Arthur L. Benton • David Bohm
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In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory information. Neuropsychology is the applied scientific discipline that studies the structure and function of the Brain related to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors A brain-computer interface (BCI sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal Traumatic brain injury (TBI also called intracranial injury, occurs when Physical trauma injures the Brain. Anatomical regions of the brain are listed vertically following hierarchies that are standard in Neuroanatomy. Clinical neuropsychology is a sub-specialty of clinical Psychology that specialises in the diagnostic assessment and treatment of patients with Brain injury or Cognitive neuroscience is an academic field concerned with the scientific study of biological substrate underlying Cognition, with a specific focus on the neural substrates The human brain controls the Central nervous system (CNS by way of the Cranial nerves and Spinal cord, the Peripheral nervous system (PNS Neuroanatomy is the science for localizing function in the Human brain. Neurophysiology (from Greek grc νεῦρον neuron, "nerve" grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν phrēn, "mind" and λόγος Logos, "knowledge" is a defunct field of study once The human brain controls the Central nervous system (CNS by way of the Cranial nerves and Spinal cord, the Peripheral nervous system (PNS Wikipedia articles related to Brain Function Visual system Auditory system Olfactory system Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake Attention is the Cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things Consciousness has been defined loosely as a constellation of attributes of Mind such as Subjectivity, Self-awareness, Sentience, and the Decision making can be regarded as an outcome of mental processes ( cognitive process) leading to the selection of a course of action among several alternatives The executive system is a theorized Cognitive system in Psychology that controls and manages other cognitive processes In the Philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is a Language that is spoken or written in phonemic-alphabetic or phonemically-related In the fields of Neuropsychology, Personal development and Education, Learning is one of the most important Mental function of humans In Psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store retain and subsequently retrieve information Gross motor coordination addresses the Gross motor skills walking running climbing jumping crawling lifting one's head sitting up etc In Psychology and the Cognitive sciences perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory Information. Planning in Organizations and Public policy is both the organizational process of creating and maintaining a Plan; and the psychological process of Problem solving forms part of thinking. Considered the most complex of all intellectual functions problem solving has been defined as higher-order Cognitive Thought and thinking are mental forms and Processes respectively ("thought" is both David Joseph Bohm ( December 20 1917, Wilkes-Barre Pennsylvania – October 27 1992, London) was an American António Rosa Damásio, GOSE, pron. ɐ̃'tɔniu dɐ'maziu (ɐ̃'tɔniu dɐ'maziu (b Phineas P Gage (July 9? 1823 – May 21? 1860 was a railroad worker now remembered for his incredible survival of a Traumatic brain injury which destroyed one or both of Norman Geschwind (1926-1984 can be considered the father of modern Behavioral neurology in America Elkhonon Goldberg (b 1946 Riga, Latvia) is a Neuropsychologist and Cognitive neuroscientist known for his work in hemispheric specialization Donald Olding Hebb ( July 22, 1904 &ndash August 20, 1985) was a Canadian Psychologist who was influential in the area of Neuropsychology Kenneth M Heilman is an American Behavioral neurologist. Biography Early life and career Kenneth Heilman was born and raised in Brooklyn Muriel Deutsch Lezak is an American neuropsychologist best known for her book Neuropsychological Assessment, widely accepted as the standard in the field Benjamin Libet ( April 12, 1916 - July 23, 2007) was a researcher in the Physiology department of the University of California Rodolfo R Llinás (b Bogotá, Colombia in 1934 is the Thomas and Suzanne Murphy Professor of Neuroscience and Chairman of the department of Physiology & Neuroscience Alexander Romanovich Luria Александр Романович Лурия ( July 16, 1902 - August 14, 1977) was a famous Soviet Dr Brenda Milner CC FRS (born 15 July 1918, Manchester England) has contributed extensively to the research literature Karl H Pribram (born February 25, 1919 in Vienna Austria) is a professor at Georgetown University and George Mason University Oliver Wolf Sacks, CBE (born July 9, 1933, London is a British Neurologist residing in the United States who has written popular books about Roger Wolcott Sperry ( August 20, 1913 – April 17, 1994) was a neuropsychologist, neurobiologist and Nobel laureate who KC (Also known as Patient KC) is a famous patient in Neuropsychology who suffers from Anterograde amnesia