For the campaign of the Napoleonic Wars, see Peninsular War
. The Peninsular War or Spanish War of Independence pitted an alliance of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal against France
George B. McClellan
and Joseph E. Johnston
, commanders of the Union
armies in the Peninsula Campaign. George Brinton McClellan ( December 3 1826 October 29 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3 1807 &ndash March 21 1891 was a career U The Union Army was the army that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. The War Department was established by the Confederate Congress in an act on February 21, 1861.
The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty-three The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, was an amphibious turning movement intended to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond by circumventing the Confederate States Army in northern Virginia. Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries George Brinton McClellan ( December 3 1826 October 29 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. In Military tactics, a turning movement involves an attacker's forces reaching the rear of a defender's forces separating the defender from their principal defensive positions The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 This article is about the city of Richmond the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The War Department was established by the Confederate Congress in an act on February 21, 1861. McClellan was initially successful against the equally cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of General Robert E. Lee changed the character of the campaign and turned it into a humiliating Union defeat. Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3 1807 &ndash March 21 1891 was a career U Robert Edward Lee (January 19 1807 &ndash October 12 1870 was a career United States Army officer, an Engineer, and among the most celebrated
McClellan landed his army at Fort Monroe and moved northwest, up the Virginia Peninsula. Fort Monroe (also known as Fortress Monroe) is a Hampton Virginia, military installation located at Old Point Comfort, which is on the tip of the The Virginia Peninsula is a Peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Confederate Brig. Gen. John B. Magruder had constructed three defensive lines across the narrow peninsula. Brigadier General is the lowest ranking General Officer in some countries usually sitting between the ranks of Colonel and Major General. John Bankhead Magruder ( May 1, 1807 &ndash February 19, 1871) was a career military officer who served in the armies of three nations The first, the Warwick Line, extending from Yorktown to Mulberry Island, caught McClellan by surprise. Warwick Line (also known as the Warwick-Yorktown line) was a defensive works across the Virginia Peninsula maintained along the Warwick River by Confederate Yorktown is a Census-designated place (CDP in York County, Virginia, United States. His hopes for a quick advance foiled, McClellan ordered his army to prepare for a siege of Yorktown. The Battle of Yorktown or Siege of Yorktown was fought from April 5 to May 4, 1862, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the Just before the siege preparations were completed, the Confederates, now under the direct command of Johnston, began a withdrawal toward Richmond. The first heavy fighting of the campaign occurred in the Battle of Williamsburg, in which the Union troops managed some tactical victories, but the Confederates continued their withdrawal. Background When Confederate General Joseph E Johnston unexpectedly withdrew his forces from the Warwick Line at the Battle of Yorktown the night An amphibious flanking movement to Eltham's Landing was ineffective in cutting off the Confederate retreat. Background When Confederate General Joseph E Johnston unexpectedly withdrew his forces from the Warwick Line at the Battle of Yorktown the night In the Battle of Drewry's Bluff, an attempt by the U.S. Navy to reach Richmond by way of the James River was repulsed. Background In the spring of 1862 Union Maj Gen George B McClellan launched an amphibious operation against Richmond by landing troops at
As McClellan's army reached the outskirts of Richmond, a minor battle occurred at Hanover Court House, but it was followed by a surprise attack by Johnston at the Battle of Seven Pines or Fair Oaks. The Battle of Hanover Court House, also known as the Battle of Slash Church, took place on May 27, 1862, in Hanover County Virginia, as Background Johnston withdrew his 60000-man army from the Virginia Peninsula as McClellan's army pursued him and approached the Confederate capital of Richmond The battle was inconclusive, with heavy casualties, but it had lasting effects on the campaign. Johnston was wounded and replaced on June 1 by the more aggressive Robert E. Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Lee, who reorganized his army and prepared for offensive action.
