|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Mol. mass||226. IUPAC Nomenclature is a system of naming Chemical compounds and of describing the science of Chemistry in general CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for Chemical compounds Polymers biological sequences mixtures and Alloys They are also referred to The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs It is controlled by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. PubChem is a Database of chemical Molecules The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI a component The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique Bioinformatics and Cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the Atoms that constitute a particular Chemical compound, and how the relationship between those atoms changes Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the The molecular mass (abbreviated m of a substance, more commonly referred to as molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the Mass of one 1317|
|Bioavailability||70-90% oral; 90% rectal|
|Half life||15-48 hours|
|Routes||Oral, Intravenous, Intramuscular, Rectal; also Intraperitoneal & Intracardiac (for animal euthanasia)|
Pentobarbital is a short-acting barbiturate that is available as both a free acid and a sodium salt, the former of which is only slightly soluble in water and ethanol. In Pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered Dose of unchanged drug that reaches the Systemic circulation, one of A drug's efficiency may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within Blood plasma. Drug metabolism is the Metabolism of drugs, their Biochemical modification or degradation usually through specialized enzymatic systems The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals The biological half-life of a substance is the time it takes for a substance (drug radioactive nuclide or other to lose half of its pharmacologic physiologic or radiologic activity Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of Metabolism and other non-useful materials The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical if it is used as directed by the mother during The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In Pharmacology and Toxicology, a route In Pharmacology and Toxicology, a route Put to sleep redirects here For its literal meaning see Sleep or Anaesthetic. Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system Depressants and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects from mild Sedation  One trade name for this drug is Nembutal, coined by Dr. John S. Lundy, who started using it in 1930, from the structural formula of the sodium salt—Na (sodium) + ethyl + methyl + butyl + al (common suffix for barbiturates). 
Pentobarbital's FDA approved human uses include treatment of seizures and preoperative (and other) sedation; it is also approved as a short-term hypnotic. An epileptic seizure is caused by excessive and/or hypersynchronous electrical Neuronal activity and is usually self-limiting Sedation is a Medical procedure involving the administration of Sedative drugs generally to facilitate a medical procedure with Local anaesthesia. For the state of mind see Hypnosis. Hypnotic drugs induce Sleep (which differentiates them from the Sedative 
In France and the Netherlands, it is no longer used in the treatment of insomnia, nor as a preanesthetic. Insomnia is a symptom of a sleeping disorder characterized by persistent difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep despite the opportunity 
Off-label uses of pentobarbital include reduction of intracranial pressure in Reye's syndrome, traumatic brain injury and induction of coma in cerebral ischemia patients. Reye's syndrome is a potentially fatal Disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs especially the Brain and Liver. In Medicine, ischemia ( Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction hema or haema is Blood) is a restriction 
In veterinary medicine, sodium pentobarbital—traded under names such as Sagatal—is used as an anaesthetic. Veterinary medicine the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife Anesthesia, or anaesthesia (see spelling differences; from Greek grc αν- an-, "without" and grc αἲσθησις  Pentobarbital is an ingredient in Equithesin. Equithesin is the proprietary name for a commercial mixture of chloral hydrate magnesium sulfate and pentobarbital sodium that was used as a general anesthetic in horses
It is used by itself, or more often in combination with complementary agents such as phenytoin, in commercial animal euthanasia injectable solutions. Phenytoin sodium is a commonly used Antiepileptic. Phenytoin acts to dampen the unwanted runaway brain activity seen in seizure by reducing electrical conductance among brain Put to sleep redirects here For its literal meaning see Sleep or Anaesthetic. Trade names include Euthasol, Euthatal, Beuthanasia-D, and Fatal Plus.
In the Netherlands, a pentobarbital elixer is used as an alternative for patients who wish to take the barbiturate needed for the lethal cocktail themselves, instead of having it administered intravenously, in which case thiopenthal is used. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Pentobarbital has no medical use anymore in the Netherlands, and is only used for euthanasia.
Pentobarbital has also been used for physician-assisted suicide. It is commonly used in Oregon for physician assisted suicide. Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Euthanasia (literally "good death" in Ancient Greek) refers to the practice of ending a life in a painless manner , and is also used by Dignitas (euthanasia group). Dignitas is a Swiss Assisted suicide ( Euthanasia) group that helps those with incurable physical and mental illnesses to die with the aid of doctors and nurses Pentobarbital was also used for this purpose in the Northern Territory of Australia, prior to euthanasia becoming illegal in that region.
A pentobarbital suppository was cited in an October 2006 news article in WorldNetDaily.com as the cause of death of Marilyn Monroe. Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson, June 1 1926 &ndash August 5 1962 baptized Norma
The Clash makes a reference to it in the song The Right Profile from the album London Calling in which the lyrics read "Nembutal numbs it all, but I prefer. For the debut album by The Clash see The Clash (album The Clash were London Calling is the third album by English Punk rock band The Clash, released 14 December 1979 on CBS Records in the UK and in January 1980 London Calling is the third album by English Punk rock band The Clash, released 14 December 1979 on CBS Records in the UK and in January 1980 . . alcohol!"
The song "Yellow Submarine" by The Beatles is rumored to reference to Nembutal due to the color and shape of the capsules. " Yellow Submarine " is a 1966 song by The Beatles (credited to Lennon/McCartney) which was recorded by John Lennon, Paul McCartney The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 However, Paul McCartney has denied this, stating that he had written the song as a children's tune. Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942 is an English rock Singer, Bass guitarist songwriter Composer,
Administration of alcohol, opioids, antihistamines, other sedative-hypnotics, and other central nervous system depressants will greatly increase the sedation caused by pentobarbital. In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon An opioid is a chemical Substance that has a Morphine -like action in the body A histamine antagonist is an agent which serves to inhibit the release or action of Histamine. A sedative, or more specifically a sedative-hypnotic, is a substance that depresses the Central nervous system (CNS resulting in calmness relaxation sleepiness In Vertebrates the central nervous system ( CNS) is the part of the Nervous system which is enclosed in the Meninges.