and temporally graded Retrograde amnesia Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular Brain structure or pathway The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, or simply the Bender-Gestalt test, is a Psychological test first developed by child Neuropsychiatrist Lauretta The Benton Visual Retention Test (or simply Benton Test) is an individually administered test for ages 8-adult that measures Visual perception and Visual memory The Clinical Dementia Rating or CDR is a numeric scale used to quantify the severity of Symptoms of Dementia (i A Continuous Performance Task/Test, or CPT, is a Psychological test which measures a person's sustained and selective Attention and impulsivity The Glasgow Coma Scale or GCS, sometimes also known as the Glasgow Coma Score is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable objective The Hayling and Brixton tests are Neuropsychological tests of Executive function created by psychologists Paul W The lexical decision task is a procedure used in many Psychology and Psycholinguistics experiments The mini-mental state examination ( MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to assess Cognition. Demonstration Say aloud the colors of each of these words as fast Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS is a general test of intelligence ( IQ) published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler - Bellevue test The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST is a Neuropsychological test of "set-shifting" i A Johari window is a cognitive psychological tool created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1955 in the United States used to help people better understand Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and Cognitive science may be broadly defined as the multidisciplinary study of mind and behavior Senses are the physiological methods of Perception. The senses and their operation classification and theory are overlapping topics studied by a variety of fields Information as a concept has a diversity of meanings from everyday usage to technical settings It is a task far more complex than was imagined in the 1950s and 1960s, when it was proclaimed that building perceiving machines would take about a decade, but, needless to say, that is still very far from reality. The word perception comes from the Latin perception, percepio, , meaning "receiving, collecting, action of taking possession, apprehension with the mind or senses. "
There are two basic theories of perception: Passive Perception (PP) and Active Perception (PA). The passive perception (conceived by René Descartes) is addressed in this article and could be surmised as the following sequence of events: surrounding → input (senses) → processing (brain) → output (re-action). Although still supported by mainstream philosophers, psychologists and neurologists, this theory is nowadays losing momentum. Mental health professional A psychologist is a practitioner of Psychology, the systematic investigation of the mind including Behavior, Cognition, The theory of active perception has emerged from extensive research of sensory illusions, most notably the works of Professor Emeritus Richard L. Gregory. Richard Langton Gregory CBE, MA DSc FRSE, FRS (born July 24[[ 923]] is a British psychologist and Emeritus Professor This theory is increasingly gaining experimental support and could be surmised as dynamic relationship between “description” (in the brain) ↔ senses ↔ surrounding.
Perception is one of the oldest fields in psychology. The oldest quantitative law in psychology is the Weber-Fechner law, which quantifies the relationship between the intensity of physical stimuli and their perceptual effects. The Weber–Fechner law attempts to describe the relationship between the physical magnitudes of stimuli and the perceived intensity of the stimuli It was the study of perception that gave rise to the Gestalt school of psychology, with its emphasis on holistic approach. Gestalt psychology (also Gestalt of the Berlin School) is a theory of mind and brain that proposes that the operational principle of the brain is holistic Distinguish from the suffix -holism, which describes addictions
In the case of visual perception, some people can actually see the percept shift in their mind's eye. The phrase " mind's eye " refers to the human ability for visual Perception, Imagination, Visualization, and Memory, or in other words Others who are not picture thinkers, may not necessarily perceive the 'shape-shifting' as their world changes. Picture thinking, visual thinking or visual/spatial learning is the common phenomenon of thinking through visual processing The 'esemplastic' nature has been shown by experiment: an ambiguous image has multiple interpretations on the perceptual level. Ambiguous images are Optical illusion images which are crafted to exploit graphical similarities and other properties of Visual system interpretation between two or
Just as one object can give rise to multiple percepts, so an object may fail to give rise to any percept at all: if the percept has no grounding in a person's experience, the person may literally not perceive it.