Although they are formally considered part of the Peninsula Campaign, the final battles of June 25 to July 1, with Lee in command and on the offensive against McClellan, are popularly known as the Seven Days Battles, and are described in their own article. Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Start of the Peninsula Campaign Opposing forces See also [[Seven Days Confederate order of battle]] [[Seven Days Union order of battle]] Almost
McClellan spent the winter of 1861–62 training his new Army of the Potomac and fighting off calls from President Abraham Lincoln to advance against the Confederates. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal Lincoln was particularly concerned about the army of General Joseph E. Johnston at Centreville, just 30 miles (50 km) from Washington, D.C. Centreville is an Unincorporated community in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D McClellan greatly overestimated Johnston's strength and shifted his objective from that army to the Confederate capital of Richmond. He proposed to move by water to Urbanna on the Rappahannock River and then overland to Richmond before Johnston could move to block him. Urbanna is a town in Middlesex County, Virginia, United States. The Rappahannock River is a river in eastern Virginia in the United States, approximately 184 mi (294 km in length
Although Lincoln favored the overland approach because it would shield Washington from any attack while the operation was in progress, McClellan argued that the road conditions in Virginia were intolerable, that he had arranged adequate defenses for the capital, and that Johnston would certainly follow him if he moved on Richmond. This plan was discussed for three months in the capital until Lincoln approved McClellan's proposal in early March. By March 9, however, Johnston withdrew his army from Centreville to Culpeper, making McClellan's Urbanna plan impracticable. Events 590 - Bahram Chobin is crowned as king Barham VI of Persia. Culpeper is an Incorporated town in Culpeper County, Virginia, United States. Little Mac then proposed to sail to Fort Monroe and then up the Virginia Peninsula (the narrow strip of land between the James and York Rivers) to Richmond. Fort Monroe (also known as Fortress Monroe) is a Hampton Virginia, military installation located at Old Point Comfort, which is on the tip of the The Virginia Peninsula is a Peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake The James River in the US state of Virginia is a long River, including its Jackson River source The York River is a navigable Estuary, approximately 40 mi (64 km long in eastern Virginia in the United States. Lincoln reluctantly agreed.
Before departing for the Peninsula, McClellan moved the Army of the Potomac to Centreville on a "shakedown" march. He discovered there how weak Johnston's force and position had really been, and faced mounting criticism. On March 11, Lincoln's War Order No. Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty 3 relieved McClellan of his position as general-in-chief of the Union armies, so that he could devote his full attention to the difficult campaign ahead of him. The Army of the Potomac began to embark for Fort Monroe on March 17. Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger
The Army of the Potomac had approximately 50,000 men at Fort Monroe when McClellan arrived, but this number grew to 121,500 before hostilities began. Transporting these men, almost 15,000 horses and mules, and 1,150 wagons was an enormous task. It required 113 steamships, 188 schooners, and 88 barges. The army was organized into three corps and other units, as follows:
- II Corps, Brig. There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps ( Second Army Corps) during the American Civil War. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner commanding: divisions of Brig. Edwin Vose Sumner (January 30 1797 &ndash March 21 1863 was a United States Army officer who became a major general and the oldest field commander Gens. Israel B. Richardson and John Sedgwick
- III Corps, Brig. Israel Bush Richardson ( December 26, 1815 &ndash November 3, 1862) was a United States Army officer during the Mexican-American John Sedgwick ( September 13, 1813 &ndash May 9, 1864) was a teacher a career military officer and a Union Army general in the There were four formations in the Union Army designated as III Corps (or Third Army Corps) during the American Civil War. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman commanding: divisions of Brig. Samuel Peter Heintzelman ( September 30, 1805 &ndash May 1, 1880) was a United States Army General. Gens. Fitz John Porter, Joseph Hooker, and Charles S. Hamilton
- IV Corps, Brig. Fitz John Porter ( August 31, 1822 &ndash May 21, 1901) (sometimes written FitzJohn Porter) was a career United States Army Joseph Hooker ( November 13, 1814 &ndash October 31, 1879) was a career United States Army officer fought in the Mexican-American Charles Samuel Hamilton is an award-winning Rear admiral in the United States Navy. There were two Corps of the Union Army called IV Corps during the American Civil War. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes commanding: divisions of Brig. Erasmus Darwin Keyes ( May 29 1810 &ndash October 14 1895) was a businessman banker and military general noted for leading the IV Corps Gens. Darius N. Couch, William F. "Baldy" Smith, and Silas Casey
