Fossil range: Pleistocene
Paranthropus boisei, "Zinj"
The robust australopithecines, members of the extinct hominin genus Paranthropus (Greek para "beside", Greek anthropos "human"), were bipedal hominins that probably descended from the gracile australopithecine hominins (Australopithecus). The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period Paranthropus boisei (originally called Zinjanthropus boisei and then Australopithecus boisei until recently was an early Chordates ( Phylum Chordata) are a group of Animals that includes the Vertebrates together with several closely related Invertebrates Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands A primate is a member of the biological order Primates ( Latin: "prime first rank" the group that contains Lemurs the Aye-aye Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Humans and some extinct relatives as well as the Gorillas and the Chimpanzees It comprises Hominini is the tribe of Homininae that comprises humans ( Homo) Chimpanzees ( Pan) and their Extinct ancestors The more Anthropomorphic Primates of the Hominini tribe are placed in the Hominina subtribe Professor Robert Broom ( November 30, 1866, Paisley – April 6, 1951) was In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. Paranthropus aethiopicus is an extinct species of Hominid. The finding discovered in 1985 in West Turkana, Kenya, KNM WT Paranthropus boisei (originally called Zinjanthropus boisei and then Australopithecus boisei until recently was an early Paranthropus robustus was originally discovered in Southern Africa in 1938 In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. Hominini is the tribe of Homininae that comprises humans ( Homo) Chimpanzees ( Pan) and their Extinct ancestors Bipedalism is a form of Terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs The Genus Australopithecus ( Latin australis "of the south" Greek πίθηκος pithekos "ape"
All species of Paranthropus were bipedal, and many lived during a time when species of the genus Homo (which were possibly descended from Australopithecus), were prevalent. Homo is the Genus that includes modern humans and their close relatives Paranthropus first appeared roughly 2. 7 million years ago. Most species of Paranthropus had a brain about 40 percent of the size of modern man. The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus There was some size variation between the different species of Paranthropus, but most stood roughly 1. 3-1. 4 m (4. 26 to 4. 59 feet) tall and were quite well muscled. Paranthropus is thought to have lived in wooded areas rather than the grasslands of the Australopithecus.
The behavior of Paranthropus was quite different from that of the genus Homo, in that it was not as adaptable to its environment or as resourceful. Evidence of this exists in the form of its physiology which was specifically tailored to a diet of grubs and plants. This would have made it more reliant on favorable environmental conditions than members of the genus Homo, such as Homo habilis, which would eat a much wider variety of foods. Homo habilis (ˈhoʊmoʊ ˈhæbəlɪs ("handy man" "skillful person" is a Species of the genus Homo, which lived
Opinions differ whether the species P. aethiopicus, P. boisei and P. robustus should be included within the genus Australopithecus. The Genus Australopithecus ( Latin australis "of the south" Greek πίθηκος pithekos "ape" The emergence of the robusts could be either a display of divergent or convergent evolution. There is currently no consensus in the scientific community whether P. aethiopicus, P. boisei and P. robustus should be placed into a distinct genus, Paranthropus, which is believed to have developed from the ancestral Australopithecus line. Up until the last half-decade, the majority of the scientific community included all the species of both Australopithecus and Paranthropus in a single genus. Currently, both taxonomic systems are used and accepted in the scientific community. On Wikipedia, the genus Paranthropus is used for all articles which mention the species P. aethiopicus, P. boisei and P. robustus.
For the most part the Australopithecus species A. afarensis, A. africanus, and A. anamensis either disappeared from the fossil record before the appearance of early humans or seem to have been the ancestors of Homo habilis, yet P. Australopithecus afarensis is an extinct Hominid which lived between 3 Australopithecus africanus was an early hominid, an Australopithecine, who lived between 2-3 million years ago in the Pliocene. Australopithecus anamensis is a Fossil Species of Australopithecus. boisei and P. aethiopicus continued to evolve along a separate path distinct and unrelated to early humans. Paranthropus shared the earth with some early examples of the Homo genus, such as H. habilis, H. ergaster, and possibly even H. erectus. Homo ergaster ("working man" is an extinct Hominid Species (or subspecies according to some authorities which lived throughout eastern Homo erectus ( Latin: "upright man" is an extinct species of the genus Homo, believed to have been the first hominin Australopithecus afarensis and A. anamensis had, for the most part, disappeared by this time. There were also significant morphological differences between Australopithecus and Paranthropus, although the differences were found on the cranial remains. The postcranial remains were still very similar. Paranthropus was more massively built craniodentally and tended to sport gorilla-like sagittal crests on the cranium which anchored massive temporalis muscles of mastication. Gorillas, the largest of the living Primates are ground-dwelling Herbivores that inhabit the Forests of Africa. A sagittal crest is a ridge of bone running lengthwise along the midline of the top of the Skull (at the Sagittal suture) of many 
Species of Paranthropus had smaller braincases than Homo, yet they had significantly larger braincases than Australopithecus. Paranthropus is associated with stone tools both in southern and eastern Africa, although there is considerable debate whether or not they were made and utilized by these robust australopithecines or contemporaneous Homo. Most believe that early Homo was the tool maker.  Most Paranthropus specia seem almost certainly to have not used language or to have controlled fire, although they are directly associated with the latter at Swartkrans, South Africa. A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. 
