|Full name||Paul Charles Morphy|
|Born||June 22, 1837|
New Orleans, United States
|Died||July 10, 1884 (aged 47)|
New Orleans, United States
|World Champion||1858–1862 (Unofficial)|
Paul Charles Morphy (June 22, 1837 - July 10, 1884), "The Pride and Sorrow of Chess," was an American chess player. Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. Year 1837 ( MDCCCXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. Year 1884 ( MDCCCLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Chess is a recreational and competitive Game played between two players. He is considered to have been the greatest chess master of his era and an unofficial World Chess Champion. A chess master is a Chess player of such skill that he/she can usually beat Chess experts who themselves typically can nearly always prevail against most amateurs See also Development of the World Chess Championship The World Chess Championship is played to determine the World Champion in the Board game Chess  He was also one of the first chess prodigies in the modern rules of chess era. Chess prodigies are children who play Chess so well that they are able to beat Masters and even Grandmasters often at a very young age The rules of chess (also known as the laws of chess) are rules governing the play of the game of Chess.
Morphy was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, to a wealthy and distinguished family. New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America His father, Alonzo Michael Morphy, a lawyer, served as a Louisiana state legislator, attorney general, and Supreme Court Justice. Alonzo was of Portuguese, Irish, and Spanish ancestry. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate Morphy's mother, Louise Thérèse Félicité Thelcide Le Carpentier, was the musically-talented daughter of a prominent French Creole family. This article is about an ethnic culture in Louisiana USA For uses of the term "Creole" in other countries and cultures see Creole (disambiguation. Morphy grew up in an atmosphere of genteel civility and culture where chess and music were the typical highlights of a Sunday home gathering.
According to his uncle, Ernest Morphy, no one formally taught Morphy how to play chess; rather, Morphy learned on his own as a young child simply from watching others play. After watching a lengthy game between Ernest and Alonzo, young Paul surprised them by stating that Ernest should have won. Father and uncle had not realized that Paul even knew the moves, let alone any chess strategy. Chess strategy is concerned with the evaluation of Chess positions and setting up goals and long-term tactics for future play They were even more surprised when Paul proved his claim by resetting the pieces and demonstrating the win his uncle had missed.
After that incident Morphy's family recognized him as a precocious talent and encouraged him to play at family gatherings and local chess milieus. By the age of nine, he was considered one of the best players in New Orleans. In 1846, General Winfield Scott visited the city, and let his hosts know that he desired an evening of chess with a strong local player. Winfield Scott ( June 13, 1786 &ndash May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general Diplomat, and presidential candidate Chess was an infrequent pastime of Scott's, but he enjoyed the game and considered himself a formidable player. After dinner, the chess pieces were set up and Scott's opponent was brought in: diminutive, nine-year-old Morphy. Scott was at first offended, thinking he was being made fun of, but he consented to play after being assured that his wishes had been scrupulously obeyed and that the boy was a "chess prodigy" who would tax his skill. Morphy beat him easily not once, but twice, the second time announcing a forced checkmate after only six moves. As two losses against a small boy was all General Scott's ego could stand, he declined further games and retired for the night, never to play Morphy again.
In 1850, when Morphy was twelve, the strong professional Hungarian chess master Johann Löwenthal visited New Orleans. A chess master is a Chess player of such skill that he/she can usually beat Chess experts who themselves typically can nearly always prevail against most amateurs Johann Jacob (János Jakab Löwenthal ( Pest, July 15 1810 – Hastings, July 20 1876, England was a professional Löwenthal, who had often played and defeated talented youngsters, considered the informal match a waste of time but accepted the offer as a courtesy to the well-to-do judge. When Löwenthal met Morphy, he patted him on the head in a patronizing manner.
By about the twelfth move in the first game, Löwenthal realized he was up against something formidable. Each time Morphy made a good move, Löwenthal's eyebrows shot up in a manner described by Ernest Morphy as "comique". Löwenthal played three games with Morphy during his New Orleans stay, losing all three. 