- 1st Division of the I Corps, Brig. Darius Nash Couch (July 23 1822 &ndash February 12 1897 was a United States Army officer naturalist and a Union major general in the American William Farrar Smith ( February 17, 1824 &ndash February 28, 1903) was a civil engineer a member of the police commission and Union Silas Casey ( July 12, 1807 &ndash January 22, 1882) was a career United States Army officer who rose to the rank of Major General I Corps (First Corps was the designation of three different Corps -sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Gen. William B. Franklin commanding
- Reserve infantry commanded by Brig. William Buel Franklin ( February 27, 1823 &ndash March 8, 1903) was a career United States Army officer and a Union Army Gen. George Sykes
- Cavalry commanded by Brig. George Sykes ( October 9, 1822 &ndash February 8, 1880) was a career United States Army officer and a Union General Gen. George Stoneman
- The garrison of Fort Monroe, 12,000 men under Maj. George Stoneman Jr ( August 22, 1822 – September 5, 1894) was a career United States Army officer a Union cavalry general Gen. John E. Wool; Wool was quickly transferred to another department for duty in Baltimore after the War Department realized that he technically outranked McClellan. John Ellis Wool ( February 20, 1784 &ndash November 10, 1869) was an officer in the United States Army during three consecutive U
On the Confederate side, Johnston's Army of Northern Virginia (newly named as of March 14) was organized into three wings, each composed of several brigades, as follows:
- Left Wing, Maj. The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Gen. D. H. Hill commanding: brigades of Brig. Daniel Harvey Hill (July 12 1821 &ndash September 24 1889 was a Confederate general during the American Civil War and a Southern scholar Gen. Robert E. Rodes, Winfield S. Featherston, Jubal A. Early, and Gabriel J. Robert Emmett Rodes ( March 29, 1829 &ndash September 19, 1864) was a railroad Civil engineer and a promising young Confederate Winfield Scott Featherston "Old Swet" ( August 8, 1820 &ndash May 28, 1891) was an Antebellum two-term U Jubal Anderson Early ( November 3 1816 &ndash March 2 1894) was a Lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil Raines
- Center Wing, Maj. Gen. James Longstreet commanding: brigades of Brig. James Longstreet (January 8 1821 &ndash January 2 1904 was one of the foremost Confederate Generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate Gens. A.P. Hill, Richard H. Anderson, George E. Pickett, Cadmus M. Wilcox, Raleigh E. Colston, and Roger A. Pryor
- Right Wing, Maj. Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9 1825 &ndash April 2 1865 was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. Richard Heron Anderson (October 7 1821 &ndash June 26 1879 was a career U George Edward Pickett ( January 16, January 25 or January 28, 1825 &ndash July 30, 1875) was a career U Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox (May 20 1824 &ndash December 2 1890 was a career United States Army officer who served in the Mexican–American War and also was Raleigh Edward Colston ( October 1, 1825 &ndash July 29, 1896) was a French-born American professor soldier cartographer Roger Atkinson Pryor ( July 19, 1828 &ndash March 14, 1919) was an American Jurist, Politician, newspaper editor Gen. John B. Magruder commanding: division of Brig. John Bankhead Magruder ( May 1, 1807 &ndash February 19, 1871) was a career military officer who served in the armies of three nations Gen. Lafayette McLaws (brigades of Brig. Lafayette McLaws ( January 15, 1821 &ndash July 24, 1897) was a U Gens. Paul J. Semmes, Richard Griffith, Joseph B. Kershaw, and Howell Cobb) and division of Brig. For other uses see Semmes (disambiguation. Paul Jones Semmes ( June 4, 1815 &ndash July 10, 1863) was a banker Richard Griffith (January 11 1814 &ndash June 29 1862 was a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Joseph Brevard Kershaw ( January 5, 1822 &ndash April 13, 1894) was a lawyer judge and a Confederate general in the American (Thomas Howell Cobb ( September 7, 1815 – October 9, 1868) was an American political figure Gen. David R. Jones (brigades of Brig. David Rumph Jones (April 5 1825 &ndash January 15 1863 was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. Gens. Robert A. Toombs and George T. Anderson)
- Reserve force commanded by Maj. Robert Augustus Toombs ( July 2, 1810 &ndash December 15, 1885) was an American political leader Secretary of State of the Confederacy George Thomas Anderson ( February 3, 1824 &ndash April 4, 1901) was a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Gen. Gustavus W. Smith
- Cavalry commanded by Brig. Gustavus Woodson Smith ( November 30, 1821 &ndash June 24, 1896) more commonly known as G Gen. J.E.B. Stuart
