Paul Henry Nitze (January 16, 1907 – October 19, 2004) was a high-ranking United States government official who helped shape Cold War defense policy over the course of numerous presidential administrations. Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the
Nitze was born in Amherst, Massachusetts. Amherst is a town in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States in the Connecticut River valley His German ancestors came from the region of Magdeburg. An ancestor is a Parent or ( recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i Magdeburg ( Low Saxon: Meideborg ˈmaˑɪdebɔɐx the Capital city of the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Paul Nitze's father was a professor of Romance Linguistics who concluded his career at the University of Chicago. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. In his memoir, From Hiroshima to Glasnost, Paul Nitze describes how as a young boy he witnessed the outbreak of World War I while traveling in Germany with his father, mother, and sister, arriving in Munich just in time to be struck by the city crowds' patriotic enthusiasm for the imminent conflict. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
Nitze attended the Hotchkiss School and graduated from Harvard University in 1928 and entered the field of investment banking. Investment banks profit from companies and governments by raising money through issuing and selling Securities in the Capital markets (both equity and
In 1928-1929 the Chicago brokerage firm of Bacon, Whipple and Company sent Nitze to Europe. Upon his return, he heard Clarence Dillon predict the depression and the decline of the importance of finance. Clarence Dillon, ( September 27, 1882 - April 14, 1979) born Clarence Lapowski (name legally changed 17 September 1901 Having attained financial independence through the sale to Revlon of his interest in a French laboratory producing pharmaceutical products in the U. Revlon ( is an American Cosmetics company History Revlon was founded in the midst of the Great Depression, 1932, by Charles S. , Nitze took an intellectual sabbatical that included a year of graduate study at Harvard in sociology, philosophy, and constitutional and international law.
In 1932, he married Phyllis Pratt, daughter of John Teele Pratt, Standard Oil financier and Ruth Baker Pratt Republican Congresswoman for New York. John Teele Pratt ( December 25, 1873 — June 17, 1927) was an American corporate attorney philanthropist music impresario and financier Ruth Baker Pratt (nee Baker ( 24 August 1877 - 23 August 1965) was a politician and the first congresswoman to be elected from New York She died in 1987. They had four children: Peter, William, Phyllis Anina (Nina) and Heidi. He was married to Elisabeth Scott Porter from 1993 until his death in 2004.
Nitze's brother-in-law Walter Paepcke founded the Aspen Institute and Aspen Skiing Company. Walter Paepcke (1896&ndash1960 was a US industrialist and philanthropist prominent in the middle-20th century The Aspen Institute is an international nonprofit organization founded in 1950 as the Aspen Institute of Humanistic Studies The Aspen Skiing Company is a commercial enterprise based in Aspen Colorado in the United States. Nitze continued to ski in Aspen until well into his 80s.
Nitze entered government service during World War II, serving first on the staff of James Forrestal when Forrestal became an administrative assistant to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including James Vincent Forrestal ( February 15, 1892 &ndash May 22, 1949) was a United States Secretary of the Navy and the first United In 1942, he was chief of the Metals and Minerals Branch of the Board of Economic Warfare, until he was named director, Foreign Procurement and Development Branch of the Foreign Economic Administration in 1943. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. From 1944 to 1946, Nitze served as director and then as Vice Chairman of the Strategic Bombing Survey for which President Harry S. Truman awarded him the Legion of Merit. The term strategic bombing survey refers to a series of American examinations of many topics related to their involvement in World War II. The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding
In the early post-war era, he served in the Truman Administration as Director of Policy Planning for the State Department (1950-1953). The Director of Policy Planning is the United States Department of State official in charge of the Department's internal think tank the Policy Planning Staff. He was also principal author in 1950 of a highly influential secret National Security Council document (NSC-68), which provided the strategic outline for increased U. The White House National Security Council ( NSC) in the United States is the principal forum used by the President for considering National NSC-68 or National Security Council Report 68 was a 58 page classified report issued in the United States on April 14 1950 during the presidency S. expenditures to counter the perceived threat of Soviet armament. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
From 1953 to 1961, Nitze served as president of the Foreign Service Educational Foundation while concurrently serving as associate of the Washington Center of Foreign Policy Research and the School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) of the Johns Hopkins University.