After 1850, Morphy did not play much chess for a long time. Studying diligently, he graduated from Spring Hill College in Mobile, Alabama, in 1854. Spring Hill College is a private co-educational Roman Catholic Jesuit College in the United States. He then stayed on an extra year, studying mathematics and philosophy. He was awarded an A. M. degree with the highest honors in May 1855.
He next was accepted to the University of Louisiana to study law. Tulane University is a private, Nonsectarian, Coeducational Research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana. He received an L. L. B. degree on April 7, 1857, in preparation for which he is said to have memorized the complete Louisiana book of codes and laws. 
Not yet of legal age to begin the practice of law, Morphy found himself with free time. He received an invitation to participate in the First American Chess Congress, to be held in New York in the fall of 1857. The American Chess Congress was a series of Chess tournaments held in the United States, a predecessor to the current U At first he declined, but at the urging of his uncle he eventually decided to play. He defeated each of his rivals, including the strong German master Louis Paulsen in the final round. Louis Paulsen (1833–1891 was a German Chess player In 1860s and 1870s he was among the top five players in the world Morphy was hailed as the chess champion of the United States, but he appeared unaffected by his sudden fame. According to the December 1857 issue of Chess Monthly, "his genial disposition, his unaffected modesty and gentlemanly courtesy have endeared him to all his acquaintances. "
Soon after returning to New Orleans he was invited to attend an international chess tournament to be held in Birmingham, England in the summer of 1858. Still too young to start his law career, he accepted the challenge and traveled to England. Instead of playing in the tournament, however, he ended up playing and easily winning a series of chess matches against all the leading English masters except the veteran Howard Staunton, who was well past his prime, and who initially promised a match but eventually declined after witnessing Morphy's play. (1 removed from infobox|worldchampion = 1843-1851 (Unofficial (2 Mark Weeks has material and sources at http//mark_weeks 
Staunton was later criticised for avoiding a match with Morphy. Staunton is known to have been working on his edition of the complete works of Shakespeare at the time, but he also competed in a chess tournament during Morphy's visit. William Shakespeare ( baptised Staunton later blamed Morphy for the failure to have a match, suggesting among other things that Morphy lacked the funds required for match stakes—a most unlikely charge given Morphy's popularity.
Seeking new opponents, Morphy crossed the English Channel to France. At the Café de la Régence in Paris, the center of chess in France, he played a match against Daniel Harrwitz, the resident chess professional, soundly defeating him. The Café de la Régence in Paris was an important European centre of Chess in the 18th and 19th centuries Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Daniel Harrwitz ( 29 April 1823 – 9 January 1884) was a Jewish German Chess master.
In Paris, Morphy suffered from a bout of intestinal influenza. In accordance with the medical wisdom of the time, he was treated with leeches, resulting in his losing a significant amount of blood. Leeches are Annelids comprising the Subclass Hirudinea. There are freshwater terrestrial and marine leeches Although too weak to stand up unaided, Morphy insisted on going ahead with a match against the visiting German master Adolf Anderssen, considered by many to be Europe's leading player. Karl Ernst Adolf Anderssen ( July 6, 1818 - March 13, 1879) was a German Chess master. Despite his illness Morphy triumphed easily, winning seven while losing two, with two draws. When asked about his defeat, Anderssen claimed to be out of practice, but also admitted that Morphy was in any event the stronger player and that he was fairly beaten. Anderssen also attested that in his opinion, Morphy was the strongest player ever to play the game, even stronger than the famous French champion La Bourdonnais. Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais (1795 - 1840 was a French Chess master, possibly the strongest player in the early 19th century
