Pathé or Pathé Frères is the name of various businesses founded and originally run by the Pathé Brothers of France. A business (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
Founded as Société Pathé Frères in Paris, France on September 28, 1896 by brothers Charles, Émile, Théophile and Jacques Pathé, during the first part of the 20th century, Pathé became the largest film equipment and production company in the world as well as a major producer of phonograph records. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Charles Pathé ( December 25, 1863 &ndash December 26, 1957) was a major French pioneer of the film and recording industries The twentieth century of the Common Era began on A gramophone
The driving force behind the film operation was Charles Pathé who had helped open a gramophone shop in 1894 and then established a phonograph factory at Chatou on the western outskirts of Paris. Charles Pathé ( December 25, 1863 &ndash December 26, 1957) was a major French pioneer of the film and recording industries Chatou is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 14 Successful, he saw the opportunities that new means of entertainment offered and in particular by the fledgling motion picture industry. Having decided to expand the record business to include film equipment, Charles Pathé oversaw a rapid expansion of the company. To finance its growth, he took the company public in 1897, and its shares were listed on the Paris Stock Exchange. The Paris Bourse (or "Bourse de Paris" in French) is the historical Paris Stock exchange, known as Euronext Paris from 2000
In 1896, Mitchell Mark of Buffalo, New York, may have been the first American to import Pathé films to the United States, where they were shown in the Vitascope Theater. Mitchell Mark (1868-1918 was an important pioneer and visionary of motion picture exhibition Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous
In 1902, Pathé acquired the Lumière brothers patents then set about to design an improved studio camera and to make their own film stock. Their technologically advanced equipment, new processing facilities built at Vincennes, and aggressive merchandising combined with efficient distribution systems allowed them to capture a huge share of the international market. Vincennes is a commune of the Val-de-Marne located in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. They first expanded to London in 1902 where they set up production facilities and a chain of movie theaters. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. By 1909, Pathé had built more than 200 movie theaters in France and Belgium and by the following year they had facilities in Madrid, Moscow, Rome and New York City plus Australia and Japan. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The City of New York For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Slightly later, they opened a film exchange in Buffalo, New York. Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State. Prior to the outbreak of World War I, Pathé dominated Europe's market in motion picture cameras and projectors. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All It has been estimated that at one time, 60 percent of all films were shot with Pathé equipment.
Worldwide, the company emphasized research, investing in such experiments as hand-coloured film and the synchronisation of film and gramophone recordings. In 1908, Pathé invented the newsreel that was shown in theaters prior to the feature film. A newsreel is a Documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed News stories The news clips featured the Pathé logo of a crowing rooster at the beginning of each reel. In 1912, it introduced 28mm non-flammable film and equipment under the brand name Pathescope. In the United States, beginning in 1914, the company's film production studios in New Jersey produced the extremely successful serialized episodes called The Perils of Pauline. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The Perils of Pauline was a motion picture serial shown in weekly installments featuring Pearl White as the title character By 1918 Pathé had grown to the point where it was necessary to separate operations into two distinct divisions. With Emile Pathé as chief executive, Pathé Records dealt exclusively with phonographs and recordings while brother Charles managed Pathé-Cinéma which was responsible for film production, distribution, and exhibition. Pathé Records was a France based international Record label active from the 1890s through the 1930s 1922 saw the introduction of the Pathé Baby home film system using a new 9.5 mm film stock which became popular over the next few decades. 95 mm film is an amateur Film format introduced by Pathé Frères in 1922 as part of the Pathé Baby amateur film system In 1923, Pathé sold off its United States motion picture production arm, which was renamed "Pathé Exchange" and then later acquired by RKO Pictures in 1928. Pathé sold its British film studios to Eastman Kodak in 1927 while maintaining the theater and distribution arm. Eastman Kodak Company ( is an American multinational Public company which produces imaging and photographic materials and equipment
Pathé was already in substantial financial trouble when Bernard Natan took control of the company in 1929. Bernard Natan (1886–1942 (born Natan Tannenzaft) was a bisexual Franco - Romanian Film director and Actor of the 1920s Studio founder Charles Pathé had been selling assets for several years to boost investor value and keep the studio's cash flow healthy. Charles Pathé ( December 25, 1863 &ndash December 26, 1957) was a major French pioneer of the film and recording industries The company's founder had even sold Pathé's name and "rooster" trademark to other companies in return for a mere 2 percent of revenues. Natan had the bad luck to take charge of the studio just as the Great Depression convulsed the French economy. 
