A personal digital assistant (PDA) is a handheld computer, also known as small or palmtop computers. The EO was an early commercial Tablet computer created by AT&T, released in April 1993 Before proposing a merge request please see Talk and see if the merger you propose has recently been made and A mobile device (also known as cellphone device, handheld device, handheld computer, "Palmtop" or simply handheld) is a pocket-sized Newer PDAs also have both color screens and audio capabilities, enabling them to be used as mobile phones (smartphones), web browsers, or portable media players. A smartphone is a Mobile phone offering advanced capabilities beyond a typical mobile phone often with PC -like functionality A web browser is a software application which enables a user to display and interact with text images videos music games and other information typically located on a A portable multimedia player ( PMP) sometimes referred to as a portable video player ( PVP) is a Consumer electronics device that is capable Many PDAs can access the Internet, intranets or extranets via Wi-Fi, or Wireless Wide-Area Networks (WWANs). The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols and network connectivity to securely share any part of an organization's information or operational An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols network connectivity and possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of Wireless network refers to any type of Computer network that is Wireless, and is commonly associated with a Telecommunications network whose interconnections WWAN, which stands for Wireless Wide Area Network, is a form of Wireless network. Many PDAs employ touch screen technology. A Touch Screen is a display which can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area
The first PDA is considered to be the Psion Organiser. The Psion Organiser was the brand name of a range of Pocket Computer developed by the British company Psion in the 1980s GO Corp. was also pioneering in the field. GO Corporation was founded in 1987 to create Software for Mobile computers and Personal digital assistants It was famous not only for its pioneering work The term was first used on January 7, 1992 by Apple Computer CEO John Sculley at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada, referring to the Apple Newton. Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Apple Inc, ( formerly Apple Computer Inc, is an American Multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing Consumer electronics A chief executive officer ( CEO) or chief executive is typically the highest-ranking corporate officer ( executive) or administrator John Sculley (born April 6 1939) is an American businessman Sculley was vice-president (1970-1977 and president of PepsiCo (1977-1983 until The International Consumer Electronics Show (CES is a Trade show held each January in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is sponsored The Las Vegas metropolitan area includes the Las Vegas Valley a 600-square-mile (1600 km² basin and surrounding areas that is part of Clark County in southern Nevada ( is a state located in the western region of the United States of America. The Apple Newton, or simply Newton, is the IPhone 's predecessor and was an early line of Personal digital assistants developed and marketed by PDAs are sometimes referred to as "Palms", "Palm Pilot", or "Palm Tops".
Currently, a typical PDA has a touch screen for entering data, a memory card slot for data storage and at least one of the following for connectivity: IrDA, Bluetooth and/or WiFi. However, many PDAs (typically those used primarily as telephones) may not have a touch screen, using softkeys, a directional pad and either the numeric keypad or a thumb keyboard for input.
Software typically required to be a PDA includes an appointment calendar, a to-do list, an address book for contacts and some sort of note program. Connected PDAs also typically include E-mail and Web support.
Many original PDAs, such as the Apple Newton and the Palm Pilot, featured touch screens for user interaction, having only a few buttons usually reserved for shortcuts to often used programs. The Apple Newton, or simply Newton, is the IPhone 's predecessor and was an early line of Personal digital assistants developed and marketed by This is a new page about the Second Generation of Palm PDAs For the generic page see Palm (PDA The PalmPilot Personal and PalmPilot Professional A Touch Screen is a display which can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area Touch screen PDAs, including Windows Pocket PC devices, usually have a detachable stylus that can be used on the touch screen. A Pocket PC, abbreviated P/PC or PPC, is a hardware Specification for a Handheld -sized Computer ( Personal digital assistant A stylus (plural styli or styluses) is a Writing utensil. The word is also used for a computer accessory ( PDAs) Interaction is then done by tapping the screen to activate buttons or menu choices, and dragging the stylus to, for example, highlight. Text input is usually done in one of four ways:
PDAs for business use, including the BlackBerry and Treo, have full keyboards and scroll wheels or thumb wheels to facilitate data entry and navigation, in addition to supporting touch-screen input. The BlackBerry is a Wireless Handheld device introduced in 1999 as a two-way pager There are also full-size foldable keyboards available that plug directly, or use wireless technology to interface with the PDA and allow for normal typing. BlackBerry has additional functionality, such as push-based email and applications. The BlackBerry is a Wireless Handheld device introduced in 1999 as a two-way pager
Newer PDAs, such as the Apple iPhone and iPod touch include new user interfaces using other means of input. The iPhone is an internet-connected Multimedia Smartphone designed and marketed by Apple Inc The iPod Touch (trademarked and marketed as the iPod touch and sometimes colloquially referred to as the iTouch) is a Portable media player and The iPhone and iPod touch uses a technology called Multi-touch. Multi-touch (or multitouch) denotes a set of Interaction techniques which allow computer users to control graphical
Although many early PDAs did not have memory card slots, now most have either an SD (Secure Digital) and/or a Compact Flash slot. A memory card or flash memory card is a solid-state electronic Flash memory Data storage device used with Digital Secure Digital ( SD) is a non-volatile Memory card format developed by Matsushita, SanDisk, and Toshiba for use in CompactFlash ( CF) is a Mass storage device format used in portable electronic devices Although originally designed for memory, SDIO and Compact Flash cards are available for such things as Wi-Fi and Webcams. Secure Digital ( SD) is a non-volatile Memory card format developed by Matsushita, SanDisk, and Toshiba for use in Some PDAs also have a USB port, mainly for USB flash drives.