A partial cranium and mandible of Paranthropus robustus was discovered in 1938 by a schoolboy, Gert Terblanche, at Kromdraai B (70 km south west of Pretoria) in South Africa. Kromdraai is a fossil-bearing breccia filled cave located about 2km east of the well known South African hominid-bearing site of Sterkfontein and about 45km Northwest of It was described as a new genus and species by Robert Broom of the Transvaal Museum. The site has been excavated since 1993 by Francis Thackeray of the Transvaal Museum. A date of at least 1. 95 million years has been obtained for Kromdraai B.
Paranthropus boisei was discovered by Mary Leakey on July 17, 1959, at the FLK Bed I site of Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania (specimen OH5). Mary Leakey ( February 6 1913 &ndash December 9 1996) was a British Archaeologist and Anthropologist, who The Olduvai Gorge or Oldupai Gorge is commonly referred to as "The Cradle of Mankind Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya Mary was working alone, as Louis was ill in camp. She rushed back to camp and at the news Louis made a remarkable recovery. They refrained from excavating until Des Bartlett had photographed the site.
In his notes Louis recorded a first name, Titanohomo mirabilis, reflecting an initial impression of close human affinity. Louis and Mary began to call it "Dear Boy". Recovery was halted on August 7. Dear Boy was in context with Olduwan tools and animal bones.
The fossil was published in Nature dated August 15, 1959, but due to a strike of the printers the issue was not released until September. In it Louis placed the fossil in Broom's Australopithecinae family, creating a new genus for it, Zinjanthropus, species boisei. Professor Robert Broom ( November 30, 1866, Paisley – April 6, 1951) was "Zinj" is an ancient Arabic word for the coast of East Africa and "boisei" referred to Charles Boise, an anthropological benefactor of the Leakeys. Louis based his classification on twenty differences from Australopithecus. The Genus Australopithecus ( Latin australis "of the south" Greek πίθηκος pithekos "ape"
Broom had died in 1951 but Dart was still living. Raymond Dart ( February 4 1893 &ndash November 22 1988) was an Australian Anatomist and anthropologist He is said to have wept for joy on Louis' behalf on being personally shown Zinj, which Louis and Mary carried around in a tin (later a box). Louis had considered Broom's Paranthropus genus, but rejected it because he believed Zinj was in the Homo ancestral stock but Paranthropus was not. He relied heavily on the larger size of Zinj's canines.
At that time palaeoanthropology was in an overall mood to lump and was preaching against splitting. Consequently, the presentation of Zinj during the Fourth Pan-African Congress of Prehistorians in July in the then Belgian Congo, at which Louis was forced to read the delayed Nature article, nearly came to grief for Louis over the creation of a new genus. The Belgian Congo ( Dutch: Belgisch Kongo French: Congo Belge German: Belgisch Kongo was the formal title of present-day Democratic Republic Dart rescued him with the now famous joke, ". . . what would have happened if Mrs. Ples had met Dear Boy one dark night. "
The battle of the name raged on for many years and drove a wedge between Louis and LeGros Clark, Sir Wilfrid from 1955, who took the Paranthropus view. Sir Wilfrid Edward Le Gros Clark (1895-1971 was a British Anatomist and Surgeon, today best remembered for his contribution to the study of Human On the other hand it brought the Leakeys and Dr. Melville Bell Grosvenor of the National Geographic Society together. Melville Bell Grosvenor (1901-1982 was the president of the National Geographic Society and editor of National Geographic Magazine from 1957 Overview The NGS's historical mission is "to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge while promoting the conservation of the world's cultural historical and natural The Leakeys became international figures and had no trouble finding funds from then on. The Zinj question ultimately became part of the Australopithecus/Paranthropus question (which only applied to the robust Australopithecines).