Paint is any liquid, liquifiable, or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque solid film. Liquid is one of the principal States of matter. A liquid is a Fluid that has the particles loose and can freely form a distinct surface at the boundaries of Substrate is a term used in Materials science to describe the base material on which processing is conducted to produce new film or layers of material such as deposited coatings A solid' object is in the States of matter characterized by resistance to Deformation and changes of Volume.
Paint is used to protect, decorate (such as adding color), or add functionality to an object or surface by covering it with a pigmented coating. An example of protection is to retard corrosion of metal. Corrosion means the breaking down of essential properties in a material due to Chemical reactions with its surroundings The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across An example of decoration is to add festive trim to a room's interior. An example of added functionality is to modify light reflection or heat radiation of a surface. Light, or visible light, is Electromagnetic radiation of a Wavelength that is visible to the Human eye (about 400–700 Thermal radiation is Electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface of an object which is due to the object's Temperature. Another example of functionality would be the use of color to identify hazards or function of equipment and pipelines.
As a verb, painting is the application of paint. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Someone who paints artistically is usually called a painter or artist, while someone who paints commercially is often referred to as a painter and decorator, or house painter. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of Activities to do with creating Art, practicing the Arts and/or demonstrating A painter and decorator is a Tradesman responsible for the painting and decorating of buildings and is also known as a decorator or house painter A painter and decorator is a Tradesman responsible for the painting and decorating of buildings and is also known as a decorator or house painter
Paint can be applied to almost any kind of object. It is used, among many other uses, in the production of art, in industrial coating, as a driving aid (road surface marking), or as a barrier to prevent corrosion or water damage. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual An industrial coating is a paint or coating defined by its protective rather than its aesthetic properties although it can provide both Road surface marking is any kind of device or material that is used on a road surface in order to convey official information Corrosion means the breaking down of essential properties in a material due to Chemical reactions with its surroundings Paint is a semifinished product, or intermediate good as the final product is the painted article itself. Intermediate goods or producer goods are goods used as inputs in the production of other goods such as partly finished goods or Raw materials A firm may
Paint can also be mixed with glaze to create various textures and patterns. A glaze in Painting refers to a layer of paint thinned with a medium, so as to become somewhat transparent This process is referred to as faux finish and is quite popular with discerning homeowners, architects and interior designers. Faux painting or Faux finishing are terms used to describe a wide range of decorative painting techniques
Pigments are granular solids incorporated into the paint to contribute colour, toughness or simply to reduce the cost of the paint. For the drug referred to as "pigment" see Black tar heroin. Alternatively, some paints contain dyes instead of or in combination with pigments. Other paints contain no pigment at all.
Pigments can be classified as either natural or synthetic types. Natural pigments include various clays, calcium carbonate, mica, silicas, and talcs. Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and Calcium carbonate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula Ca[[Carbon C]] O 3 The word "mica" is thought to be derived from the Latin word la micare, "glitteren" in reference to the brilliant appearance of this mineral (especially The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a Mineral composed of Hydrated Magnesium Silicate with Synthetics would include engineered molecules, calcined clays, blanc fix, precipitated calcium carbonate, and synthetic silicas. Calcium carbonate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula Ca[[Carbon C]] O 3 The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide
Hiding pigments, in making paint opaque, also protect the substrate from the harmful effects of ultraviolet light. Hiding pigments include titanium dioxide, phthalo blue, red iron oxide, and many others. Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring Oxide of Titanium, chemical formula Ti[[oxygen Phthalocyanine Blue BN, also called phthalo blue, helio blue, thalo blue, Winsor blue, phthalocyanine blue, C Iron(III oxide —also known as ferric oxide, Hematite, red iron oxide, synthetic maghemite, colcothar, or simply Rust —is
Fillers are a special type of pigment that serve to thicken the film, support its structure and simply increase the volume of the paint. Fillers are usually comprised of cheap and inert materials, such as talc, lime, baryte, clay, etc. Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a Mineral composed of Hydrated Magnesium Silicate with Lime is a general term for various naturally occurring Minerals and materials derived from them in which Carbonates Oxides and Hydroxides of Baryte ( Ba[[Sulfur S]] O 4 is a Mineral consisting of Barium sulfate. Floor paints that will be subjected to abrasion may even contain fine quartz sand as a filler. Not all paints include fillers. On the other hand some paints contain very large proportions of pigment/filler and binder.