Natan attempted to steady Pathé's finances and implement modern film industry practices at the studio. Natan acquired another film studio, Sociètè des Cinéromans, from Arthur Bernède and Gaston Leroux, which enabled Pathé to expand into projector and electronics manufacturing. Arthur Bernède (1871-1937 was a French Writer and Playwright. Gaston Louis Alfred Leroux ( 6 May, 1868, Paris France &ndash 15 April, 1927) was a French Journalist He also bought the Fornier chain of motion picture theaters and rapidly expanded the chain's nationwide presence.  The French press, however, attacked Natan mercilessly for his stewardship of Pathé. Many of these attacks were antisemitic and contained veiled homophobic references to Natan's sexuality. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility BenPhelpsJPG|thumb|right|Westboro Baptist Church picket signs with Ben Phelps grandson of Fred Phelps 
Pathé-Natan did well under Natan's guidance. Between 1930 and 1935, despite the world economic crisis, the company made 100 million francs in profits, and produced and released more than 60 feature films (just as many films as major American studios produced at the time). The franc (represented by the franc sign ₣ or more commonly just F) is a former Currency of France. He resumed production of the newsreel Pathé News, which had not been produced since 1927. Pathé Newsreels were produced from 1910 until mid-1956 when the Newsreels in general stopped production 
Natan also invested heavily into research and development to expand Pathe's film business. In 1929, he pushed Pathé into sound film. A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image as opposed to a Silent film. In September, the studio produced its first sound feature film, and its first sound newsreel a month later. Natan also launched two new cinema-related magazines, Pathé-Revue and Actualités Féminines, to help market Pathé's films and build consumer demand for cinema. Under Natan, Pathé also funded the research of Henri Chrétien, who developed the anamorphic lens (leading to the creation of CinemaScope and other widescreen film formats common today). Henri Jacques Chrétien ( February 1, 1879, Paris – February 6, 1956, Washington) was a French astronomer Anamorphic format is a term that can be used either for the Cinematography technique of capturing a Widescreen picture on standard 35 mm film, or other CinemaScope was a Widescreen movie format used from 1953 to 1967 A widescreen image is a film computer or television image with a wider and shorter aspect ratio than the standard Academy frame developed during the Classical 
Natan expanded Pathé's business interests into communications industries other than film. In November 1929, Natan established France's first television company, Télévision-Baird-Natan. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic A year later, he purchased a radio station in Paris and formed a holding company (Radio-Natan-Vitus) to run what would become a burgeoning radio empire. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city 
But in 1935, Pathé went bankrupt. In order to finance the company's continued expansion, Pathé's board of directors (which still included Charles Pathé) voted in 1930 to issue shares worth 105 million francs. But with the depression deepening, only 50 percent of the shares were purchased. One of the investor banks collapsed due to financial difficulties unrelated to Pathé's problems, and Pathé was forced to follow through with the purchase several movie theater chains it no longer could afford to buy. Although the company continued to make a profit (as noted above), it lost more money than it could bring in. 
The collapse of Pathé led French authorities to indict Bernard Natan on charges of fraud. In the Common law legal system an indictment (ɪnˈdaɪtmənt (in-DITE-mint is a formal accusation of having committed a criminal offense In the broadest sense a fraud is a Deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual Natan was accused of financing the purchase of the company without any collateral, of bilking investors by establishing fictitious shell corporations, and negligent financial mismanagement. A shell Corporation is defined in Barron's Finance & Investment Handbook as "a company that is incorporated but has no significant assets or operations Natan was even accused of hiding his Romanian and Jewish heritage by changing his name. Natan was indicted and imprisoned in 1939. A second indictment was brought in 1941, and he was convicted shortly thereafter. He was freed in September 1942. 
The company was forced to undergo a restructuring in 1943 and was acquired by Adrien Ramauge. Over the years, the business underwent a number of changes including diversification into producing programs for the burgeoning television industry. During the 1970s, operating theaters overtook film production as Pathé's primary source of revenue. When the film operation came under the control of Giancarlo Parretti, he used it as a vehicle to acquire Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, only to lose both in a bankruptcy. Giancarlo Parretti is an Italian financier He formerly owned the movie studio Pathé and in 1989 took over Cannon Film Group Inc
In 1990 Chargeurs, a French conglomerate led by Jérôme Seydoux, took control of the company. Chargeurs Réunis (United Shippers was a major French company formed in 1872 As a result of the deregulation of the French telecommunications market, in June of 1999 Pathé merged with Vivendi, the exchange ratio for the merger fixed at three Vivendi shares for every two Pathé shares. VIVENDI is a software package for care management and staff organisation published by the German software company CONNEXT and introduced in 1995 The Wall Street Journal estimated the value of the deal at US$2. 59 billion. Following the completion of the merger, Vivendi retained Pathé's interests in British Sky Broadcasting and CanalSatellite, a French broadcasting corporation, but then sold all remaining assets to Jérôme Seydoux's family-owned corporation, "Fornier SA," who changed its name to Pathé. British Sky Broadcasting ( BSkyB — Sky Television and BSB) is a company that operates Sky Digital, a subscription television service in the CanalSat is a French digital satellite and DSL pay television service owned by Canal+ Group
The sectors in which Pathé operates today are:
The Conseil Supérieur de l'Audiovisuel retained 3 of the projects of the group for digital terrestrial television: TMC, Comédie! and cuisine. Digital Terrestrial Television ( DTTV or DTT) is an implementation of digital technology to provide a greater number of channels and/or better quality of picture and tv.
It should be noted that outside of France, Pathé does not distribute its own product on DVD. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Rather, other distributors release Pathé's product (such as 20th Century Fox in the UK).
Pathé Records was a France based international Record label active from the 1890s through the 1930s Pathé Newsreels were produced from 1910 until mid-1956 when the Newsreels in general stopped production A List of film serials by studio, separated into five major studios and the remaining minor studios