Peppermint (Mentha x piperita)
|Mentha × piperita|
Peppermint (Mentha × piperita) is a hybrid mint, a cross between watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group Magnoliopsida is the Botanical name for a class of Flowering plants By definition the class will include the family Magnoliaceae, but its The order Lamiales is a Taxon in the asterid group of dicotyledonous Flowering plants. Lamiaceae or Labiatae, also known as the mint family is a family of Plants comprising about 210 genera and some 3500 species Mentha ( mint) is a Genus of about 25 Species (and many hundreds of varieties) of Flowering plants in the family Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for In Biology, hybrid has two meanings The first meaning is the result of interbreeding between two animals or plants of different taxa. Mentha ( mint) is a Genus of about 25 Species (and many hundreds of varieties) of Flowering plants in the family Mentha aquatica ( Water Mint; syn Mentha hirsuta Huds) is a Perennial plant in the genus Mentha native throughout Mentha aquatica ( Water Mint; syn Mentha hirsuta Huds) is a Perennial plant in the genus Mentha native throughout The plant is indigenous in Europe and now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. 
It was first described by Linnaeus from specimens collected in England; he treated it as a species, but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. 
It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm tall, with smooth stems, square in cross section. A herbaceous plant (or in botanical use a Herb) is a Plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of A perennial plant or perennial ( Latin per, "through" annus, "year" is a Plant that lives for more than The rhizomes are wide-spreading, fleshy, and bare fibrous roots. In Botany, a rhizome is a horizontal stem of a Plant that is usually found underground often sending out Roots and Shoots ROOT is an object-oriented program and library developed by CERN. The leaves are from 4–9 cm long and 1. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. 5–4 cm broad, dark green with reddish veins, and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy. The flowers are purple, 6–8 mm long, with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm diameter; they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem, forming thick, blunt spikes. A flower, also known as a bloom or Blossom, is the reproductive structure found in Flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also Flowering is from mid to late summer. The chromosome number is variable, with 2n counts of 66, 72, 84, and 120 recorded. A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and Protein that is found in cells. 
It typically occurs in moist habitats, including streamsides and drainage ditches. It is usually sterile, producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively, spreading by its rhizomes. Female infertility|Male infertility Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a Man or a Woman to contribute to conception. A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored Vegetative reproduction is a type of Asexual reproduction found in plants and is also called vegetative propagation or vegetative multiplication. 
Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine', with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago.
Peppermint has a high menthol content, and is often used as a flavouring in tea, ice cream, confectionery, chewing gum, and toothpaste. Menthol is an Organic compound made synthetically or obtained from Peppermint or other mint oils Peppermint tea is a drink that is either a mixture of Tea and Peppermint ( Mentha piperita) or a Tisane (infusion of peppermint alone Ice cream or ice-cream (originally iced cream) is a frozen dessert made from Dairy products such as Milk and Cream, combined Confectionery is a set of Food items that are rich in Sugar; modern usage may include substances rich in artificial sweeteners as well For songs called "Chewing Gum" see Chewing Gum (song Chewing gum is a type of Confectionery traditionally made of Chicle Toothpaste is a Paste or Gel Dentifrice used to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of Teeth. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. Menthone is a naturally occurring Organic compound with a molecular formula C10H18O It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mint-flavoured confectionery. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps, which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin.
Peppermint, like many spices and herbs, is believed to have medicinal properties when consumed. It is said that it helps against upset stomachs, inhibits the growth of certain bacteria, and can help soothe and relax muscles when inhaled or applied to the skin. The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have Other health benefits are attributed to the high manganese, vitamin C and vitamin A content; as well as trace amounts of various other nutrients such as fibre, iron, calcium, folate, potassium, tryptophan, magnesium, omega-3 fatty acids, riboflavin, and copper. Manganese (ˈmæŋgəniːz is a Chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. Vitamin C or L-ascorbate is an Essential nutrient for a large number of higher primate species a small number of other Mammalian Vitamin A refers to a family of similarly shaped molecules the Retinoids. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Calcium (ˈkælsiəm is the Chemical element with the symbol Ca and Atomic number 20 Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39 Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W) is one of the 20 standard amino acids, as well as an Essential amino acid in the Human diet Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 n −3 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−3 fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated Fatty acids that Riboflavin ( E101) also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed Micronutrient with a key role in maintaining Health Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29
In 2007, Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo pill. In Gastroenterology, irritable bowel syndrome ( IBS) is a Functional bowel disorder characterized by mild to severe Abdominal pain, discomfort 
Similarly, some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. The number needed to treat (NNT is an epidemiological measure used in assessing the effectiveness of a health-care intervention typically a treatment with Medication 1, but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-oesophageal sphincter, thus promoting belching.
Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. This article refers collectively to all true honey bees for the "common" domesticated honey bee see European honey bee Honey bees A mild, pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. Honey is a sweet and Viscous fluid produced by Honey bees (and some other species and derived from the nectar of Flowers According to the
Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators, in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products, as a natural insecticide. 
Outside of its native range, areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants, and it is considered invasive in Australia, the Galápagos Islands, New Zealand, and in the United States. Introduced species|Weed Invasive species is a phrase with several definitions For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground rhizomes. If you choose to grow peppermint, it is advisable to plant it in a container, otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. It needs a good water supply, and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas.
The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose, with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint, but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds, but only by fertilisation from a spearmint plant, and contribute only their own spearmint genes.