Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon
The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pali language. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Pali ( ISO 15919 / ALA-LC: Pāḷi is a Middle Indo-Aryan language or Prakrit of India.  The Canon was written down from oral tradition at the occasion of the Fourth Buddhist Council (in the usual Theravada numbering), 1st century BCE, in Sri Lanka on ola (palm) leaves. Two councils frequently called Fourth Buddhist Council were held The 1st century BC started the first day of 100 BC and ended the last day of 1 BC. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island  Passed down in writing and to other Theravadin countries, this originally largely North Indian Canon is the most complete surviving early Buddhist canon and one of the first to be written down. 
The Canon was not printed until the nineteenth century, and is now also available in electronic form. 
The Pali Canon falls into three general categories, called pitaka (piṭaka, basket) in Pali. Because of this, the canon is traditionally known as the Tipitaka (Tipiṭaka; three baskets). The three pitakas are as follows. 
- Vinaya Pitaka, dealing with rules for monks and nuns
- Sutta Pitaka, discourses, mostly ascribed to the Buddha, but some to disciples
- Abhidhamma Pitaka, variously described as philosophy, psychology, metaphysics etc. The Vinaya Piṭaka is a Buddhist Scripture, one of the three parts that make up the Tripitaka. The Sutta Pitaka (suttapiṭaka or Suttanta Pitaka cf Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक Sutra Pitaka) is the second of the three divisions of the Tipitaka or The Abhidhamma Pitaka (abhidhammapiṭaka is the last of the three Pitakas that is baskets constituting the Pali Canon, the Scriptures of Theravāda Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and Metaphysics is the branch of Philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science
The Canon in the tradition
The Canon is traditionally described by the Theravada as the Word of the Buddha (Buddhavacana), though this is obviously not intended in a literal sense, since it includes teachings by disciples. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Buddha was born in Shakya kingdom which lies in Rupandehi district Lumbini zone of Nepal General Buddhism in Sri Lanka is primarily of the Theravada school and constitutes the religious faith of about 70% of the populationAccording to traditional History See also History of Buddhism in Cambodia Unconfirmed Singhalese sources assert that missionaries of King Asohka introduced Buddhism into Buddhism is the primary religion of Laos. The Buddhism practiced in Laos is of the Theravada tradition History The history of Buddhism in Burmaextends nearly a millennium Buddhism in Thailand is largely of the Theravada school Nearly 95% of Thailand 's population is Buddhist of the Theravada school though Buddhism Pali literature is concerned mainly with Theravada Buddhism, of which Pali is the traditional language Atthakatha ( Pali for explanation commentary refers to Pali-language Theravadin Buddhist commentaries to the canonical Theravadin Tipitaka. The subcommentaries (tika ṭīkā are commentaries on the commentaries on the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism The term pre-sectarian Buddhism is used by some scholars to refer to the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being The Early Buddhist schools are those schools into which according to most scholars the Buddhist monastic Sangha initially split due originally to differences in Sthaviravāda ( Sanskrit; Chinese 上座部 literally means "Teaching Of The Elders" Ashoka ( Devanāgarī: अशोकः IAST: Aśokaḥ, aɕoːkə(hə Prakrit Imperial title Devanampriya Priyadarsi The Third Buddhist council was convened in about 250 BCE at Asokarama in Patiliputta, supposedly under the patronage of Emperor Asoka. Vibhajjavāda is an umbrella classification for Buddhist denominations that promote analysis as a primary tool for developing 'insight' (Sanskrit Prajñā Mahinda ( Sanskrit: महिन्द्र Mahindra) (born 3rd century BCE in Magadha, now in Bihar, India) was a Buddhist See also Ashoka Bhikkhuni Sri Maha Bodhi The Dipavamsa, or "Deepavamsa" (ie Chronicle of the Island in Pali) is the oldest historical record of Sri Lanka. The Mahavamsa, ("Great Chronicle " is a historical poem written in the Pali language of the kings of Sri Lanka. Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa was a 5th century Indian Theravadin Buddhist commentator and scholar In sramanic philosophy Nirvana (निर्वाण| Nirvāṇa; निब्बान Nibbāna; Prakrit: णिव्वाण In general the Middle Way or Middle Path ( madhyamā-pratipad; ṭṭipadā) is the Buddhist practice of non-extremism Background Why the Buddha is said to have taught in this way is illuminated by the social context of the time in which he lived The four stages of Enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life The Three Jewels, also called the Three Treasures, the Three Refuges, or the Triple Gem, are the three things that Buddhists take refuge History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation 
The traditional Theravadin (Mahaviharin) interpretation of the Pali Canon is given in a series of commentaries covering nearly the whole Canon, compiled by Buddhaghosa (fourth or fifth century CE) and later monks, mainly on the basis of earlier materials now lost. The Mahavihara ( Pali for "Great Monastery" was for several centuries the center of Theravada Buddhism in Sri Lanka. Atthakatha ( Pali for explanation commentary refers to Pali-language Theravadin Buddhist commentaries to the canonical Theravadin Tipitaka. Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa was a 5th century Indian Theravadin Buddhist commentator and scholar Subcommentaries have been written afterwards, commenting further on the Canon and its commentaries. The subcommentaries (tika ṭīkā are commentaries on the commentaries on the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism The traditional Theravadin interpretation is summarized in Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga. Summary It is composed of four parts which discuss 1 Sila (discipline 2 Samadhi (meditative concentration 3 The land of wisdom 
An official view is given by a spokesman for the Buddha Sasana Council of Burma: the Canon contains everything needed to show the path to nirvana; the commentaries and subcommentaries sometimes include much speculative matter, but are faithful to its teachings and often give very illuminating illustrations. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. In sramanic philosophy Nirvana (निर्वाण| Nirvāṇa; निब्बान Nibbāna; Prakrit: णिव्वाण In Sri Lanka and Thailand, "official" Buddhism has in large part adopted the interpretations of Western scholars. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj 
Although the Canon has existed in written form for two millennia, its earlier oral nature has not been forgotten in actual Buddhist practice within the tradition: memorization and recitation remain common. Among frequently recited texts are the Paritta. Uses In the Pali literature these short verses are recommended by the Buddha as providing protection from certain afflictions Even lay people usually know at least a few short texts by heart and recite them regularly; this is considered a form of meditation, at least if one understands the meaning. Monks are of course expected to know quite a bit more (see Dhammapada below for an example). The Dhammapada ( Pāli; Prakrit: Dhamapada; Sanskrit Dharmapada; sometimes translated into English as Path of the A Burmese monk named Vicittasara even learnt the entire Canon by heart for the Sixth Council (again according to the usual Theravada numbering). The Sixth Buddhist Council (Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana as it styled itself was a general council of Theravada Buddhism held in Kaba Aye in Yangon (Rangoon  Recitation is in Pali as the ritual language. 