However, at the time the Army of the Potomac arrived, only Magruder's 13,000 men faced them on the Peninsula. James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart ( February 6, 1833 &ndash May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a The bulk of Johnston's force (43,000 men) were at Culpeper, 6,000 under Maj. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes at Fredericksburg, and 9,000 under Major General Benjamin Huger at Norfolk. Theophilus Hunter Holmes ( November 13, 1804 &ndash June 21, 1880) was a career U Fredericksburg is an Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia and is located 50 miles south of Washington D Benjamin Huger is the name of several prominent men from South Carolina Benjamin Huger (American Revolution (1746–1779 militia officer killed near Charleston In Richmond, General Robert E. Lee had returned from work on coastal fortifications in the Carolinas and on March 13 became the chief military adviser to Confederate President Jefferson Davis. Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. The President of the Confederate States of America was the Head of State and Head of Government of the Confederate States of America, which was formed from Jefferson Finis Davis ( June 3, 1808 &ndash December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as President of the
Forces in the Shenandoah Valley played an indirect role in the campaign. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia and West Virginia is bounded by the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east and the Appalachian Approximately 50,000 men under Maj. Gens. Nathaniel P. Banks and Irvin McDowell were engaged chasing a much smaller force under Stonewall Jackson in the Valley Campaign. Nathaniel Prentice (or Prentiss Banks ( January 30, 1816 September 1, 1894) was an American Politician and Soldier Irvin McDowell ( October 15, 1818 &ndash May 4, 1885) was a career American army officer, famous for his defeat during Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21 1824 &ndash May 10 1863 was a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and probably the Background In the spring of 1862 "Southern morale. was at its nadir" and "prospects for the Confederacy's survival seemed bleak Jackson's expert maneuvering and tactical success in small battles kept the Union men from reinforcing McClellan, much to his dismay. He had planned to have 30,000 under McDowell to join him.
- Battle of Hampton Roads (March 8 – March 9, 1862)
- March 8 marked the first combat of ironclad ships as the new CSS Virginia made its entrance before the wooden Union warships blockading the entrance from the Chesapeake Bay to Hampton Roads and wreaked devastation upon them. Background Johnston withdrew his 60000-man army from the Virginia Peninsula as McClellan's army pursued him and approached the Confederate capital of Richmond The Battle of Hampton Roads, often called the Battle of Monitor and Merrimack, was a Events 1618 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion. Events 590 - Bahram Chobin is crowned as king Barham VI of Persia. Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday Events 1618 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion. An ironclad was a steam-propelled Warship of the later 19th century protected by Iron or Steel armor plates USS Merrimack becomes CSS Virginia When the Commonwealth of Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861 one of the important federal military bases threatened The Chesapeake Bay is the largest Estuary in the United States. Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water and the region of land areas which surround it in southeastern Virginia in the USA. However, the next day, Virginia was met by the new Union ironclad USS Monitor. Design Monitor was one of three ironclad warships ordered by the U The two ironclads fought an inconclusive battle, with each retreating at the end of the day.
Hampton Roads caused a newfound sense of concern because the Army's transport ships could be attacked by this new weapon directly in their path. And the U.S. Navy failed to assure McClellan that they could protect operations on either the James or the York, so his plan of amphibiously enveloping Yorktown was abandoned, and he ordered an advance up the Peninsula to begin April 4. Yorktown is a Census-designated place (CDP in York County, Virginia, United States. Events 1581 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. On April 5, McClellan learned that McDowell's corps would not be joining him at Fort Monroe. Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop In addition to the pressure of Jackson's Valley Campaign, President Lincoln believed that McClellan had left insufficient force to guard Washington and that the general had been deceptive in his reporting of unit strengths, counting troops as ready to defend Washington when they were actually deployed elsewhere. McClellan protested that he was being forced to lead a major campaign without his promised resources, but he moved ahead anyway.
