|Nepal • Sri Lanka|
Cambodia • Laos
Burma • Thailand
Pali literature is concerned mainly with Theravada Buddhism, of which Pali is the traditional language. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Buddha was born in Shakya kingdom which lies in Rupandehi district Lumbini zone of Nepal General Buddhism in Sri Lanka is primarily of the Theravada school and constitutes the religious faith of about 70% of the populationAccording to traditional History See also History of Buddhism in Cambodia Unconfirmed Singhalese sources assert that missionaries of King Asohka introduced Buddhism into Buddhism is the primary religion of Laos. The Buddhism practiced in Laos is of the Theravada tradition History The history of Buddhism in Burmaextends nearly a millennium Buddhism in Thailand is largely of the Theravada school Nearly 95% of Thailand 's population is Buddhist of the Theravada school though Buddhism Atthakatha ( Pali for explanation commentary refers to Pali-language Theravadin Buddhist commentaries to the canonical Theravadin Tipitaka. The subcommentaries (tika ṭīkā are commentaries on the commentaries on the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism The term pre-sectarian Buddhism is used by some scholars to refer to the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being The Early Buddhist schools are those schools into which according to most scholars the Buddhist monastic Sangha initially split due originally to differences in Sthaviravāda ( Sanskrit; Chinese 上座部 literally means "Teaching Of The Elders" Ashoka ( Devanāgarī: अशोकः IAST: Aśokaḥ, aɕoːkə(hə Prakrit Imperial title Devanampriya Priyadarsi The Third Buddhist council was convened in about 250 BCE at Asokarama in Patiliputta, supposedly under the patronage of Emperor Asoka. Vibhajjavāda is an umbrella classification for Buddhist denominations that promote analysis as a primary tool for developing 'insight' (Sanskrit Prajñā Mahinda ( Sanskrit: महिन्द्र Mahindra) (born 3rd century BCE in Magadha, now in Bihar, India) was a Buddhist See also Ashoka Bhikkhuni Sri Maha Bodhi The Dipavamsa, or "Deepavamsa" (ie Chronicle of the Island in Pali) is the oldest historical record of Sri Lanka. The Mahavamsa, ("Great Chronicle " is a historical poem written in the Pali language of the kings of Sri Lanka. Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa was a 5th century Indian Theravadin Buddhist commentator and scholar In sramanic philosophy Nirvana (निर्वाण| Nirvāṇa; निब्बान Nibbāna; Prakrit: णिव्वाण In general the Middle Way or Middle Path ( madhyamā-pratipad; ṭṭipadā) is the Buddhist practice of non-extremism Background Why the Buddha is said to have taught in this way is illuminated by the social context of the time in which he lived The four stages of Enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life The Three Jewels, also called the Three Treasures, the Three Refuges, or the Triple Gem, are the three things that Buddhists take refuge History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Pali ( ISO 15919 / ALA-LC: Pāḷi is a Middle Indo-Aryan language or Prakrit of India.
Main article: Pali Canon
The earliest and most important Pali literature constitutes the Pali Canon, the scriptures of Theravada. These are mainly of Indian origin, and were written down in Ceylon in the last century BCE from oral tradition. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island
Ceylon became the headquarters of Theravada for centuries, and most Pali literature in this period was written there, though some was also produced in outposts in south India. After a gap following the completion of the canon in which little or no Pali literature was produced, it restarted with the Dipavamsa, a verse chronicle of Buddhism in India and Ceylon, followed by a similar, but longer, work, the Mahavamsa. The Dipavamsa, or "Deepavamsa" (ie Chronicle of the Island in Pali) is the oldest historical record of Sri Lanka. The Mahavamsa, ("Great Chronicle " is a historical poem written in the Pali language of the kings of Sri Lanka. Then came Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga, which came to be regarded as the standard summary of the traditional interpretation of the scriptures, in the fourth or fifth century. Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa was a 5th century Indian Theravadin Buddhist commentator and scholar Summary It is composed of four parts which discuss 1 Sila (discipline 2 Samadhi (meditative concentration 3 The land of wisdom Buddhaghosa also compiled commentaries on much of the Canon, work continued by his successors, who also produced subcommentaries on many commentaries, and sometimes even subsubcommentaries. The subcommentaries (tika ṭīkā are commentaries on the commentaries on the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism Atthakatha ( Pali for explanation commentary refers to Pali-language Theravadin Buddhist commentaries to the canonical Theravadin Tipitaka. There were also handbooks summarizing some aspects of the teachings, and other literature, all or nearly all concerned with Buddhism, at least ostensibly. From the early thirteenth century the writing af Pali literature in Ceylon went into a steep decline, though it never ceased entirely. Instead, Buddhist literature was written in Sinhalese.
From the fifteenth century onwards, Pali literature has been dominated by Burma, though some has also been written in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, as well as Ceylon. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. This Burmese literature has in turn been dominated by writings directly or indirectly concerned with the Abhidhamma Pitaka, the part of the Canon variously described as philosophy, psychology, metaphysics etc. The Abhidhamma Pitaka (abhidhammapiṭaka is the last of the three Pitakas that is baskets constituting the Pali Canon, the Scriptures of Theravāda Buddhism and psychology overlap in theory and in practice Over the last century three strands of interplay have evolved Descriptive phenomenology Western and Buddhist