Perception alters what humans see, into a diluted version of reality, which ultimately corrupts the way humans perceive the truth. Reality, in everyday usage means "the state of things as they actually exist" When people view something with a preconceived idea about it, they tend to take those preconceived ideas and see them whether or not they are there. This problem stems from the fact that humans are unable to understand new information, without the inherent bias of their previous knowledge. Bias is a term used to describe a Tendency or Preference towards a particular perspective, Ideology or result especially when the tendency interferes The extent of a person’s knowledge creates their reality as much as the truth, because the human mind can only contemplate that which it has been exposed to. The meaning of the word truth extends from Honesty, Good faith, and Sincerity in general to agreement with Fact or Reality When objects are viewed without understanding, the mind will try to reach for something that it already recognizes, in order to process what it is viewing. That which most closely relates to the unfamiliar from our past experiences, makes up what we see when we look at things that we don’t comprehend.
This confusing ambiguity of perception is exploited in human technologies such as camouflage, and also in biological mimicry, for example by Peacock butterflies, whose wings bear eye markings that birds respond to as though they were the eyes of a dangerous predator. Ambiguity (Am-big-u-i-ty is the property of being ambiguous, where a Word, term notation sign Symbol, Phrase, sentence, or any Camouflage is a method of cryptic or concealing coloration that allows an otherwise visible Organism Biological mimicry occurs when a group of organisms the mimics, have Perceptual ambiguity is not restricted to vision. For example, recent touch perception research (Robles-De-La-Torre & Hayward 2001) found that kinesthesia-based haptic perception strongly relies on the forces experienced during touch. Proprioception (ˌproʊpriːəˈsɛpʃən PRO -pree-o-SEP-shun from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own" and perception is the Sense This makes it possible to produce illusory touch percepts (see also the MIT Technology Review article The Cutting Edge of Haptics).
Cognitive theories of perception assume there is a poverty of stimulus. Cognition is a concept used in different ways by different disciplines but is generally accepted to mean the process of awareness or thought The poverty of the stimulus ( POTS) Argument is a variant of the epistemological problem of the indeterminacy of data to theory that claims that This (with reference to perception) is the claim that sensations are, by themselves, unable to provide a unique description of the world. In Psychology, sensation is the first stage in the biochemical and neurologic events that begins with the impinging of a stimulus upon the receptor cells of a Sensations require 'enriching', which is the role of the mental model. In Psychology, sensation is the first stage in the biochemical and neurologic events that begins with the impinging of a stimulus upon the receptor cells of a A mental model is an explanation in someone's Thought process for how something works in the real world A different type of theory is the perceptual ecology approach of James J. Gibson. James Jerome Gibson ( January 27 1904 – December 11 1979) was an American Psychologist who received his Ph Gibson rejected the assumption of a poverty of stimulus by rejecting the notion that perception is based in sensations. The poverty of the stimulus ( POTS) Argument is a variant of the epistemological problem of the indeterminacy of data to theory that claims that Instead, he investigated what information is actually presented to the perceptual systems. He (and the psychologists who work within this paradigm) detailed how the world could be specified to a mobile, exploring organism via the lawful projection of information about the world into energy arrays. The word paradigm ( Greek:παράδειγμα (paradigmacomposite from para- and the verb δείχνυμι "to show" as a whole -roughly- meaning "example" Specification is a 1:1 mapping of some aspect of the world into a perceptual array; given such a mapping, no enrichment is required and perception is direct. Direct realism, also known as Naive realism or common sense realism is a theory of Perception that claims that the Senses provide us with direct Awareness
The ecological understanding of perception advanced from Gibson's early work is perception-in-action, the notion that perception is a requisite property of animate action, without perception action would not be guided and without action perception would be pointless. Animate actions require perceiving and moving together. In a sense, "perception and movement are two sides of the same coin, the coin is action. " A mathematical theory of perception-in-action has been devised and investigated in many forms of controlled movement by many different species of organism, General Tau Theory. Origin A theory of Perceptuomotor control based on the ecological invariant Tau. According to this theory, tau information, or time-to-goal information is the fundamental 'percept' in perception. -
We gather information about the world and interact with it through our actions. Perceptual information is critical for action. Perceptual deficits may lead to profound deficits in action.