The relation of the scriptures to Buddhism as it actually exists among ordinary monks and lay people is, as with other major religious traditions, problematical: the evidence suggests that only parts of the Canon ever enjoyed wide currency, and that non-canonical works were sometimes very much more widely used; the details varied from place to place.  Dr Rupert Gethin says that the whole of Buddhist history may be regarded as a working out of the implications of the early scriptures. Dr Rupert Mark Lovell Gethin ( b 1957 Edinburgh is a Lecturer in Indian Religions in the Department of Theology and Religious Studies and co-director of the Centre for Buddhist 
It is traditionally believed by Theravadins that most of the Pali Canon originated from the Buddha and his immediate disciples. According to the scriptures, a council was held shortly after the Buddha's passing to collect and preserve his teachings. According to late commentarial accounts King Ajatashatru (Sanskrit अजातशत्रु sponsored the First Buddhist council. In Buddhism, parinirvana ( Sanskrit: परिनिर्वाण parinirvāṇa; Pali: परिनिब्बाण parinibbāṇa It was recited orally from the 5th century BC to the first century BC, when it was written down. The tradition holds that only a few later additions were made.
Attribution according to scholars
Various views concerning the attribution of the Pali Canon are current amongst scholars:
- parts of it can be attributed to the Buddha.
- very little can be attributed to the Buddha
- parts can be attributed to the period of pre-sectarian Buddhism. The term pre-sectarian Buddhism is used by some scholars to refer to the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being
- it has an unknown nucleus
- not until the fifth to sixth centuries CE can we know anything definite about the contents of the Pali Canon.
1. Certain parts can be attributed to the Buddha
Various scholars have voiced that some of the contents of the Pali Canon (and its main teachings) can be attributed to Gautama Buddha. Dr Richard Gombrich thinks that the teachings (of the Vinaya and Sutta Pitakas) probably go back to the Buddha individually. Some scholars argue that the teachings are coherent and cogent, and must be the work of a single genius, i. e. the Buddha himself, not a committee of followers after his death.
J. W. de Jong has stated that parts of the Pali Canon could very well have been proclaimed by the Buddha, and subsequently transmitted and developed by his disciples and, finally, codified in fixed formulas. A. Wynne has said that the Pali Canon includes texts which go back to the very beginning of Buddhism, which perhaps include the substance of the Buddha’s teaching, and in some cases, maybe even his words.
A. K. Warder has stated that there is no evidence to suggest that the shared teaching of the early schools was formulated by anyone else than the Buddha and his immediate followers.
2. Very little can be attributed to the Buddha
Some scholars say that little or nothing goes back to the Buddha Some of these argue that
- some passages contradict the main teachings
- the Buddha must have been consistent
- therefore only one of the teachings can have been his
- if he had taught the main teachings, contradictory teachings would never have got in
- therefore he taught the divergent teachings, and the main teachings were elaborated by his followers after his death
3. Attribution to Pre-sectarian Buddhism
Much of the Pali Canon is found also in the scriptures of other early schools of Buddhism, parts of whose versions are preserved, mainly in Chinese. Many scholars have argued that this shared material can be attributed to the period of Pre-sectarian Buddhism. The term pre-sectarian Buddhism is used by some scholars to refer to the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being This is the period before the early schools separated in about the fourth or third century BCE. The Early Buddhist schools are those schools into which according to most scholars the Buddhist monastic Sangha initially split due originally to differences in
4. Unknown nucleus
Some scholars see the Pali Canon as expanding and changing from an unknown nucleus. Arguments given for an agnostic attitude include that the evidence for the Buddha's teachings dates from (long) after his death.
Some scholars have said that the application of text-critical methods derived from Biblical criticism is invalidated by the fact that the Bible was a written text while the Pali Canon was oral. This article is about the academic treatment of the bible as a historical document
Some scholars have stated that it would be hypocritical to assert that nothing can be said about the doctrine of earliest Buddhism.
5. Only from much later are its contents definitely definable
Dr Gregory Schopen, argues that it is not until the fifth to sixth centuries CE that we can know anything definite about the contents of the Canon. This position did not attract much support, and was criticized by A. Wynne. 