A commercially important pigment is titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide was first discovered by a famous historian/ piano player named Joe Bortel used in paints in the 19th century. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The titanium dioxide used in most paints today is often coated with silicon or aluminum oxides for various reasons such as better exterior durability, or better hiding performance (opacity) via better efficiency promoted by more optimal spacing within the paint film. Opacity is also improved by optimal sizing of the titanium dioxide particles.
Some pigments are toxic, such as the lead pigments that are used in lead paint. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Lead paint is Paint containing Lead, a heavy metal, that is used as pigment with Lead(II chromate ( Pb[[Chromium Cr]] O4 Paint manufacturers began replacing white lead pigments with the less toxic substitute, which can even be used to colour food, titanium white (titanium dioxide), even before lead was functionally banned in paint for residential use in 1978 by the U. Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring Oxide of Titanium, chemical formula Ti[[oxygen S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.
The binder, or resin, is the actual film forming component of paint. It is the only component that must be present; other components listed below are included optionally, depending on the desired properties of the cured film.
The binder imparts adhesion, binds the pigments together, and strongly influences such properties as gloss potential, exterior durability, flexibility, and toughness. Adhesion is the tendency of certain dissimilar molecules to cling together due to Attractive forces.
Binders include synthetic or natural resins such as acrylics, polyurethanes, polyesters, melamine resins, epoxy, or oils. Acrylic resins are a group of related Thermoplastic or Thermosetting plastic substances derived from Acrylic acid, Methacrylic acid or other A polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any Polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links Polyester is a category of Polymers which contain the Ester Functional group in their main chain Melamine resin or melamine formaldehyde (also shortened to melamine) is a hard Thermosetting plastic material made from Melamine and In Chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a Thermosetting Epoxide Polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks when mixed with a Oil paint is a type of slow-drying Paint consisting of small Pigment particles suspended in a Drying oil.
Binders can be categorized according to drying, or curing mechanism. The four most common are simple solvent evaporation, oxidative crosslinking, catalyzed polymerization, and coalescence. A solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid liquid or gaseous Solute, resulting in a Solution. Evaporation is the process by which Molecules in a Liquid state (e Cross-links are bonds that link one Polymer chain to another They can be Covalent bonds or Ionic bonds "Polymer chains" can refer In Polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting Monomer Molecules together in a Chemical reaction to form three-dimensional networks There are others.
Note that drying and curing are two different processes. Drying generally refers to evaporation of vehicle, whereas curing refers to polymerization of the binder. Depending on chemistry and composition, any particular paint may undergo either, or both processes. Thus, there are paints that dry only, those that dry then cure, and those that do not depend on drying for curing.