Both in England and France, Morphy gave numerous simultaneous exhibitions, including displays of blindfold chess in which he regularly played and defeated eight opponents at a time. Blindfold chess is a way to play Chess, whereby play is conducted without the players having sight of the positions of the pieces or any physical contact with them Morphy played a well-known casual game against the Duke of Brunswick and Count Isouard at the Italian Opera House in Paris. The Opera Game was a famous Chess game played in 1858 between the American Chess master Paul Morphy and two strong amateurs the Brunswick (Braunschweig was a historical state in Germany. Originally the territory of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in the Holy Roman Empire, it was established An opera house is a theater building used for Opera performances that consists of a stage an orchestra pit audience seating and backstage facilities for costumes
Still only twenty-one, Morphy was now quite famous. While in Paris, he was sitting in his hotel room one evening, chatting with his companion Frederick Edge, when they had an unexpected visitor. "I am Prince Galitzine; I wish to see Mr. The Galitzines, more correctly the Golitsyns (Голи́цын are one of the largest and noblest Princely houses of Russia. Morphy," the visitor said, according to Edge. Morphy identified himself to the visitor. "No, it is not possible!" the prince exclaimed, "You are too young!" Prince Galitzine then explained that he was in the frontiers of Siberia when he had first heard of Morphy's "wonderful deeds. Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving " He explained, "One of my suite had a copy of the chess paper published in Berlin, the Schachzeitung, and ever since that time I have been wanting to see you. " He then told Morphy that he must go to St. Petersburg, Russia, because the chess club in the Imperial Palace would receive him with enthusiasm. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
In Europe Morphy was generally hailed as world chess champion. In Paris, at a banquet held in his honor on April 4, 1859, a laurel wreath was placed over the head of a bust of Morphy, carved by the sculptor Eugene Lequesne. At a similar gathering in London, where he returned in the spring of 1859, Morphy was again proclaimed "the Champion of the World". He was also invited to a private audience with Queen Victoria. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland So dominant was Morphy that even masters could not seriously challenge him in play without some kind of handicap. At a simultaneous match against five masters (Jules Arnous de Rivière, Samuel Boden, Thomas Barnes, Johann Löwenthal, and Henry Bird), Morphy won two games, drew two games, and lost one. Jules Arnous de Rivière ( 4 May 1830 – 11 September 1905) was the strongest French Chess player from the late 1850s through Samuel Standidge Boden (1826 &ndash 1882 was an English professional Chess master Thomas Wilson Barnes (1825-1874 was an English Chess master, one of the leading British masters at the time of Morphy's visit to the UK in 1858 Johann Jacob (János Jakab Löwenthal ( Pest, July 15 1810 – Hastings, July 20 1876, England was a professional Henry Edward Bird ( July 14, 1830 – April 11, 1908) was an English Chess player and chess writer
Upon his return to America, the accolades continued as Morphy toured the major cities on his way home. At the University of the City of New York, on May 29, 1859, John Van Buren, son of President Martin Van Buren, ended a testimonial presentation by proclaiming, "Paul Morphy, Chess Champion of the World". New York University ( NYU) is a private, Nonsectarian, Coeducational Research University in New York City. This article is about the son of President Martin Van Buren, for the United States representative see John Van Buren (US representative. Martin Van Buren (December 5 1782 July 24 1862 was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841 In Boston, at a banquet attended by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Louis Agassiz, the mayor of Boston, the President of Harvard, and other luminaries, Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes toasted "Paul Morphy, the World Chess Champion". Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27 1807 &ndash March 24 1882 was an American educator and Poet whose works include " Paul Revere's Ride " Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz ( May 28 1807 — December 14 1873) was a Swiss - American Zoologist, Glaciologist Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr, (August 29 1809 &ndash October 7 1894 was a Physician by profession but achieved fame as a Writer; he was one of the best In short, Morphy was a celebrity. Manufacturers sought his endorsements, newspapers asked him to write chess columns, and a baseball club was named after him.