The Earliest books of the Pali Canon
Different positions have been taken on what are the earliest books of the Canon. The majority of Western scholars consider the earliest identifiable stratum to be mainly prose works, the Vinaya (excluding the Parivara) and the first four nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka, and perhaps also some short verse works  such as the Suttanipata. The Sutta Nipata is a Buddhist scripture a Sutta collection in the Khuddaka Nikaya, part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism However, some scholars, paricularly in Japan, maintain that the Suttanipata is the earliest of all Buddhist scriptures, followed by the Itivuttaka and Udana. . However, some of the developments in teachings may only reflect changes in teaching that the Buddha himself adopted, during the 45 years that the Buddha was teaching.
Most of the above scholars would probably agree that their early books include some later additions.  On the other hand, some scholars have claimed that central aspects of late works are or may be much earlier.
According to the Sinhalese chronicles, the Pali Canon was written down in the reign of King Vattagamini (Vaṭṭagāmiṇi) (1st century B. C. E. ) in Sri Lanka, at the Fourth Buddhist council. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Two councils frequently called Fourth Buddhist Council were held Most scholars hold that little if anything was added to the Canon after this, though Schopen questions this.
Texts and translations
The climate of Theravada countries is not conducive to the survival of manuscripts. Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of Apart from brief quotations in inscriptions and a two-page fragment from the eighth or ninth century found in Nepal, the oldest manuscripts known are from late in the fifteenth century, and there is not very much from before the eighteenth. Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. 
The first complete printed edition of the Canon was published in Burma in 1900, in 38 volumes.  The following editions of the Pali text of the Canon are readily available in the West.
- Pali Text Society edition, 1877–1927 (a few volumes subsequently replaced by new editions), 57 volumes including indexes, individual volumes also available separately (website)
- Thai edition, 1925–8, 45 volumes; more accurate than the PTS edition, but with fewer variant readings; electronic transcript by budsir: Buddhist scriptures information retrieval, CD-ROM and online, both requiring payment; and, BUDSIR on Internet, free with login
- Sixth Council edition, Rangoon, 1954–6, 40 volumes; more accurate than the Thai edition, but with fewer variant readings; electronic transcript by Vipassana Research Institute available online in searchable database free of charge, or on CD-ROM (p&p only) from the Institute; another transcript of this edition, produced by the Dhamma Society Fund under the patronage of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand, is expected online soon
- Sinhalese (Buddha Jayanti) edition, 1957–?1993, 58 volumes including parallel Sinhalese translations, transcript in BudhgayaNews Pali Canon, searchable, free of charge (not yet fully proofread)
No one edition has all the best readings, and scholars must compare different editions. The Pali Text Society was founded in 1881 by TW Rhys Davids "to foster and promote the study of Pali texts" Lists and numbering of Buddhist councils vary between and even within schools 
Translation: Pali Canon in English Translation, 1895- , in progress, 43 volumes so far, Pali Text Society, Bristol; for details of these and other translations of individual books see the separate articles. In 1994, the then President of the Pali Text Society stated that most of these translations were unsatisfactory.  Another former President said in 2003 that most of the translations were done very badly.  The style of many translations from the Canon has been criticized as "Buddhist Hybrid English", a term invented by Paul Griffiths for translations from Sanskrit. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit ( BHS) is a modern linguistic category applied to the language used in a class of Indian Buddhist texts such as the Perfection He describes it as "deplorable", "comprehensible only to the initiate, written by and for Buddhologists". 
Selections: see List of Pali Canon anthologies. This list covers English-language anthologies essentially confined to the Pali Canon and including material from at least two pitakas
Contents of the Canon
As noted above, the Canon consists of three pitakas. The Vinaya Piṭaka is a Buddhist Scripture, one of the three parts that make up the Tripitaka. Suttavibhanga (-vibhaṅga Pali for "rule analysis" is the first book of the Theravadin Vinaya Pitaka. Outline The Mahavagga has 10 chapters the first chapter is simply called the great chapter it starts with a narrative beginning immediately after the Buddha's Parivara ( Pali for "accessory" is the third and last book of the Theravadin Vinaya Pitaka. The Sutta Pitaka (suttapiṭaka or Suttanta Pitaka cf Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक Sutra Pitaka) is the second of the three divisions of the Tipitaka or The Digha Nikaya (dīghanikāya "Collection of Long Discourses" is a Buddhist scripture the first of the five Nikayas or collections The Majjhima Nikaya (-nikāya "Collection of Middle-length Discourses" is a Buddhist scripture the second of the five Nikayas or collections in the The Samyutta Nikaya (Saṃyutta Nikāya SN, "Connected Discourses" or "Kindred Sayings" is a Buddhist scripture the third of the five Nikayas The Anguttara Nikaya (aṅguttaranikāya "Gradual Collection" or "Numerical Discourses" is a Buddhist scripture the fourth of the five Nikayas or The Khuddaka Nikaya (-nikāya "Minor Collection" is the last of the five Nikayas or collections in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the "three The Abhidhamma Pitaka (abhidhammapiṭaka is the last of the three Pitakas that is baskets constituting the Pali Canon, the Scriptures of Theravāda The Dhammasangani (-saṅgaṇi or -ī is a Buddhist scripture part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism where it is included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka The Vibhanga (vibhaṅga is a Buddhist Scripture part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism where it is included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. The Dhatukatha (dhātukathā is a Buddhist scripture part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism where it is included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka The Puggalapannatti (-ññ- is a Buddhist scripture part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism where it is included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. Kathāvatthu ( Pāli) (abbrev Kv Kvu literally "Points of Controversy" is a Buddhist scripture one of the seven books in the Theravada Abhidhamma For "yamaka" as a misspelling of "yarmulke" an item of Jewish headgear see Kippah. The Patthana (paṭṭhāna is a Buddhist scripture part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism where it is included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Details are given below. The Vinaya Piṭaka is a Buddhist Scripture, one of the three parts that make up the Tripitaka. The Sutta Pitaka (suttapiṭaka or Suttanta Pitaka cf Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक Sutra Pitaka) is the second of the three divisions of the Tipitaka or The Abhidhamma Pitaka (abhidhammapiṭaka is the last of the three Pitakas that is baskets constituting the Pali Canon, the Scriptures of Theravāda For fuller information, see standard references on Pali literature. 
