the other hand, employed elements of the Pre-Hispanic tradition to illustrate his theory of a racially mixed "Creole" literature of both indigenous and Iberian parentage. To this end, he cited chronicles by authors such as Cieza, Betanzos and Garcilaso.
The Literature of Peru's discovery and conquest includes all works produced in in the region during its discovery and conquest by Spain. It can also refer to literature produced roughly around this time. The period begins on November 15, 1532 in Cajamarca with the capture of the last Inca lord, Atahualpa; it ends with the complete dismantling of the Incan Empire and the founding of the city of Lima. Cajamarca is located in the northern highlands of Peru and is the capital of the Cajamarca region. Atahualpa, Atahuallpa, Atabalipa, or Atawallpa ( Quito – Cajamarca, August 29, 1533) was the last sovereign Lima is the Capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a coast overlooking The principal literary manifestations of this period are in the form of chronicles of discovery, or are epistolary in nature. Generally a chronicle (chronica from Greek (from) is a historical account of facts and events in chronological order Major works which explore the literature of this time include: Francisco Carrillo's Enciclopedia histórica de la literatura peruana (Historical Encyclopedia of Peruvian Literature), and various tomes by Raúl Porras Barrenechea which detail the works of the early chroniclers.
According to Francisco Carrillo, the early chroniclers could be divided into various groups. The first is the group of chroniclers detailing the conquest. The majority of these were writers and soldiers who were responsible for producing official transcripts of military expeditions. In addition, there also existed a small group of non-official chroniclers or personal diarists who provided unique personal insights on the effort to subdue and colonize the region. Both groups coexisted during the first period of the Peruvian conquest, which took place between 1532 and 1535.
For the most part, these chroniclers all wrote from the perspective of the conqueror, whose mission was to "civilize" and "reveal the true faith" to the native peoples of Peru. Therefore, many of their descriptions and the motivations they ascribe to the indigenous peoples of the region are distorted and in error.
Among the official Spanish chroniclers were Francisco de Xerez, personal secretary of Pizarro, who wrote the Verdadera relación de la conquista del Perú y provincia del Cuzco llamada la Nueva Castilla (The True Narrative of the Conquest of Peru and of Cuzco Province, Otherwise Known as New Castile), in 1531. Francisco Pizarro González 1st Marqués de los Atabillos (c 1471 or 1476 &ndash 26 June 1541 was a Spanish Conquistador, conqueror of the Incan Empire He is also responsible for Relación Sámano-Xerez (the Samano-Xerez Narrative) of 1528, which details Pizarro's first expeditions of 1525 and 1527. His historical accounts are reiterated by Pedro Sancho de la Hoz, in his La Conquista de Peru (The Conquest of Peru), of 1524.
Another official Spanish chronicler was Fray Gaspar de Carvajal, who produced the Relacion del descubrimiento del famoso río grande de las Amazonas (The Narrative of the Discovery of the Famous Great River of the Amazons) of 1541-1542, which described the first expedition and cartography of the Peruvian amazon territory, and of its towns and indigenous inhabitants.
Other Spanish chroniclers worth mentioning are:
There were a number of indigenous and and mestizo chroniclers in Peru. Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin Many of the indigenous chroniclers, such as Titu Cusi Yupanqui, were of royal Incan bloodlines. After familiarizing himself with Spanish culture, Yupanqui wrote Relación de cómo los españoles entraron en Pirú y el subceso que tuvo Mango Inca en el tiempo en que entre ellos vivió (The Narrative of How the Spaniards Entered Piru and Mango Inca's Eperiences while Living Among Them) in 1570. In it, he presents a vision of his own history, and presents Incan creation myths, traditions and customs, historical memories and impressions regarding the conquest and colonial dominance. Other similar works are Juan de Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui Salcamaygua'sRelación de antiguedades deste reyno del Piru (Narrative of the Antiquity of this Kingdom of Piru) 1613, and Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala's 'El primer nvueva corónica y bven govierno (First New Chronicle and Good Government) written between 1585 and 1615, but first published in 1936, in which the author details the devastation of the Andean world and tries to make sense of the chaotic reality in which the indigenous peoples find themselves. Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala (c 1550 &ndash after 1616 best known as Guaman Poma or Huaman Poma, was an indigenous Peruvian who became disillusioned Juan de Santa Cruz Pachacuti also writes a chronicle in which he crudely attempts to explain the Inca cosmogony in rudimentary Spanish.