Having vanquished virtually all serious opposition, Morphy reportedly declared that he would play no more matches without giving odds of pawn and move.  After returning home he declared himself retired from the game and, with a few exceptions, gave up public competition for good. Unfortunately, Morphy's embryonic law career was disrupted in 1861 by the outbreak of the American Civil War. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Opposed to secession, Morphy did not serve in the Confederate Army. The War Department was established by the Confederate Congress in an act on February 21, 1861. During the war he lived partly in New Orleans and partly abroad, spending time in Paris and Havana, Cuba. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Havana ( IPA: aˈβana officially Ciudad de La Habana, is the Capital city, major port and leading The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la
Possibly because of his antiwar stance, Morphy was unable to successfully build a law practice even after the war ended. His attempts to open a law office failed; when he had visitors, they invariably wanted to talk about chess, not their legal affairs. Financially secure thanks to his family fortune, Morphy essentially spent the rest of his life in idleness. Asked by admirers to return to chess competition, he refused.
In accord with the prevailing sentiment of the time, Morphy esteemed chess only as an amateur activity, considering the game unworthy of pursuit as a serious occupation. Chess professionals were viewed in the same light as professional gamblers. It was not until decades later that the age of the professional chess player arrived. 
On the afternoon of July 10, 1884, Morphy was found dead in his bathtub at the age of forty-seven. Saint Louis Cemetery is the name of three Roman Catholic cemeteries in New Orleans Louisiana. Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. Year 1884 ( MDCCCLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year According to the autopsy, Morphy had suffered a stroke brought on by entering cold water after a long walk in the midday heat. The Morphy mansion, sold by the family in 1891, is today the site of Brennan's, a famous New Orleans restaurant. Brennan's is a creole restaurant in the French Quarter of New Orleans Louisiana.
Today many amateurs think of Morphy as a dazzling combinative player, who excelled in sacrificing his Queen and checkmating his opponent a few brilliant moves later. In Chess, a combination is a relatively long sequence of moves often initiated by a sacrifice which leaves the opponent few options and results in tangible gain One reason for this impression is that chess books like to reprint his flashy games. There are games where he did do this, but it was not the basis of his chess style. In fact, the masters of his day considered his style to be on the conservative side compared to some of the flashy older masters like La Bourdonnais and even Anderssen.
Morphy can be considered the first modern player. Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais (1795 - 1840 was a French Chess master, possibly the strongest player in the early 19th century Karl Ernst Adolf Anderssen ( July 6, 1818 - March 13, 1879) was a German Chess master. Some of his games do not look modern because he did not need the sort of slow positional systems that modern grandmasters use, or that Staunton, Paulsen, and later Steinitz developed. His opponents had not yet mastered the open game, so he played it against them and he preferred open positions because they brought quick success. He played open games almost to perfection, but he also could handle any sort of position, having a complete grasp of chess that was years ahead of his time. Morphy was a player who intuitively knew what was best, and in this regard he has been likened to Capablanca. He was, like Capablanca, a child prodigy; he played fast and he was hard to beat. Löwenthal and Anderssen both later remarked that he was indeed hard to beat since he knew how to defend and would draw or even win games despite getting into bad positions. At the same time, he was deadly when given a promising position. Anderssen especially commented on this, saying that after one bad move against Morphy one may as well resign. "I win my games in seventy moves but Mr. Morphy wins his in twenty, but that is only natural. . . " Anderssen said, explaining his poor results against Morphy.
Of Morphy's 59 "serious" games — those played in matches and the 1857 New York tournament — he won 42, drew 9, and lost 8.
While Bobby Fischer considered Morphy to be the greatest player of all time, some commentators disagree. Robert James "Bobby" Fischer ( March 9 1943 – January 17 2008) was an American -born Chess Grandmaster 
|United States Chess Champion|
George H. Mackenzie
ChessGamescom is a large Chess community on the Internet with over 100000 members The US Chess Championship is an invitational tournament held to determine the national Chess champion George Henry Mackenzie ( March 24 1837, Bellefield, Ross-shire Scotland – April 14 1891, New York City) was a Scottish–American