As more PDAs include telephone support, to keep the size down, many now offer miniSD or microSD slots instead of full-sized SD slots.
While many earlier PDAs connected via serial ports or other proprietary format, many today connect via USB cable. In Computing, a serial port is a Serial communication physical interface through which information transfers in or out one Bit at a time (contrast This served primarily to connect to a computer, and few, if any PDAs were able to connect to each other out of the box using cables, as USB requires one machine to act as a host - functionality which was not often planned. Some PDAs were able to connect to the internet, either by means of one of these cables, or by using an extension card with an ethernet port/RJ-45 adaptor. Ethernet is a family of frame -based Computer networking technologies for Local area networks (LANs A registered jack ( RJ) is a standardized physical interface — both jack construction and wiring pattern — for connecting telecommunications equipment (commonly a Telephone
Most modern PDAs have Bluetooth wireless connectivity, an increasingly popular tool for mobile devices. Bluetooth is a wireless protocol utilizing short-range communications technology facilitating data transmission over short distances from fixed and/or mobile devices creating wireless It can be used to connect keyboards, headsets, GPS and many other accessories, as well as sending files between PDAs. Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth Many mid-range and superior PDAs have Wi-Fi/WLAN/802.11-connectivity, used for connecting to Wi-Fi hotspots or wireless networks. Wi-Fi (ˈwaɪfaɪ is the trade name for the popular wireless technology used IEEE 80211 is a set of standards for wireless local area network (WLAN computer communication developed by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee ( IEEE 802 Older PDAs predominantly have an IrDA (infrared) port; however fewer current models have the technology, as it is slowly being phased out due to support for Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. The Infrared Data Association ( IrDA) defines physical specifications Communications protocol standards for the short-range exchange of Data Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of IrDA allows communication between two PDAs: a PDA and any device with an IrDA port or adapter. The Infrared Data Association ( IrDA) defines physical specifications Communications protocol standards for the short-range exchange of Data Most universal PDA keyboards use infrared technology because many older PDAs have it, and infrared technology is low-cost and has the advantage of being permitted aboard aircraft.
An important function of PDAs is synchronizing data with a PC. This allows up-to-date contact information stored on software such as Microsoft Outlook or ACT! to update the database on the PDA. Microsoft Outlook or Outlook (full name Microsoft Office Outlook since Outlook 2003 is a Personal information manager from Microsoft, and is ACT! by Sage is a Customer relationship management (CRM software application which is used to keep track of client and prospect details in a single database that The data synchronization ensures that the PDA has an accurate list of contacts, appointments and e-mail, allowing users to access the same information on the PDA as the host computer.
The synchronizing also prevents the loss of information stored on the device in case it is lost, stolen, or destroyed. Another advantage is that data input is usually a lot quicker on a PC, since text input via a touch screen is still not quite optimal. Transferring data to a PDA via the computer is therefore a lot quicker than having to manually input all data on the handheld device.
Most PDAs come with the ability to synchronize to a PC. This is done through synchronization software provided with the handheld, such as HotSync Manager, which comes with Palm OS handhelds, Microsoft ActiveSync for older versions of Windows or Windows Mobile Device Center on Windows Vista, which comes with Windows Mobile handhelds.