The first category, the Vinaya Pitaka, is mostly concerned with the rules of the sangha, both monks and nuns. The Vinaya Piṭaka is a Buddhist Scripture, one of the three parts that make up the Tripitaka. The Vinaya Piṭaka is a Buddhist Scripture, one of the three parts that make up the Tripitaka. This article concerns the concept of Sangha in Buddhism. For information on other senses see Sangha (disambiguation. MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective A Nun is a Woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life The rules are preceded by stories telling how the Buddha came to lay them down, and followed by explanations and analysis. According to the stories, the rules were devised on an ad hoc basis as the Buddha encountered various behavioral problems or disputes among his followers. This pitaka can be divided into three parts.
- Suttavibhanga (-vibhaṅga) Commentary on the Patimokkha, a basic code of rules for monks and nuns that is not as such included in the Canon. Suttavibhanga (-vibhaṅga Pali for "rule analysis" is the first book of the Theravadin Vinaya Pitaka. In Buddhism, the Patimokkha is the basic Theravada code of monastic discipline consisting of 227 rules for fully ordained monks ( Bhikkhus and 311 for nuns ( Bhikkhunis The monks' rules are dealt with first, followed by those of the nuns' rules not already covered.
- Khandhaka Other rules grouped by topic in 22 chapters. Outline The Mahavagga has 10 chapters the first chapter is simply called the great chapter it starts with a narrative beginning immediately after the Buddha's
- Parivara (parivāra) Analysis of the rules from various points of view. Parivara ( Pali for "accessory" is the third and last book of the Theravadin Vinaya Pitaka.
The second category is the Sutta Pitaka (literally "basket of threads", or of "the well spoken"; Sanskrit: Sutra Pitaka, following the former meaning) which consists primarily of accounts of the Buddha's teachings. The Sutta Pitaka (suttapiṭaka or Suttanta Pitaka cf Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक Sutra Pitaka) is the second of the three divisions of the Tipitaka or The Sutta Pitaka (suttapiṭaka or Suttanta Pitaka cf Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक Sutra Pitaka) is the second of the three divisions of the Tipitaka or The Sutta Pitaka has five subdivisions or nikayas. Nikāya is a word of meaning 'collection' 'assemblage' 'class' or 'group' in both Pali and Sanskrit.
- Digha Nikaya (dīghanikāya) 34 long discourses. The Digha Nikaya (dīghanikāya "Collection of Long Discourses" is a Buddhist scripture the first of the five Nikayas or collections  Joy Manné argues that this book was particularly intended to make converts, with its high proportion of debates and devotional material.
- Majjhima Nikaya 152 medium-length discourses. The Majjhima Nikaya (-nikāya "Collection of Middle-length Discourses" is a Buddhist scripture the second of the five Nikayas or collections in the  Manné argues that this book was particularly intended to give a solid grounding in the teaching to converts, with a high proportion of sermons and consultations.
- Samyutta Nikaya (saṃyutta-) Thousands of short discourses in fifty-odd groups by subject, person etc. The Samyutta Nikaya (Saṃyutta Nikāya SN, "Connected Discourses" or "Kindred Sayings" is a Buddhist scripture the third of the five Nikayas Bhikkhu Bodhi, in his translation, says this nikaya has the most detailed explanations of doctrine. Bhikkhu Bodhi (b 1944 NYC) born Jeffrey Block, is an American Buddhist monk, ordained in Sri Lanka and currently teaching in the
- Anguttara Nikaya (aṅguttara-) Thousands of short discourses arranged numerically from ones to elevens. The Anguttara Nikaya (aṅguttaranikāya "Gradual Collection" or "Numerical Discourses" is a Buddhist scripture the fourth of the five Nikayas or It contains more elementary teaching for ordinary people than the preceding three.
- Khuddaka Nikaya A miscellaneous collection of works in prose or verse. The Khuddaka Nikaya (-nikāya "Minor Collection" is the last of the five Nikayas or collections in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the "three See below.
The contents of this nikaya vary somewhat between different editions of the Canon. The Khuddaka Nikaya (-nikāya "Minor Collection" is the last of the five Nikayas or collections in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the "three The "standard" list, given in most western sources, contains the following.
- Khuddakapatha (-pāṭha) Nine short texts in prose or verse. The Khuddakapatha (-pāṭha Pali for "short passages" abbreviated as "Khp" is a Buddhist scripture the first collection of discourses ( Suttas This seems to have been intended as an introductory handbook for novices.  Most of its contents are found elsewhere in the Canon.