- Battle of Yorktown (April 5 – May 4)
- The Union army advanced to Yorktown (site of the 1781 surrender of Lord Cornwallis to George Washington), where Magruder's 11–13,000 men had entrenched a line on both sides of the town and along the Warwick River, stretching almost completely across the Peninsula. The Battle of Yorktown or Siege of Yorktown was fought from April 5 to May 4, 1862, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Events 1256 - The Augustinian monastic order is constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV Yorktown is a Census-designated place (CDP in York County, Virginia, United States. Year 1781 ( MDCCLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Charles Cornwallis 1st Marquess Cornwallis ( 31 December 1738 &ndash 5 October 1805) was a British military commander and colonial George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the The Warwick River is a short Tidal estuary which empties into the James River a few miles from Hampton Roads at the southern end of Chesapeake Bay McClellan decided to besiege Yorktown and spent almost a month assembling the heavy artillery and supplies he felt necessary for the task. Magruder, who was an amateur actor before the war, was able to fool McClellan by ostentatiously marching small numbers of troops past the same position multiple times, appearing to be a larger force. McClellan suspended the march up the Peninsula toward Richmond, ordered the construction of siege fortifications, and brought his heavy siege guns to the front. In the meantime, Johnston brought reinforcements for Magruder. On April 16, Union forces probed a weakness in the Confederate line at Lee's Mill or Dam No. Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom 1. Failure to exploit the initial success of this attack, however, held up McClellan for two additional weeks, while he tried to convince the U. S. Navy to bypass the Confederates' big guns at Yorktown and Gloucester Point and ascend the York River to West Point, thus outflanking the Warwick Line. West Point is an Incorporated town in King William County, Virginia, United States. Warwick Line (also known as the Warwick-Yorktown line) was a defensive works across the Virginia Peninsula maintained along the Warwick River by Confederate McClellan planned for a massive bombardment to begin at dawn on May 5, but the Confederate army slipped away during the night of May 3 toward Williamsburg. Events 553 - The Second Council of Constantinople begins 1215 - Rebel Barons renounce their allegiance to King John Events 1491 - Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga is baptised by Portuguese missionaries adopting the baptismal name of João Williamsburg is a city located on the Virginia Peninsula in the Hampton Roads region in southeastern Virginia During McClellan's lengthy delay, caused in part by weather, logistical difficulties, and McClellan's apparent lack of nerve, Johnston had adequate time to redeploy his army in defense of Richmond. Elements of James Longstreet's wing, deployed as the rear guard for the withdrawal, occupied some of Magruder's entrenchments. On May 4, a minor skirmish occurred between the two armies. Events 1256 - The Augustinian monastic order is constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV Stoneman's Union cavalry also skirmished with Jeb Stuart.
- Battle of Williamsburg (May 5)
- The first pitched battle of the campaign included nearly 41,000 Union men and 32,000 Confederates. Background When Confederate General Joseph E Johnston unexpectedly withdrew his forces from the Warwick Line at the Battle of Yorktown the night Events 553 - The Second Council of Constantinople begins 1215 - Rebel Barons renounce their allegiance to King John McClellan was absent in the rear most of the day, and the operational command of the Union Army fell to Sumner, who employed only half of the army. Joseph Hooker's division encountered the Confederate rear guard near Williamsburg. Hooker assaulted Fort Magruder, an earthen fortification alongside the Williamsburg Road (from Yorktown), but was repulsed. Fort Magruder was an high earthen fortification straddling the road between Yorktown and Williamsburg Virginia, just outside the latter city (and former Virginia Longstreet counterattacked and threatened to overwhelm the Union left flank, until Brig. In Military tactics, a flanking maneuver, also called a flank attack, is an attack on the sides of an opposing force Gen. Philip Kearny's brigade arrived to stabilize the Federal position. Philip Kearny Jr, ( June 2 1815 &ndash September 1 1862) was a United States Army officer notably in the Mexican-American Brig. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock's brigade then moved to threaten the Confederate left flank, occupying two abandoned redoubts. Winfield Scott Hancock ( February 14 1824 &ndash February 9 1886) was a career U The Confederates counterattacked unsuccessfully. Hancock's localized success was not exploited. The Confederate army continued its withdrawal during the night. Although the battle was essentially inconclusive—and a disappointment for the Union because it failed to destroy the much smaller force in front of it—McClellan cabled the War Department, claiming a victory.
