For the novella collection, see Parallel Lives (Bernice Summerfield)
. Parallel Lives is a Big Finish original Novella collection featuring Bernice Summerfield, a character from the spin-off media based on the long-running
Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c A biography (from the Greek words bíos (βίος meaning "life" and gráphein (γράφειν meaning "to write" is an account The surviving Parallel Lives (in Greek: Bioi parallèloi), as they are more properly and commonly known, contain twenty-three pairs of biographies, each pair consisting of one Greek and one Roman, as well as four unpaired, single lives. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC It is a work of considerable importance, not only as a source of information about the individuals biographized, but also about the times in which they lived.
As he explains in the first paragraph of his Life of Alexander, Plutarch was not concerned with writing histories, as such, but in exploring the influence of character—good or bad—on the lives and destinies of famous men. The first pair of Lives—the Epaminondas-Scipio Africanus—no longer exists, and many of the remaining lives are truncated, contain obvious lacunae and/or have been tampered with by later writers. Epaminondas ( Greek:) (ca 418 BC&ndash362 BC was a Theban General and statesman of the 4th century BC who transformed the Ancient Greek Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major ( Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS ¹) (236&ndash183 A lacuna is a gap in a Manuscript, Inscription, text painting or a musical work
His Life of Alexander is one of the five surviving secondary or tertiary sources about Alexander the Great and it includes anecdotes and descriptions of incidents that appear in no other source. In Library and information science, Historiography and other areas of Scholarship, a secondary source is a Document or Recording The term tertiary source is a relative term What is considered tertiary depends on what is considered primary and secondary Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Likewise, his portrait of Numa Pompilius, an early Roman king, also contains unique information about the early Roman calendar. Numa Pompilius, according to Legend, was the second King of Rome, succeeding Romulus. The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire.
Plutarch structured his Lives by alternating lives of famous Greeks ("Grecians") with those of famous Romans. After such a set of two (and one set of four) lives he generally writes out a comparison of the preceding biographies.
The table below links to several on-line English translations of Plutarch's Lives; see also "Other links" section below. The LacusCurtius site has the complete set; the others are incomplete to varying extents.
Dryden is famous for having lent his name as editor-in-chief to the first complete English translation of Plutarch's Lives. John Dryden (– was an influential English poet Literary critic, Translator and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England This 17th century translation is available at The MIT Internet Classics Archive.
These translations are linked with D in the table below; those marked (D) in parentheses are incomplete in the HTML version.
Project Gutenberg contains several versions of 19th century translations of these Lives, see: http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/authrec?fk_authors=342 and http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14114
The full text version (TXT) of such a translation is available at http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/674
These translations are linked with G in the table below. Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to Digitize, archive and distribute Cultural works
LacusCurtius has the Loeb translation by Bernadotte Perrin (published 1914‑1926) of part of the Moralia and all the Lives; see http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/home.html
These translations are linked with L in the table below. LacusCurtius is a Website specializing in Ancient Rome, currently hosted on a server at the University of Chicago.
Also the Perseus Project has several of the Lives, see: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cache/perscoll_Greco-Roman.html
The Lives available on the Perseus website are in Greek and English according to the Loeb edition by Bernadotte Perrin; and/or in English according to an abbreviated version of the Thomas North translations. The Perseus Project is a Digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digital collections of Humanities resources Sir Thomas North (1535 - 1604 was an English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North. This last edition concentrates on those of the Lives Shakespeare based his plays upon: Thomas North's translation of most of the Lives, based on a French version published in the 16th century, preceded Dryden's translation mentioned above. William Shakespeare ( baptised
These translations are linked with P in the table below.
There are also four paperbacks published by Penguin Books, two with Greek lives, two Roman, rearranged in chronological order, and containing a total of 36 of the lives. Penguin Books is a British Publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane.