These programs allow the PDA to be synchronized with a Personal information manager. This personal information manager may be an outside program or a proprietary program. For example, the BlackBerry PDA comes with the Desktop Manager program which can synchronize to both Microsoft Outlook and ACT!. Microsoft Outlook or Outlook (full name Microsoft Office Outlook since Outlook 2003 is a Personal information manager from Microsoft, and is ACT! by Sage is a Customer relationship management (CRM software application which is used to keep track of client and prospect details in a single database that Other PDAs come only with their own proprietary software. For example, some early Palm OS PDAs came only with Palm Desktop while later Palms such as the Treo 650 has the built-in ability to sync to Palm Desktop and/or Microsoft Outlook, while Microsoft's ActiveSync and Windows Mobile Device Center only synchronize with Microsoft Outlook or a Microsoft Exchange server.
Third-party synchronization software is also available for many PDAs from companies like Intellisync and CompanionLink. The Intellisync Corporation is a provider of Data and PIM Synchronization software for mobile devices such as Cell Phones and PDAs The company was This software synchronizes these handhelds to other personal information managers which are not supported by the PDA manufacturers, such as GoldMine and Lotus Notes. GoldMine is a Customer Relationship Management software package Lotus Notes is a Client-server, collaborative application developed and sold by IBM Software Group
PDAs are used to store information that can be accessed at any time and any where.
Many PDAs are used in car kits and are fitted with differential Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to provide realtime automobile navigation. Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth PDAs are increasingly being fitted as standard on new cars.
Many systems can also display traffic conditions, dynamic routing and roadside mobile radar guns. Popular software in Europe and in America for this functionality are TomTom, Garmin, iGO etc. TomTom NV ( is a Dutch manufacturer of Automotive navigation systems including both stand-alone units and software for Personal digital assistants Garmin Ltd ( incorporated in George Town, Cayman Islands, is the parent company of a group of companies founded in 1989 by Gary Burrell and Min International Organization is a peer-reviewed Academic journal that covers the entire field of International affairs. showing road conditions and 2D or 3D environments.
For many years businesses and government organizations have relied upon rugged PDAs also known as enterprise digital assistants (EDAs) for mobile data applications. A Enterprise digital assistant (EDA is a Handheld computer, born of the Personal digital assistant popularity which was adapted for extensive more robust usage within Typical applications include supply chain management in warehouses, package delivery, route accounting, medical treatment and record keeping in hospitals, facilities maintenance and management, parking enforcement, access control and security, capital asset maintenance, meter reading by utilities, and "wireless waitress" applications in restaurants and hospitality venues. A common feature of EDAs are the integration of Data Capture devices like Bar Code, RFID and Smart Card Readers. Radio-frequency identification ( RFID) is an automatic identification method relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or
In medicine, PDAs have been shown to aid diagnosis and drug selection and some studies have concluded that their use by patients to record symptoms improves the effectiveness of communication with hospitals during follow-up. The first landmark study in testing the effectiveness of PDAs in a medical setting was conducted at the Brigham & Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospitals in affiliation with Harvard Medical School. Led by the team of Steven Labkoff, MD and Sandeep Shah, the Constellation project used Apple's Newton (first PDA in the market) to cater to the demands of the medical professionals. The Apple Newton, or simply Newton, is the IPhone 's predecessor and was an early line of Personal digital assistants developed and marketed by Constellation's objective was to test how clinicians in various medical environments (wired vs un wired) would use medical reference books on a hand-held device. The study validated the hypothesis that PDAs with medical content would be used to a greater degree (>40% more often) in unwired environments. Today, the company evolved from the effort Skyscape offers a wide range of resources including drug information, treatment options, guidelines, evidence based information and journal summaries including the drug & safety alerts. Other entrants include Epocrates and ABX guide, which supply drug databases, treatment information and relevant news in formats specific to mobile devices and services such as AvantGo translate medical journals into readable formats and provide updates from journals. AvantGo is a Web page / File synchronization service for Personal digital assistants (PDAs and Smartphones The system consists of browser client software WardWatch organizes medical records to remind doctors making ward rounds of information such as the treatment regimens of patients and programs. Finally, Pendragon and Syware provide tools for conducting research with mobile devices, and connecting to a central server allowing the user to enter data into a centralized database using their PDA. Additionally, Microsoft Visual Studio and Sun Java provide programming tools for developing survey instruments on the handheld. These development tools allow for integration with SQL databases that are stored on the handheld and can be synchronized with a desktop/server based database.
Recently the development of Sensor Web technology has led to discussion of using wearable bodily sensors to monitor ongoing conditions like diabetes and epilepsy and alerting medical staff or the patient themselves to the treatment required via communication between the web and PDAs. The Sensor Web is a type of sensor network or Geographic information system (GIS that is especially well suited for Environmental monitoring and control
As mobile technology has become very common, it is no surprise that personal computing has become a vital learning tool by this time. Educational institutes have commenced a trend of integrating PDAs into their teaching practices (mobile learning). M-learning, or "mobile learning" now commonly abbreviated to "mLearning" has different meanings for different communities With the capabilities of PDAs, teachers are now able to provide a collaborative learning experience for their students. They are also preparing their students for possible practical uses of mobile computing upon their graduation.