- Battle of Eltham's Landing (or West Point) (May 7)
- McClellan's next plan was to move four divisions (Franklin's, Porter's, Sedgwick's, and Richardson's) one by one up the York River to Eltham's Landing, near West Point, Virginia, cutting off Johnston's retreat up the Peninsula. Background When Confederate General Joseph E Johnston unexpectedly withdrew his forces from the Warwick Line at the Battle of Yorktown the night Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses West Point is an Incorporated town in King William County, Virginia, United States. Johnston learned of the movement and sent the division of G. W. Smith to intercept Franklin, the first division to land. Smith won a tactical victory over Franklin in a heavy skirmish, dissuading McClellan from any further amphibious movements, despite the continued bad road conditions in the direction of Richmond.
On May 9, the isolated Confederate force at Norfolk, facing the large Union force across Hampton Roads, evacuated the city and naval base. Events 1457 BC - Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of On May 11, the CSS Virginia was blown up to prevent its capture by the U. Events 330 - Byzantium is renamed ''Nova Roma'' during a dedication ceremony but is more popularly referred to as Constantinople S. Navy. President Lincoln witnessed this part of the campaign, having arrived at Fort Monroe on May 6 in the company of Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton and Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase on the Treasury Department's revenue cutter Miami. Events 1527 - Spanish and German troops sack Rome; some consider this the end of the Renaissance. The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington 's administration Edwin McMasters Stanton ( December 19, 1814 &ndash December 24, 1869) was an American lawyer politician United States The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and until Salmon Portland Chase ( January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era Lincoln believed that the city of Norfolk was vulnerable and that control of the James was possible, but McClellan was too busy at the front to meet with the president. Exercising his direct powers as commander in chief, Lincoln ordering naval bombardments of Confederate batteries in the area on May 8 and set off in a small boat with his two Cabinet secretaries to conduct a personal reconnaissance on shore. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Troops under the command of Maj. Gen. John E. Wool, the elderly commander of Fort Monroe, occupied Norfolk on May 10, encountering little resistance. John Ellis Wool ( February 20, 1784 &ndash November 10, 1869) was an officer in the United States Army during three consecutive U Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. 
- Battle of Drewry's Bluff (May 15)
- With Yorktown in Union hands and Virginia scuttled, the James River was now open to Federal gunboats. Background In the spring of 1862 Union Maj Gen George B McClellan launched an amphibious operation against Richmond by landing troops at Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the On May 15, five gunboats of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, including the ironclads USS Monitor and USS Galena, steamed up the James to test the defenses of Richmond. Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the The Union Blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865 during the American Civil War, in which the Union Navy maintained a massive effort on the Upon reaching a bend in the river above Dutch Gap, about 7 river miles (11 km) from Richmond, the five gunboats encountered submerged obstacles and fire from the batteries of Fort Darling at Drewry's Bluff, which inflicted severe damage on the Galena. Fort Darling was a Confederate military installation during the American Civil War located at Drewry’s Bluff, a high point overlooking a bend in the Drewry's Bluff is located in northeastern Chesterfield County Virginia in the United States. The Confederate guns, situated 600 feet (180 m) above the river, were so high that the naval guns could not be elevated enough to engage them. The Navy suffered at least 14 dead and 13 wounded and was turned back. Commander John Rodgers of the Galena reported to McClellan that they would be able to land the Union troops within 10 miles (16 km) of the Confederate capital, but McClellan never took advantage of that ability during the campaign. John Rodgers ( 8 August 1812 &ndash 5 May 1882) was an admiral in the United States Navy.