- Dhammapada 423 verses ascribed by tradition to the Buddha in 26 chapters by topic. The Dhammapada ( Pāli; Prakrit: Dhamapada; Sanskrit Dharmapada; sometimes translated into English as Path of the About half the Pali verses are found elsewhere in the canon. In the Sinhalese tradition, monks have been required to know this book by heart before they can be ordained.  In the Burmese examination system, this is one of the texts to be studied in the first stage of the syllabus. 
- Udana (udāna) 80 short passages, mostly verse, ascribed to the Buddha, with introductory stories. The Udana (udāna is a Buddhist scripture part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism.
- Itivuttaka 112 short prose teachings ascribed to the Buddha followed by verse paraphrases or complements. The Itivuttaka ( Pali for "as it was said" is a Buddhist scripture part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism These are arranged numerically, from ones to fours.
- Suttanipata(-nipāta) Poems, some in prose frameworks. The Sutta Nipata is a Buddhist scripture a Sutta collection in the Khuddaka Nikaya, part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism In five parts, of which the first four contain 54 poems. The fifth part is a single poem in 16 sections, plus an introduction and a conclusion, which last includes a little prose.
- Vimanavatthu (vimāna-) 85 poems telling of celestial mansions resulting from good karma. The Vimanavatthu is a Buddhist scripture the sixth book of the Khuddaka Nikaya in the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism
- Petavatthu 51 poems telling of the suffering of ghosts resulting from bad karma. The Petavatthu is a Theravada Buddhist scripture included in the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Pali Canon 's Sutta Pitaka. Karma ( Sanskrit: कर्म, kárman - "act action performance" Pali: kamma) is the concept of "action" It gives prominence to the idea that gifts to monks can benefit one's deceased relatives' ghosts.
- Theragatha(-gāthā) 264 poems ascribed to early monks, arranged roughly by increasing number of verses. The Theragatha (-gāthā often translated as Verses of the Elder Monks (Pāli thera elder (masculine + gatha verse is a Buddhist scripture
- Therigatha (therī-) 73 poems ascribed to early nuns, arranged by increasing number of verses. The Therigatha, often translated as Verses of the Elder Nuns (Pāli thera elder (feminine + gatha verse is a Buddhist scripture a collection of short
- Jataka (jātaka) 547 poems said to relate to the Buddha's previous lives, arranged roughly by increasing number of verses. The Jātaka Tales ( Sanskrit जातक and Pali, Malay: jetaka Lao: satok refer to a voluminous body of Folklore -like literature Professor Oskar von Hinüber says only the last 50 were intended to be intelligible on their own without the Commentary. As a result of the arrangement, these make up the greater part of the book.  according to A. K. Warder, this is the most popular book of the Canon. Anthony Kennedy Warder is a scholar of Indology, mostly in Buddhist studies and related fields such as the Pāli and Sanskrit languages
- Niddesa Commentary on parts of Suttanipata: the last two parts and one other sutta. The Niddesa is a Buddhist scripture part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism. Traditionally ascribed to the Buddha's disciple Sariputta. Śāriputra ( Sanskrit: शारिपुत्र or Sāriputta ( Pāli) was one of two principal disciples of The Buddha.
- Patisambhidamagga (paṭisambhidā-) 30 treatises on various topics. The Patisambhidamagga (paṭisambhidā- Pali for "path of discrimination" sometimes called just Patisambhida for short is a Buddhist scripture part of the Traditionally ascribed to Sariputta. Gethin says this book presents the awakening experience as having many different dimensions and aspects, related to the whole of the teaching, and yet as a simple, coherent whole.
- Apadana (apadāna) About 600 poems, most telling how their authors performed a meritorious act in a distant past life, resulting in favourable rebirths and eventual nirvana. There are 589 in the Pali Text Society's edition, 603 in the Sixth Council edition and 592 in a number of others. 
- Buddhavamsa (-vaṃsa) Short verse book, mainly telling of the previous 24 Buddhas and the current Buddha's meritorious acts towards them in his previous lives. The Buddhavamsa (-vaṃsa abbrev Bv is a Buddhist scripture part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism.
- Cariyapitaka (cariyā-) 35 poems telling of Gotama Buddha's practice of 7 of the perfections in his previous lives. Overview In the first story (Cp I the Buddha says he will illustrate his practice of the perfections (Pali Pāramitā or pārami) by
However, some editions contain in addition some works that have been described by western scholars as paracanonical or semicanonical.
Paracanonical or semicanonical works
The following works are included in the Sixth Council edition of the Canon, including the new transcript from Thailand. 
- Nettipakarana (nettipakaraṇa, nettippakaraṇa or just netti) This book presents methods of interpretation. The Nettipakarana ( Pali: -pakaraṇa) Nettippakarana or just Netti is a Buddhist scripture sometimes included in the Khuddaka Nikaya of The colophon ascribes it to the Buddha's disciple Kaccana. Colophon ( Greek) was a city in the region of Lydia in antiquity dating from about the turn of the first millennium-BC
- Petakopadesa (peṭakopadesa) Presents the same methods as the preceding book. The Petakopadesa (peṭakopadesa is a Buddhist scripture sometimes included in the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism They have a large amount of overlap. The text of this book is very corrupt. The colophon ascribes it to the Buddha's disciple Kaccana.
- Milindapanha (-pañha or -pañhā) A dialogue between King Menander of Bactria (second century B. "Bactrian" redirects here For the camel see Bactrian camel. C. E. ) and the monk Nagasena. Rhys Davids describes this as the greatest work of classical Indian prose literature.