PDAs and handheld devices have recently allowed for digital note taking. This has increased student’s productivity by allowing individuals to quickly spell-check, modify, and amend their class notes or e-notes. Educators are currently able to distribute course material through the use of the internet connectivity or infrared file sharing functions of the PDA. With concerns to class material, textbook publishers have begun to release e-books, or electronic textbooks, which can be uploaded directly to a PDA. This then lessens the effort of carrying multiple textbooks at one time.
To meet the instructive needs sought by educational institutes, software companies have developed programs with the learning aspects in mind. Simple programs such as dictionaries, thesauri, and word processing software are important to the digital note taking process. Word processing is the creation of documents using a Word processor. In addition to these simple programs, encyclopedias and digital planning lessons have created added functionality for users.
With the increase in mobility of PDAs, school boards and educational institutes have now encountered issues with these devices. School boards are now concerned with students utilizing the internet connectivity to share test answers or to gossip during class time, which creates disruptions. Many school boards have modernized their computer policies to address these new concerns. Software companies such as Scantron Corp. Scantron is a company based in Irvine California, USA, that manufactures and sells Machine-readable papers on which students mark answers to academic have now created a program for distributing digital quizzes. The quiz software disables the infrared function on PDAs, which eliminates the element of information sharing among individuals during the examination. Many colleges encourage the use of PDAs. 
PDAs are used by glider pilots for pre-flight planning and to assist navigation in cross-country competitions. Gliding is a Recreational activity and competitive Sport in which pilots fly un-powered aircraft known as Gliders or sailplanes They are linked to a GPS to produce moving-map displays showing the tracks to turn-points, airspace hazards and other tactical information. Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth
PDAs can be used by road rally enthusiasts. A road rally is a car rally that takes place on the Public road. PDA software can be used for calculating distance, speed, time, and GPS navigation as well as unassisted navigation.
PDAs offer varying degrees of accessibility for people with differing abilities, based on the particular device and service. Accessibility is a general term used to describe the degree to which a product (e People with vision, hearing, mobility, and speech impairments may be able to use PDAs on a limited basis, and this may be enhanced by the addition of accessibility software (i. e. , [[speech recognition]] for verbal input instead of manual input). Speech recognition (also known as automatic speech recognition or computer speech recognition) converts spoken words to machine-readable input (for example to keypresses Universal design is relevant to PDAs as well as other technology, and a viable solution for many user-access issues, though it has yet to be consistently integrated into the design of popular consumer PDA devices. Universal design is a relatively new Paradigm that emerged from " Barrier-free " or " Accessible design " and " Assistive technology
PDAs have recently become quite useful in the TBI/PTSD population, especially seen in troops returning home from Operation Iraqi Freedom(OIF)/Operation Enduring Freedom(OEF). PDAs address memory issues and help these men and women out with daily life organization and reminders. As of quite recently, the Department of Veterans' Affaiars (VA) has begun issuing thousands of PDAs to troops who present the need for them. Occupational therapists have taken on a crucial role within this population helping these veterans return to the normalcy of life they once had.