Denied his coveted approach to Richmond via the James River, McClellan established a supply base on the Pamunkey River (a navigable tributary of the York River) at White House Landing where the Richmond and York River Railroad extending to Richmond crossed the river. The Pamunkey River is a Tributary of the York River, about 90 mi (145 km long in eastern Virginia in the United States. White House is an unincorporated community in New Kent County, Virginia, United States, on the south shore of the Pamunkey River. Richmond and York River Railroad was completed between Richmond Virginia and West Point Virginia in 1861 He commandeered the railroad, transporting steam locomotives and rolling stock to the site by barge. A steam locomotive is a Locomotive powered by Steam. The term usually refers to its use on Railways but can also refer to a "road locomotive"
Over the next three weeks. he edged cautiously toward Richmond. On May 18, he reorganized the Army of the Potomac in the field and promoted two major generals to corps command: Fitz John Porter to the new V Corps and William B. Events 1152 - Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine. The V Corps ( Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. Franklin to the VI Corps. The VI Corps ( Sixth Army Corps) was a Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. The army had 105,000 men in position northeast of the city, outnumbering Johnston's 60,000, but faulty intelligence from the detective Allan Pinkerton on McClellan's staff caused the general to believe that he was outnumbered two to one. Allan Pinkerton (25 August 1819 &ndash 1 July 1884 was a Scottish Detective and spy, best known for creating the Pinkerton Agency, the first Numerous skirmishes between the lines of the armies occurred from May 23 to May 26. Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place Tensions were high in the city, particularly following the earlier sounds of the naval gun battle at Drewry's Bluff.
- Battle of Hanover Court House (May 27)
- As the Union Army drew towards the outer defenses of Richmond, it became divided by the Chickahominy River, weakening its ability to move troops back and forth along the front. The Battle of Hanover Court House, also known as the Battle of Slash Church, took place on May 27, 1862, in Hanover County Virginia, as Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed For the tribe see Chickahominy (tribe. Chickahominy also known as "the Chick" is a River in the southeastern portion On May 27, elements of Brig. Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed Gen. Fitz John Porter's V Corps extended north to protect the right flank of the Army of the Potomac. Porter's objective was to deal with a Confederate force near Hanover Court House, which threatened the avenue of approach for Union reinforcements under McDowell that were marching south from Fredericksburg. The smaller Confederate force, under Brig. Gen. Lawrence O'Bryan Branch, was defeated at Peake's Crossing after a disorganized fight. Lawrence O'Bryan Branch ( November 28, 1820 &ndash September 17, 1862) was a North Carolina representative in the U The Union victory was moot, however, for McDowell was recalled to Fredericksburg upon word of Banks's rout in the Shenandoah Valley at First Winchester. The First Battle of Winchester, fought on May 25, 1862, in and around Frederick County Virginia, and Winchester Virginia, was a major During the absence of Porter, McClellan was reluctant to move more of his troops south of the Chickahominy, making his left flank a more attractive target for Johnston.
- Battle of Seven Pines (or Fair Oaks) (May 31 – June 1)
- On May 31, Johnston attempted to capitalize on the Union Army's straddle of the rain-swollen Chickahominy River by attacking the two corps (Heintzelman's III Corps and Keyes's IV Corps) south of the river, leaving them isolated from the other three corps north of the river. Background Johnston withdrew his 60000-man army from the Virginia Peninsula as McClellan's army pursued him and approached the Confederate capital of Richmond Events 1279 BC - Rameses II (The Great (19th dynasty becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Events 1279 BC - Rameses II (The Great (19th dynasty becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. The Confederate attack plan was complex and not well coordinated, resulting in misdirected movements and delayed attacks, but it succeeded in driving back the IV Corps and inflicting heavy casualties. Both sides fed more troops into the action, although the Confederates never achieved the concentrated mass necessary to prevail; of the thirteen brigades on their right flank, no more than four were engaged at once. Supported by the III Corps and John Sedgwick's division of Edwin V. Sumner's II Corps (which crossed the river on Sumner's initiative), the Federal position was finally stabilized before the IV Corps could be routed. Gen. Johnston was seriously wounded during the action, and command of the Army of Northern Virginia was assumed temporarily by G. W. Smith; Gen. Robert E. Lee soon assumed permanent command. On June 1, the Confederates renewed their assaults against the Federals who had brought up more reinforcements, but they made little headway. Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Both sides claimed victory with roughly equal casualties, but neither accomplished much in the battle. George B. McClellan's advance on Richmond was halted, and Johnston's army fell back into the Richmond defensive works.