The first two of these, but not the third, are included in the Sinhalese (printed) edition. All are omitted from the Thai edition. Inclusion in printed editions is not the same as canonicity (cf. Apocrypha). Professor George Bond of Northwestern University says of the first of these books that some Theravadins regard it as quasi-canonical, others as canonical, especially in Burma.  About 1800, the head of the Burmese sangha regarded at least the first two of these books as canonical.  On the other hand, at least one recent Burmese teacher has not. 
Ancient style of scripture used for the Pali Canon
The third category, the Abhidhamma Pitaka (literally "beyond the dhamma", "higher dhamma" or "special dhamma", Sanskrit: Abhidharma Pitaka), is a collection of texts which give a systematic philosophical description of the nature of mind, matter and time. The Abhidhamma Pitaka (abhidhammapiṭaka is the last of the three Pitakas that is baskets constituting the Pali Canon, the Scriptures of Theravāda The Abhidhamma Pitaka (abhidhammapiṭaka is the last of the three Pitakas that is baskets constituting the Pali Canon, the Scriptures of Theravāda One of the three divisions of the Tripitaka, or canon of Buddhist Scriptures. There are seven books in the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
- Dhammasangani (-saṅgaṇi or -saṅgaṇī) Enumeration, definition and classification of dhammas
- Vibhanga (vibhaṅga) Analysis of 18 topics by various methods, including those of the Dhammasangani
- Dhatukatha (dhātukathā) Deals with interrelations between ideas from the previous two books
- Puggalapannatti (-paññatti) Explanations of types of person, arranged numerically in lists from ones to tens
- Kathavatthu (kathā-) Over 200 debates on points of doctrine
- Yamaka Applies to 10 topics a procedure involving converse questions (e. The Dhammasangani (-saṅgaṇi or -ī is a Buddhist scripture part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism where it is included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka The Vibhanga (vibhaṅga is a Buddhist Scripture part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism where it is included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. The Dhatukatha (dhātukathā is a Buddhist scripture part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism where it is included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka The Puggalapannatti (-ññ- is a Buddhist scripture part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism where it is included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. Kathāvatthu ( Pāli) (abbrev Kv Kvu literally "Points of Controversy" is a Buddhist scripture one of the seven books in the Theravada Abhidhamma For "yamaka" as a misspelling of "yarmulke" an item of Jewish headgear see Kippah. g. Is X Y? Is Y X?)
- Patthana (paṭṭhāna) Analysis of 24 types of condition
The traditional position is that the Abhidhamma is the absolute teaching, while the suttas are adapted to the hearer. The Patthana (paṭṭhāna is a Buddhist scripture part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism where it is included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. Most scholars describe the abhidhamma as an attempt to systematize the teachings of the suttas: Harvey, Gethin.  Cousins says that where the suttas think in terms of sequences or processes the abhidhamma thinks in terms of specific events or occasions. 
Comparison with other Buddhist canons
The other two main canons in use at the present day are the Tibetan Kangyur and the Chinese Buddhist Canon. The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various schools of Tibetan Buddhism, made up of the Kangyur or Kanjur The Chinese Buddhist Canon ( Chinese character: 大藏經 Cantonese: Dai Zorng Ging Mandarin: Dà Zàng Jīng Korean: Dae Jang Kyung Japanese The former is in about a hundred volumes and includes versions of the Vinaya Pitaka and the Dhammapada (the latter confusingly called Udanavarga) and of parts of some other books. The standard modern edition of the latter is the Taisho published in Japan, which is in a hundred much larger volumes. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. It includes both canonical and non-canonical (including Chinese and Japanese) literature and its arrangement does not clearly distinguish the two. It includes versions of the Vinaya Pitaka, the first four nikayas, the Dhammapada, the Itivuttaka and the Milindapanha and of parts of some other books. These Chinese and Tibetan versions are not usually translations of the Pali and differ from it to varying extents, but are recognizably the "same" works. On the other hand, the Chinese abhidharma books are different works from the Pali Abhidhamma Pitaka, though they follow a common methodology.
Looking at things from the other side, the bulk of the Chinese and Tibetan canons consists of Mahayana sutras and tantras, which, apart from a few tantras, have no equivalent in the Pali Canon. Historicity and Background Place in the Canon Various Mahayana Sutras have been included in the Tibetan Canon and the Chinese Canon. Tantras (" Looms " or " Weavings " refers to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions
- ^ Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism, 2nd edn, Routledge, London, 2006, page 3
- ^ Encyclopedia of Religion, Macmillan, New York, sv Councils, Buddhist
- ^ A. K. Warder, Indian Buddhism, 3rd edn, page 307. American Asiatic Association, Asia Society, Asia: Journal of the American Asiatic Association, p724.
- ^ If the language of the Pāli canon is north Indian in origin, and without substantial Sinhalese additions, it is likely that the canon was composed somewhere in north India before its introduction to Sri Lanka How old is the Sutta Pitaka?, Alexander Wynne, St. Johns' College, 2003
- ^ Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, Cambridge University Press, 1990, page 3.