Many PDAs run using a variation of the ARM architecture (usually denoted by the Intel XScale trademark). The ARM architecture (previously the Advanced RISC Machine, and prior to that Acorn RISC Machine) is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture The XScale, a microprocessor core, is Marvell 's (formerly Intel 's implementation of the fifth generation of the ARM architecture, and consists A trademark or trade mark, represented by the symbols ™ and ®, or mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual This encompasses a class of RISC microprocessors that are widely used in mobile devices and embedded systems, and its design was influenced strongly by a popular 1970s/1980s CPU, the MOS Technology 6502. A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a Central processing unit (CPU on a single Integrated Mobile computing is a generic term describing one's ability to use technology while moving as opposed to Portable computers which are only practical for use while deployed in An embedded system is a special-purpose Computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions often with Real-time computing constraints This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit Microprocessor that was designed by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology in 1975
|List of Mobile|
|Symbian OS m n s|
|Windows Mobile m n|
|iPhone OS n|
|Palm OS n|
|Openmoko Linux l n|
|Access Linux Platform l n s|
|Qtopia l m n|
|Internet Tablet OS l n|
|BlackBerry OS m|
|Android l m|
|LiMo Platform l m n|
The currently major PDA operating systems are:
Stand-alone PDA sales fell 43. Operating systems can be categorized by technology ownership licensing working state usage and by many other characteristics Symbian OS is an open Operating system, designed for Mobile devices with associated libraries, User interface frameworks and Windows Mobile is a compact Operating system combined with a suite of basic applications for Mobile devices based on the Microsoft Win32 iPhone OS or OS X iPhone is the Operating system developed by Apple Inc Palm OS (also known as Garnet OS) is an embedded Operating system initially developed by U Openmoko Linux is an Operating system for Smartphones developed by FIC. The Access Linux Platform, sometime referred to as a "next-generation version of the Palm OS " is an open source-based Operating system for mobile devices BlackBerry OS is the proprietary Software platform made by Research In Motion for their BlackBerry line of handhelds Android is a software platform and Operating system for Mobile devices based on the Linux Kernel, developed by Google The LiMo Platform is an Operating system and software development platform for Mobile phones and other handheld devices. MOTOMAGX is an Operating system developed by Motorola to run on their Mobile phones The system is a combination of Linux and Java Linux (commonly pronounced ˈlɪnəks Managed code is computer program code that executes under the management of a Virtual machine, unlike unmanaged code which is executed directly by the computer's Machine code or machine language is a system of instructions and data executed directly by a Computer 's Central processing unit. Capability-based security is a concept in the design of Secure computing systems An operating system (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a Computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination Palm OS (also known as Garnet OS) is an embedded Operating system initially developed by U PalmSource, now known as ACCESS Systems Americas Inc is a subsidiary of ACCESS which develops the Palm OS PDA Operating system. iPhone OS or OS X iPhone is the Operating system developed by Apple Inc Apple Inc, ( formerly Apple Computer Inc, is an American Multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing Consumer electronics Windows Mobile is a compact Operating system combined with a suite of basic applications for Mobile devices based on the Microsoft Win32 A Pocket PC, abbreviated P/PC or PPC, is a hardware Specification for a Handheld -sized Computer ( Personal digital assistant Windows CE (also known officially as Windows Embedded Compact post version 6 Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Computer technology Corporation, which rose to dominate the Home computer The BlackBerry is a Wireless Handheld device introduced in 1999 as a two-way pager Research In Motion Limited ( RIM) () is a Wireless device company best known as the developer of the BlackBerry handheld Communication Linux (commonly pronounced ˈlɪnəks Free software or software libre is Software that can be used studied and modified without restriction and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified Familiar Linux is a Linux distribution for IPAQ machines and other Personal digital assistants (PDAs intended as a replacement for Windows CE GPE (a Recursive initialism for GPE Palmtop Environment) is a Graphical user interface environment for Handheld computers such as OPIE (Open Palmtop Integrated Environment is a completely Open source based Graphical user interface for PDAs and other devices running Linux OpenZaurus is a Debian -based embedded Operating system for the Sharp Zaurus personal mobile tool PDA. The Sharp Zaurus is the name of a series of Personal Digital Assistant (PDA made by Sharp Corporation. The Ångström distribution is a Linux distribution for a variety of embedded devices Symbian OS is an open Operating system, designed for Mobile devices with associated libraries, User interface frameworks and EPOC is a family of Operating systems developed by Psion for portable devices primarily PDAs. Motorola Inc ( is an American, multinational Fortune 100, Telecommunications company based in Schaumburg Illinois. Nokia Corporation (pronunciation /'nɔkiɑ/),,) is a Finnish multinational Communications Corporation, headquartered The Samsung Group ( Korean:, Samsung Guerup) is South Korea 's largest company or Chaebol and the world's largest conglomerate Sony Ericsson is a Joint venture established in 2001 by the Japanese Consumer electronics Company Sony Corporation and the 5% from 2006 to 2007. Approximately 4 million PDAs are sold per year. However, with smartphone sales increasing from levels of approximately 60 million per year, more telephones are being used as PDAs with phone capability. A smartphone is a Mobile phone offering advanced capabilities beyond a typical mobile phone often with PC -like functionality
According to a Gartner market study, the overall market for PDAs grew by 20. Gartner, Inc ( is an information technology research and advisory firm headquartered in Stamford, Connecticut. Sao Paulo Stock Exchangejpg|thumb| Virtual market arena where buyer and seller are not present and trade via intemediates and electronical information 7% in the third quarter (Q3) of 2005, compared to Q3 2004, with marketshare resolving as follows (by operating system):