Aftermath and the Seven Days
General McClellan chose to abandon his offensive operations, to lay siege and await reinforcements he had requested from President Lincoln. He never regained his strategic momentum (for his involvement in the entire war, in fact).
Lee used the month-long pause in McClellan's advance to fortify the defenses of Richmond and extend them south to the James River at Chaffin's Bluff. Chaffin's Bluff is located in Henrico County Virginia, United States, along the James River. On the south side of the James River, defensive lines were built south to a point below Petersburg. Petersburg is an Independent city in Virginia, United States located on the Appomattox River. The total length of the new defensive line was about 30 miles (50 km). To buy time to complete the new defensive line and prepare for an offensive, Lee repeated the tactic of making a small number of troops seem larger than they really were. McClellan was also unnerved by Jeb Stuart's audacious (but otherwise militarily pointless) cavalry ride completely around the Union army (June 13–June 15). Events 1525 - Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the Celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for Events 763 BC - Assyrians record a Solar eclipse that will be used to fix the Chronology of Mesopotamian history
The second phase of the Peninsula Campaign took a negative turn for the Union when Lee launched fierce counterattacks just east of Richmond in the Seven Days Battles (June 25 – July 1, 1862). Start of the Peninsula Campaign Opposing forces See also [[Seven Days Confederate order of battle]] [[Seven Days Union order of battle]] Almost Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday Although none of these battles were significant Confederate tactical victories (and the Battle of Malvern Hill on the last day was a decisive Confederate defeat), the tenacity of Lee's attacks and the sudden appearance of Stonewall Jackson's "foot cavalry" on his western flank unnerved McClellan, who pulled his forces back to a base on the James River. The Battle of Malvern Hill, also known as the Battle of Poindexter's Farm, took place on July 1, 1862, in Henrico County Virginia, was Foot cavalry was an Oxymoron coined to describe the rapid movements of Infantry troops serving under Confederate General Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Lincoln later ordered the army to return to the Washington, D. C. , area to support General John Pope's army in the Northern Virginia Campaign and the Second Battle of Bull Run. John Pope ( March 16, 1822 &ndash September 23, 1892) was a career United States Army officer and Union general in Background and opposing forces After the collapse of McClellan's Peninsula Campaign in the Seven Days Battles of June 1862 President Abraham Lincoln appointed Background and opposing forces See also Northern Virginia Campaign See also [[Second Bull Run Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] The Virginia Peninsula was relatively quiet until May 1864, when Benjamin Butler again invaded as part of the Bermuda Hundred Campaign. Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5 1818 January 11 1893 was an American Lawyer and Politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States The Bermuda Hundred Campaign was a series of battles fought at the town of Bermuda Hundred, outside Richmond Virginia, during May 1864 in the American Civil
- Bailey, Ronald H. Richmond National Battlefield Park commemorates more than 30 American Civil War sites around Richmond Virginia. The Union Army Balloon Corps was a branch of the Federal Army during the American Civil War, established by presidential appointee Thaddeus S and the Editors of Time-Life Books, Forward to Richmond: McClellan's Peninsular Campaign, Time-Life Books, 1983, ISBN 0-8094-4720-7.
- Eicher, John H. , and Eicher, David J. , Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- Eicher, David J. , The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
- Esposito, Vincent J. , West Point Atlas of American Wars, Frederick A. Praeger, 1959.
- Sears, Stephen W. , To the Gates of Richmond: The Peninsula Campaign, Ticknor and Fields, 1992, ISBN 0-89919-790-6.
- National Park Service battle descriptions
- ^ Eicher, Longest Night, pp. 214-15; Sears, pp. 359-63.
- ^ Eicher, High Commands, pp. 323, 889; Sears, p. 46.
- ^ Eicher, Longest Night, p. 215; Sears, pp. 364-67.
- ^ Sears, pp. 89-92.
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