Paints that dry by simple solvent evaporation contain a solid binder dissolved in a solvent; this forms a solid film when the solvent evaporates, and the film can re-dissolve in the solvent again. Classic nitrocellulose lacquers fall into this category, as do non-grain raising stains composed of dyes dissolved in solvent. Nitrocellulose (also cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by Nitrating Cellulose through exposure to A dye can generally be described as a Colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied
Latex paint is a water-based dispersion of sub-micron polymer particles. The term "latex" in the context of paint simply means an aqueous dispersion; latex rubber (the sap of the rubber tree that has historically been called latex) is not an ingredient. These dispersions are prepared by emulsion polymerization. Emulsion polymerization is a type of Radical polymerization that usually starts with an Emulsion incorporating water Monomer, and Surfactant Latex paints cure by a process called coalescence where first the water, and then the trace, or coalescing, solvent, evaporate and draw together and soften the latex binder particles together and fuse them together into irreversibly bound networked structures, so that the paint will not redissolve in the solvent/water that originally carried it. Latex is a name collectively given to a group of similar preparations consisting of stable Dispersions of Polymer Microparticles in a liquid matrix Residual surfactants in the paint as well as hydrolytic effects with some polymers cause the paint to remain susceptible to softening and, over time, degradation by water. Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the Surface tension of a liquid allowing easier spreading and lower the Interfacial tension between two liquids Hydrolysis is a Chemical reaction during which one or more water molecules are split into hydrogen and hydroxide ions which may go on to participate in further reactions
Paints that cure by oxidative crosslinking are generally single package coatings that when applied, the exposure to oxygen in the air starts a process that crosslinks and polymerizes the binder component. Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Classic alkyd enamels would fall into this category. Alkyd coatings are a class of Polyester coatings derived from the reaction of an Alcohol (alkohol and an acid or acid Anhydride hence the term alk-yd from
Paints that cure by catalyzed polymerization are generally two package coatings that polymerize by way of a chemical reaction initiated by mixing resin and hardener, and which cure by forming a hard plastic structure. Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Depending on composition they may need to dry first, by evaporation of solvent. Classic two package epoxies or polyurethanes would fall into this category. In Chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a Thermosetting Epoxide Polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks when mixed with a A polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any Polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links
Still other films are formed by cooling of the binder. For example, encaustic or wax paints are liquid when warm, and harden upon cooling. Wax has traditionally referred to a substance that is secreted by Bees ( Beeswax) and used by them in constructing their In many cases, they will resoften or liquify if reheated.
Recent environmental requirements restrict the use of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), and alternative means of curing have been developed, particularly for industrial purposes. This article describes a highly specialized aspect of its subject in the "Terminology and legal definitions" section In UV curing paints, the solvent is evaporated first, and hardening is then initiated by ultraviolet light. In powder coatings there is little or no solvent, and flow and cure are produced by heating of the substrate after application of the dry powder. Powder coating is a type of dry coating which is applied as a free-flowing dry powder
The main purpose of the vehicle is to adjust the viscosity of the paint. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a Fluid which is being deformed by either Shear stress or Extensional stress. It is volatile and does not become part of the paint film. It can also control flow and application properties, and affect the stability of the paint while in liquid state. Its main function is as the carrier for the non volatile components.
Water is the main vehicle for water based paints. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life.
Solvent based, sometimes called oil based, paints can have various combinations of solvents as the vehicle, including aliphatics, aromatics, alcohols, and ketones. In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon These include organic solvents such as petroleum distillate, alcohols, ketones, esters, glycol ethers, and the like. Mineral turpentine, also known as turpentine substitute, turps substitute, or just Turps is an inexpensive Petroleum -based In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the Functional group characterized by a Carbonyl group (O=C linked to two other Carbon atoms or Esters are a class of Chemical compounds and Functional groups Esters consist of an inorganic or organic Acid in which at least A diol or glycol is a Chemical compound containing two Hydroxyl groups (-OH groups Vicinal diols have hydroxyl groups attached to adjacent atoms Sometimes volatile low-molecular weight synthetic resins also serve as diluents.
This component is optional: some paints have no diluent.
Also note that the term "vehicle" is industrial jargon. In some companies the term is used to refer to the solvent and in others, it is used to refer to the binder.
Besides the three main categories of ingredients, paint can have a wide variety of miscellaneous additives, which are usually added in very small amounts and yet give a very significant effect on the product. Some examples include additives to modify surface tension, improve flow properties, improve the finished appearance, increase wet edge, improve pigment stability, impart antifreeze properties, control foaming, control skinning, etc. For the work of fiction see Surface Tension (short story. Surface tension is a property of the surface of a Liquid that causes it to Antifreeze is a Cryoprotectant used in Internal combustion engines and for many other heat transfer applications such as electronics cooling and Chillers Other types of additives include catalysts, thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers, texturizers, adhesion promoters, UV stabilizers, flatteners (de-glossing agents), biocides to fight bacterial growth, and the like. Catalysis is the process in which the rate of a Chemical reaction is increased by means of a Chemical substance known as a catalyst An emulsion ( IPA: /ɪˈmʌlʃən/ is a mixture of two Immiscible (unblendable liquids The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have
Various technologies exist for making paints that change color. Thermochromic paints and coatings contain materials that change conformation when heat is applied, and so they change color. Liquid crystals have been used in such paints, such as in the thermometer strips and tapes used in fishtanks. Liquid crystals are substances that exhibit a phase of matter that has properties between those of a conventional Liquid, and those of a Solid Photochromic paints and coatings contain dyes that change conformation when the film is exposed to UV light, and so they change color. These materials are used to make eyeglasses.