- ^ Bechert & Gombrich, The World of Buddhism, Thames & Hudson, 1984, page 293
- ^ Gombrich, page 4
- ^ Gombrich, page 20
- ^ Gombrich, pages 153-4
- ^ Morgan, Path of the Buddha, Ronald Press, New York, 1956, pages v, 71
- ^ Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, volume 28 (part 2), page 302
- ^ Mendelson, Sangha and State in Burma, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1975, page 266
- ^ Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edn, volume 9, Elsevier, Amsterdam/Oxford, 2006
- ^ Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XV, pages 103f
- ^ Gethin, Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press, 1998, page 43
- ^ Academic Director of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, former Boden Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Oxford and former President of the Pali Text Society
- ^ I am saying that there was a person called the Buddha, that the preachings probably go back to him individually. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the . . that we can learn more about what he meant, and that he was saying some very precise things. source: http://www.ordinarymind.net/Interviews/interview_jan2003.htm
- ^ Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism, 2nd edn, Routledge, London, 2006, pages 20f
- ^ While parts of the Pali Canon clearly originated after the time of the Buddha, much must derive from his teaching. - An introduction to Buddhism, Peter Harvey, 1990, p. 3
- ^ the basic ideas of Buddhism found in the canonical writings could very well have been proclaimed by him [the Buddha], transmitted and developed by his disciples and, finally, codified in fixed formulas. J. W. De Jong, 1993: The Beginnings of Buddhism, in The Eastern Buddhist, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 25
- ^ If some of the material is so old, it might be possible to establish what texts go back to the very beginning of Buddhism, texts which perhaps include the substance of the Buddha’s teaching, and in some cases, maybe even his words, How old is the Suttapitaka? Alexander Wynne, St John’s College, 2003. [www. ocbs. org/research/Wynne. pdf]
- ^ there is no evidence to suggest that it was formulated by anyone else than the Buddha and his immediate followers. AK Warder, Indian Buddhism, 1999, 3rd edition, inside flap.
- ^ Skorupski, Buddhist Forum, volume I, Heritage, Delhi/SOAS, London,1990, page 5
- ^ see Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, vol 21, part 1, page 11 for some of this
- ^ an article in the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (2004), page 10
- ^ Buddhist Studies in Honour of Hammalawa Saddhatissa ed Dhammapala, Gombrich & Norman, University of Jayawardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka, 1984, pages 56, 67
- ^ It would be hypocritical to assert that nothing can be said about the doctrine of earliest Buddhism . . . the basic ideas of Buddhism found in the canonical writings could very well have been proclaimed by him [the Buddha], transmitted and developed by his disciples and, finally, codified in fixed formulas. J. W. De Jong, 1993: The Beginnings of Buddhism, in The Eastern Buddhist, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 25
- ^ Professor of Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Buddhist Studies at the University of Texas at Austin
- ^ Bones, Stones, and Buddhist Monks, University of Hawai'i Press, 1997, page 24 (reprinted from Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik, volume 10 (1985))
- ^ How old is the Sutta Pitaka? - Alexander Wynne, St John’s College, 2003. The University of Hawaii, formally the University of Hawaii System and popularly known as UH, is a public co-educational college and university system that confers [www. ocbs. org/research/Wynne. pdf]
- ^ A. K. Warder, Introduction to Pali, 1963, Pali Text Society, page viii
- ^ L. S. Cousins in Buddhist Studies in Honour of Hammalava Saddhatissa, ed Dhammapala, Gombrich and Norman, University of Jayewardenepura, 1984, page 56
- ^ The World of Buddhism, ed Bechert and Gombrich, Thames and Hudson, London, 1984, page 78; Gethin, pages 42f
- ^ Gethin, The Buddha's Path to Awakening, E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1992
- ^ Cousins, loc. cit.
- ^ Nakamura, Indian Buddhism, Japan, 1980, reissued by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1987, 1989, page 27
- ^ as the Buddha taught for 45 years, some signs of development in teachings may only reflect changes during this period. - An introduction to Buddhism, Peter Harvey, 1990, p. 3
- ^ Bechert and Gombrich; Warder, Introduction to Path of Discrimination, 1982, Pali Text Society, page xxix
- ^ Cousins, "Pali oral literature", in Buddhist Studies, ed Denwood and Piatigorski, Curzon Press, London, 1982/3; Harvey, page 83; Gethin, page 48; The Guide, Pali Text Society, page xxvii
- ^ Harvey, page 3; Warder, Path of Discrimination, Pali Text Society, pages xxxixf; Gethin, Path, page 8
- ^ Hinüber, Handbook of Pali Literature, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 1996, page 5.
- ^ Pali Text Society Home Page
- ^ Günter Grönbold, Der buddhistische Kanon: eine Bibliographie, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1984, page 12; as noted there and elsewhere, the 1893 Siamese edition was incomplete
- ^ Warder, Introduction to Pali, 1963, PTS, page 382
- ^ Hamm in German Scholars on India, volume I, ed Cultural Department of the German Embassy in India, pub Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, 1973, translated from Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 1962
- ^ Cone, Dictionary of Pali, volume I, PTS, 2001
- ^ Memoirs of the Chuo Academic Research Institute, No. 23, Dec. 1994, page 12, reprinted in Norman, Collected Papers, volume VI, 1996, Pali Text Society, Bristol, page 80
- ^ Interview with professor Richard Gombrich for Ordinary Mind - An Australian Buddhist Review issue No 21
- ^ Journal of the Pali Text Society, Volume XXIX, page 102
- ^ Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, 4. 2 (1981)
- ^ Norman, Pali Literature, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1983; Hinüber,op. cit.
- ^ Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, appendix
- ^ Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XV
- ^ Harvey, appendix
- ^ loc. cit.
- ^ Pali Text Society; Norman; Hinüber; Harvey, Appendix; Lamotte, History of Indian Buddhism, 1958, English tr, Oriental Institute, Catholic University of Louvain, 1988
- ^ Norman, page 58
- ^ Dhammapada, ed Sumangala, pub Humphrey Milford for the Pali Text Society, London, 1914, page v
- ^ Mendelson, appendix
- ^ Harvey, appendix
- ^ op. cit.