- ^ The last line of the table contains the four "unpaired" lives, as mentioned above. For other uses see Theseus (disambiguation Theseus (Θησεύς was a Legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered Lycurgus ( Greek:, Lukoûrgos; 700 BC?&ndash630 BC was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, who established the military-oriented reformation of Solon ( ancient Greek:, c 638 BC&ndash558 BC was an Athenian Statesman, Lawmaker and Lyric poet. Themistocles ( Greek:; c 524&ndash459 BC was an Athenian soldier and statesman Pericles (also spelled Perikles) (c 495 – 429 BC Greek:, meaning "surrounded by glory" was a prominent and influential Statesman, orator Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (ˌælsɨˈbaɪədiːz (pronunciation Greek:, transliterated Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnidēs) meaning Alcibiades Timoleon ( Greek: Τιμολέων son of Timodemus of Corinth (ca For the Genus of Grass skipper Butterflies, see Pelopidas (skipper. Aristides or Aristeides ( Greek, 530–468 BC was an Athenian soldier and statesman Philopoemen (in Greek, Φιλοποίμην transliterated as Philopoimen) (b Pyrrhus (318-272 BC ( Greek: Πύρρος Aιακιδης Pyrros Aiakides was one of the most successful ancient Greek generals of the Hellenistic Lysander (died 395 BC Λύσανδρος, Lýsandros) was a Spartan General and the commander of the Spartan fleet in the Hellespont which was victorious Cimon (in Greek, Κίμων &mdash Kimōn) (510 Athens - 450 BC Citium, Cyprus) was an Athenian Nicias or Nikias (Νικίας (c470 BC-413 BC was an Athenian politician and general during the period of the Peloponnesian War. Eumenes of Cardia ( Greek: Ευμένης ca 362 BC—316 BC was a Greek general and scholar Agesilaus II, or Agesilaos II ( Greek) (444 BC &ndash 360 BC was a king of Sparta, of the Eurypontid dynasty ruling from approximately Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Phocion (in Greek Φωκίων, also called Phokion, c402 - c318 BC nicknamed The Good) was an Athenian Statesman and For other uses of this name see Agis. Agis IV ( Gr, c 265 - 241 BC the elder son of Eudamidas II, was the 24th Cleomenes III (Κλεομένης was the King of Sparta from 235 BC&mdash222 BC For the Athenian general see Demosthenes (general. For the ancient physician see Demosthenes Philalethes. Demetrius I (337-283 BC Greek: Δημήτριος) called Poliorcetes (Greek Πολιορκητής) ("The Besieger" son of Dion (408-354 BC Tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily, was the son of Hipparinus and brother-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse. Aratus (271 BC - 213 BC was a Statesman of the ancient Greek City-state of Sicyon in the 3rd century BC Artaxerxes II Mnemon ( Old Persian: 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎠 Artaxšaçrā, Ἀρταξέρξης (ca Romulus (c 771 BC– c 717 BC and Remus (c 771 BC–c 753 BC are the traditional founders of Rome, appearing in Roman mythology Numa Pompilius, according to Legend, was the second King of Rome, succeeding Romulus. Marcus Furius Camillus (ca 446- 365 BC was a Roman soldier and statesman of Patrician descent Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus (ca 280 BC-203 BC called Cunctator ( the Delayer) was a Roman politician and General born in Rome around 280 BC and Gaius Marcius Coriolanus was possibly a legendary Roman general who lived in the 5th century BC Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus (229 BC-160 BC was a Roman general and politician Marcus Claudius Marcellus (ca 268 BC-208 BC was a Roman general one of the commanders of the Roman Army during the Second Punic War and the conqueror of Syracuse Marcus Porcius Cato ( Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO (234 BC Tusculum &ndash149 BC was a Roman statesman surnamed the Censor Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c 228 BC &ndash 174 BC was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece. This article is about the Roman statesman who reorganized the army and was seven times Consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c For his grandfather and namesake see Lucius Licinius Lucullus. Marcus Licinius Crassus ( Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS (ca Quintus Sertorius ( 123 BC - 72 BC) was a Roman statesman and general born in Nursia, in Sabine territory around 124 BC Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC&ndash46 BC known as Cato the Younger ( Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather ( Cato the Elder Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus ( Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS (168 BC-133 BC was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC and brother Gaius Sempronius Gracchus ( Latin: C·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS (154 BC-121 BC was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Marcus Junius Brutus (85&ndash42 BC or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. Servius Sulpicius Galba ( December 24, 3 BC &ndash January 15, 69) also called Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar For other uses see Otho (disambiguation. Marcus Salvius Otho ( April 25, 32 – April 16, 69) also called Marcus
- ^ The Perseus project also contains a biography of Caesar Augustus appearing in the North translation, but not coming from Plutarch's Parallel Lives: P
- ^ Though the majority of the Parallel Lives were written with the Greek hero (or heroes) placed in the first position followed by the Roman hero, there are three sets of Lives where this order is reversed : Aemilius Paulus-Timoleon, Coriolanus-Alcibiades and Sertorius-Eumenes. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was
- ^ At the time of composing this table there appears some confusion in the internal linking of the Perseus project webpages, responsible for this split in two references.
Chronology of the lives (by date of death, birthdate is often uncertain)
All dates are BC except Galba and Otho.
- Theseus 1234 – 1204 (myth)
- Romulus 771 – 717 (myth)
- Numa Pompilius d. 673 (thought to be mythical)
- Lycurgus circa 700 – 630 (thought to be mythical)
- Solon 638 – 558
- Poplicola d. 503
- Coriolanus c. 475 (thought to be mythical)
- Aristides 430 – 468
- Themistocles 524- 459
- Cimon 510 – 450
- Pericles 495 - 429
- Artaxerxes d. 424
- Nicias 470 – 413
- Alcibiades 450 - 404
- Lysander d. 395
- Camillus 446 - 365
- Pelopidas d. 364
- Agesilaus 444 – 360
- Dion 408 - 354
- Timoleon 411 - 337
- Alexander the Great 356 - 323
- Demosthenes 384 - 322
- Phocion 402 – 318
- Eumenes 362 - 316
- Demetrius d. 283
- Pyrrhus 318 - 272
- Agis c. 245
- Cleomenes d. 219
- Aratus 271 – 213
- Marcellus 268 - 208
- Fabius Maximus 275 – 203
- Philopoemen 253 - 183
- Flamininus 228 - 174
- Aemilius Paulus 229-160
- Cato the Elder 234 – 149
- Tiberius Gracchus 163 - 132
- Gaius Gracchus 154 - 121
- Gaius Marius 157 - 86
- Sulla 138 - 78
- Sertorius b. c. 123 – d. 72
- Lucullus 118 - 56
- Crassus 115 - 53
- Pompey 106 - 48
- Cato the Younger 95 – 46
- Julius Caesar 100 or 102 - 44
- Cicero 106 – 43
- Brutus 85 – 42
- Mark Antony 83 - 30
- Galba 3 BC – 69 AD
- Otho 32 AD – 69 AD
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