Nitze co-founded SAIS with Christian Herter in 1943 and the world renowned graduate school, based in Washington, D.C., is currently named in his honor. Christian Archibald Herter ( March 28, 1895 December 30, 1966) was an American politician and statesman Governor of Massachusetts Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D His publications during this period include U. S. Foreign Policy: 1945-1955. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) In 1961 President Kennedy appointed Nitze Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs and in 1963 he became the Secretary of the Navy, serving until 1967. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States Secretary of the Navy ( SECNAV) is the Civilian head of the Department of the Navy.
Following his term as Secretary of the Navy, he served as Deputy Secretary of Defense (1967-1969), as a member of the U. S. delegation to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) (1969-1973), and Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Affairs (1973-1976). Later, fearing Soviet rearmament, he opposed the ratification of SALT II (1979).
Paul Nitze was a co-founder of Team B, a 1970s intelligence think tank that challenged the National Intelligence Estimates provided by the CIA. Team B was a competitive analysis exercise commissioned by the Central Intelligence Agency in the 1970s to analyze threats the Soviet Union posed to the National Intelligence Estimates ( NIEs) are United States federal government documents that are the authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence The Team B reports became the intellectual foundation for the idea of "the window of vulnerability" and of the massive arms buildup that began toward the end of the Carter administration and accelerated under President Ronald Reagan. A window of vulnerability or wov is a time frame within which defensive measures are reduced compromised or lacking Team B came to the conclusion that the Soviets had developed new weapons of mass destruction and had aggressive strategies with regard to a potential nuclear war. Team B's analysis of Soviet weapon systems was later proven to be largely exaggerated.
According to Dr. Anne Cahn (Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 1977-1980) "if you go through most of Team B's specific allegations about weapons systems, and you just examine them one by one, they were all wrong. The US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA was established as an independent agency by the Arms Control and Disarmament Act (75 Stat " Nonetheless, some still claim that its conclusions about Soviet strategical aims were largely proven to be true, although this hardly squares with the elevation of Gorbachev in 1985. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician
Nitze was President Ronald Reagan's chief negotiator of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (1981-1984). The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty ( INF) was a 1987 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union. In 1984, Nitze was named Special Advisor to the President and Secretary of State on Arms Control.
For more than forty years, Nitze was one of the chief architects of U. S. policy toward the Soviet Union. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 President Reagan awarded Nitze the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1985 for his contributions to the freedom and security of the United States. The Presidential Medal of Freedom is a decoration bestowed by the President of the United States and is along with the equivalent Congressional Gold Medal bestowed In 1991, he was awarded the prestigious United States Military Academy's Sylvanus Thayer Award for his commitment to the Academy's ideals of "Duty, Honor, Country. "USMA" redirects here For other uses see USMA (disambiguation The United States Military Academy (also known as USMA, The Sylvanus Thayer Award is an award that is given each year by the United States Military Academy at West Point "
Nitze died in Washington, D.C, aged 97 in October, 2004. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D
The Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Nitze is named in his honor. Characteristics The Arleigh Burke class are among the largest and most powerful destroyers ever built both larger and more heavily armed than many previous cruisers Overview The contract to build her was awarded to Bath Iron Works Corporation in Bath Maine on 6 March 1998 and her keel was laid Nitze visited the ship for several ceremonial occasions prior to his death.
The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies of The Johns Hopkins University is named in his honor.
St. Mary's College of Maryland, where he served as a trustee, has an honors program in his name. St Mary's College of Maryland, established in 1840 is a public secular Liberal arts college located in St
This article incorporates public domain text from the United States Navy. The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone
Paul B. Fay (acting)
|Secretary of the Navy|
Charles F. Paul "Red" Burgess Fay Jr (born July 8, 1918) was the Acting United States Secretary of the Navy for less than a month in November of 1963 The United States Secretary of the Navy ( SECNAV) is the Civilian head of the Department of the Navy. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Baird (acting)