- ^ This can be verified by inspecting the table of contents of the VRI transcription.
- ^ Introduction to Pali, 1963,PaliText Society, Bristol, page 383
- ^ Harvey, appendix
- ^ Path, pages 311f
- ^ JPTS, volume XX, pages 1-42
- ^ The Guide, Pali Text Society, 1962, page xii; Hinüber
- ^ ().
- ^ Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, ed Potter, volume VII, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1996
- ^ JPTS, volume XXVIII, pages 61f
- ^ Rewata Dhamma, The Buddha and His Disciples, Dhamma-Talaka Pubns, Birmingham, 2001, page 89
- ^ Harvey, page 83
- ^ loc. cit.
- ^ Foundations, page 44
- ^ "Pali oral literature", page 7
- ^ Most notably, a version of the Atanatiya Sutta (from the Digha Nikaya) is included in the tantra (Mikkyo, rgyud) divisions of the Taisho and of the Cone, Derge, Lhasa, Lithang, Narthang and Peking (Qianlong) editions of the Kangyur: Skilling, Mahasutras, volume I, Parts I & II, 1997, Pali Text Society, Bristol, pages 84n, 553ff, 617ff.
- What-Buddha-Said.net What Buddha said in plain English. The history of literature is the historical development of Writings in Prose or Poetry which attempt to provide Entertainment, enlightenment The History of literature begins with the History of writing, in Bronze Age Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, although the oldest literary Sumerian literature is the oldest literature in the worldThe Sumerians invented the first writing system beginning with cuneiform Logograms Ancient Egyptian literature comprises texts written in the Egyptian language during the pharaonic period of Egypt. Babylonian literature is one of the world's oldest Drawing on the traditions of Sumerian literature, the Babylonians compiled a vast textual tradition of mythological A classical language, is a language with a Literature that is "classical"&mdashie "it should be ancient it should be an independent tradition that arose mostly Chinese classic texts or Chinese canonical texts ( refer to the pre- Qin Chinese texts especially the Confucian Four Books and Five Classics Ancient Greek literature refers to Literature written in the Greek language until the 4th century AD Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language remains an enduring legacy of the culture of Ancient Rome. Middle Persian literature is Persian literature of the 1st millennium AD, especially of the Sassanid period Pali literature is concerned mainly with Theravada Buddhism, of which Pali is the traditional language Literature in Sanskrit begins with the Vedas, and continues with the Sanskrit Epics of Iron Age India; the golden age of Classical Syriac literature is Literature written in the Syriac language, an eastern Aramaic language. Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 300 BCE and 600 CE Medieval literature is a broad subject encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe beyond and during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand Anglo-Saxon literature (or Old English literature) encompasses Literature written in Anglo-Saxon (Old English during the 600-year Anglo-Saxon Arabic literature ( Arabic: الأدب العربي Al-Adab Al-Arabi) is the writing produced both Prose and Poetry, by speakers Byzantine literature may be defined as the Greek literature of the Middle Ages, whether written in the territory of the Byzantine Empire or outside Medieval French literature is for the purpose of this article Literature written in Oïl languages (particularly Old French and early Middle Medieval German literature refers to Literature written in Germany stretching from the Carolingian dynasty; various dates have been given for the end of the See also Israeli literature. Hebrew literature consists of ancient medieval and modern writings in the Hebrew language. Indian literature is generally acknowledged as one of the oldest in the world The earliest Irish authors It is unclear when literacy first came to Ireland This is a list of Japanese classic texts. These classical works of Japanese literature are grouped by genres in a chronological order Kannada literature is the body of literature of Kannada, a Dravidian language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Karnataka and written in the Nepal Bhasa literature refers to Literature in Nepal Bhasa History Nepal Bhasa has a long history as regards literature Old Norse literature refers to the vernacular literature of the Scandinavian peoples up to ca Persian literature ( spans two and a half millennia though much of the pre- Islamic material has been lost Mediaeval Welsh literature is the literature written in the Welsh language during the Middle Ages. The History of literature of the Early Modern period ( 16th, 17th and partly 18th century literature) Renaissance Literature refers to the period in European literature, which began in Italy during the 15th century and spread around Europe through Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc The History of literature in the Modern period in Europe begins with the Age of Enlightenment and the conclusion of the Baroque period in the 18th century See also 17th century in literature, other events of the 18th century, 19th century in literature, List of years in literature. See also 18th century in literature, other events of the 19th century, 20th century in literature, List of years in literature. See also 19th century in literature, other events of the 20th century, 21st century in literature, List of years in literature. Buddhist texts can be categorized in a number of ways The Western terms "scripture" and "canonical" are applied to Buddhism in inconsistent ways by Western scholars The Tripiṭaka ( Sanskrit; Devanagari: त्रिपिटक lit The Tripitaka Koreana (lit Goryeo Tripitaka) or Palman Daejanggyeong ("Eighty-Thousand Tripitaka " Translations & Explanations.
- The Three Baskets as in the Buddhist Encyclopedia
- Guide to Tipitaka– Online transcript of a book by Professor U Ko Lay giving a detailed account of the contents of the Burmese edition of the Canon.
- Tipitakadhara Sayadaws of Burma
- Sayadaw U Vicittasara Mingun Sayadaw: A Fabulous Memory
In addition to Ko Lay's book above, two other books are devoted to detailed accounts of the Canon:
- History of Pali Literature, B. C. Law, volume I
- Analysis of the Pali Canon, Russell Webb, Buddist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka
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