Guamán Poma, wrote an extensive 1179-page letter to the king of Spain, Philip III, in which he narrates the history of his universe and ends with a proposal for a utopic society. after he farted he ate chicken and farted some more Philip III (Felipe III April 14, 1578 &ndash March 31, 1621) was the King He embarks on a harsh criticism of the authorities, of the abusive priesthood, of the Spanish envoys and landed gentry, and of "mestizo" and creole society. In the words of Luis Alberto Sánchez, this long and futile letter constitutes an indictment of the colonial system. Luis Alberto Félix Sánchez Sánchez ( Lima, October 12, 1900 - Lima, February 6, 1994) was a Peruvian lawyer
The hegemony of Creole oligarchy in Peruvian society favored the abandonment of indigenous forms in favor of European ones. Hegemony (hɨˈdʒɛməni (Amer /hɨˈɡɛməni/ (Brit (ἡγεμονία hēgemonía) is a concept that has been used to describe and explain the dominance of one social Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment Neoclassicists, such as Manuel Asencio y Segura and Felipe Pardo y Aliaga arose, and the genre dominated until the end of the XIX century. Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar
The 19th-Century brought Romanticism to Peru, with the works of Carlos Augusto Salaverry and José Arnaldo Márquez. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Narrative prose developed away from the pastoral works of Manuel Ascensio Segura and Ricardo Palma) (see Costumbrismo) toward Modernism, with the works of Manuel González Prada and José Santos Chocano. Ricardo Palma Soriano (1833 - 1919 was a Peruvian author scholar and librarian Costumbrismo refers to the literary or pictorial interpretation of local everyday life mannerisms and customs primarily in the Hispanic scene Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Manuel González Prada (1844-1918 was a Peruvian politician and Anarchist, Literary critic and director of the National Library of Peru. José Santos Chocano Gastañodi ( Lima, Perú b May 14 1875 - Santiago, d
The general crisis following the War of the Pacific gave rise to Modernism in Peru. The War of the Pacific, sometimes called the Saltpeter War in reference to its original cause was fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Its best-known exponents were José Santos Chocano and José María Eguren. José Santos Chocano Gastañodi ( Lima, Perú b May 14 1875 - Santiago, d José María Eguren Rodríguez ( July 7 1874 – April 19 1942 in Lima) was a Peruvian writer
The Avant-garde movement was encouraged by the magazines Colónida and Amauta. Avant-garde (avɑ̃gaʁd in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard ---- Amauta was a Peruvian journal published between 1926 - 1930 in Lima by José Carlos Mariategui Amauta was founded in 1926 by the prominent socialist essyainst José Carlos Mariátegui. ---- Amauta was a Peruvian journal published between 1926 - 1930 in Lima by José Carlos Mariategui José Carlos Mariátegui La Chira ( 14 June 1894 16 April 1930) was a Peruvian journalist Political philosopher, and activist The influential poet César Vallejo was one of its collaborators. César Abraham Vallejo Mendoza ( March 16 1892 &ndash April 15 1938) was a Peruvian Poet. There were various splinter groups among the Avant-Gardist poets, whose major exponents were Xavier Abril, Alberto Hidalgo, Sebastián Salazar Bondy and Carlos Germán Belli. Xavier Abril de Vivero, (4 November 1905 in Lima - 1990 in Montevideo) was a Peruvian Poet and Essayist. Sebastián Salazar Bondy (Lima 1924-1964 was a Peruvian playwright essayist poet and journalist and among the most important of Peruvian intellectuals Carlos Germán Belli de La Torre, ( September 15 1927 - in Lima) is a Peruvian Poet of Italian parentage
Interest in indigenous poetry was resurrected by the work of Luis Fabio Xammar. Others who brought Indigenism to the fore were Ciro Alegría, José María Arguedas, and Manuel Scorza. Ciro Alegría Bazán (1909-1967 was a Peruvian Journalist, Politician, and Novelist. José María Arguedas Altamirano ( 18 January 1911 &ndash 28 November 1969) was a Peruvian novelist poet and anthropologist who wrote Manuel Scorza ( September 7 1928 - November 27 1983) was an important Peruvian novelist poet and political activist exiled under
During the 1950's urban realism developed with the works of Julio Ramón Ribeyro and the playwright Sebastián Salazar Bondy. Julio Ramón Ribeyro Zúñiga ( August 31, 1929, Lima, Peru - December 4, 1994, Lima Peru was a Peruvian Writer Sebastián Salazar Bondy (Lima 1924-1964 was a Peruvian playwright essayist poet and journalist and among the most important of Peruvian intellectuals Realism is also the province of the major luminary Mario Vargas Llosa, while Alfredo Bryce Echenique incorporated new narrative techniques within the genre. Realism in the Visual arts and Literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in Everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa (born March 28 1936 is a Peruvian writer Politician, Journalist, and Essayist. Alfredo Bryce Echenique (born February 19, 1939) is a Peruvian writer born in Lima. A narrative or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written spoken poetry prose images song Theater, or Dance) that describes a sequence of
Some of the most notable names in poetry are Emilio Adolfo Westphalen, Jorge Eielson, Carlos Germán Belli, Antonio Cisneros, Wáshington Delgado, Marco Martos, Carmen Ollé. Carlos Germán Belli de La Torre, ( September 15 1927 - in Lima) is a Peruvian Poet of Italian parentage Antonio Alfonso Cisneros Campoy, (b Dec 27 1942 in Lima) is an award-winning Peruvian poet Marcos Martos may refer to Marco Martos (football player (born 1973 Mexican American football player Marco Martos Carrera, Peruvian
Noteworthy in narrative prose are: Miguel Gutiérrez, Gregorio Martínez, Alonso Cueto and Guillermo Niño de Guzmán. A narrative or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written spoken poetry prose images song Theater, or Dance) that describes a sequence of Alonso Cueto Caballero (born in 1954 in Lima Peru is a Peruvian novelist and playwright
Jaime Bayly is a noteworthy contemporary Peruvian writer. Jaime Bayly Letts (born February 19, 1965 in Lima, Peru) is a Writer, a Journalist and a host. His work No se lo digas a nadie (Tell No One) has been adapted for the screen.