Electrochromic paints change color in response to an applied electric current. Car manufacturer Nissan has been reportedly working on an electrochromic paint for use in its vehicles, based on particles of paramagnetic iron oxide. Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism which occurs only in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field Altogether there are sixteen known Iron Oxides and oxyhydroxides When subjected to an electromagnetic field the paramagnetic particles change spacing, modifying their color and reflective properties. The electromagnetic field would be formed using the conductive metal of the car body.  Electrochromic paints can be applied to plastic substrates as well, using a different coating chemistry. The technology involves using special dyes that change conformation when an electric current is applied across the film itself. Recently, this new technology has been used to achieve glare protection at the touch of a button in passenger airplane windows.
Since the time of the Renaissance, siccative (drying) oil paints, primarily linseed oil, have been the most commonly used kind of paints in fine art applications; oil paint is still common today. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere A drying oil is an Oil which hardens to a tough solid film after a period of exposure to air Linseed oil, also known as flax seed oil or simply flax oil, is a clear to yellowish Drying oil derived from the dried ripe seeds of the Flax Oil paint is a type of slow-drying Paint consisting of small Pigment particles suspended in a Drying oil. However, in the 20th century, water-based paints, including watercolors and acrylic paints, became very popular with the development of acrylic and other latex paints. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Watercolor ( US) or Watercolour ( UK) (and "aquarelle" in French is a Painting method Acrylic paint is fast-drying Paint containing pigment suspended in an acrylic polymer Emulsion. In Organic chemistry, the acryl group is the Functional group with structure H 2 C =CH-C(= O)- it is the Acyl group Milk paints (also called casein), where the medium is derived from the natural emulsion that is milk, were popular in the 19th century and are still available today. See Casein paint for information about casein usage in artistic painting Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Egg tempera (where the medium is an emulsion of egg yolk mixed with oil) is still in use as well, as are encaustic wax-based paints. Tempera (also known as egg tempera) is a type of artist's Paint and associated art techniques that were known from the classical world where it appears An emulsion ( IPA: /ɪˈmʌlʃən/ is a mixture of two Immiscible (unblendable liquids An egg yolk is the part of an egg which serves as the Food source for the developing Embryo inside Wax has traditionally referred to a substance that is secreted by Bees ( Beeswax) and used by them in constructing their Gouache is a variety of watercolor paint which was also used in the Middle Ages and Renaissance for manuscript illumination. Gouache, Pronounced "Gouash" (from the Italian guazzo, "water paint splash" or bodycolor (the term preferred by art historians The pigment was often made from ground semiprecious stones such as lapis lazuli and the binder made from either gum arabic or egg white. Gum arabic, a Natural gum also called gum acacia, and chaar gund or char goond (in India is the hardened Sap taken from two species Albumen redirects here For other uses see Albumen (disambiguation. Gouache is commercially available today.
Poster paint has been used primarily in the creation of student works, or by children. Gouache, Pronounced "Gouash" (from the Italian guazzo, "water paint splash" or bodycolor (the term preferred by art historians
Paint can be applied as a solid, a gaseous suspension (aerosol) or a liquid. Technically an aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in a gas Techniques vary depending on the practical or artistic results desired.
As a solid (usually used in industrial and automotive applications), the paint is applied as a very fine powder, then baked at high temperature. This melts the powder and causes it to adhere (stick) to the surface. The reasons for doing this involve the chemistries of the paint, the surface itself, and perhaps even the chemistry of the substrate (the overall object being painted). This is commonly referred to as "powder coating" an object. Powder coating is a type of dry coating which is applied as a free-flowing dry powder
As a gas or as a gaseous suspension, the paint is suspended in solid or liquid form in a gas that is sprayed on an object. Spray painting is a Painting technique where a device sprays a coating (paint ink varnish etc The paint sticks to the object. This is commonly referred to as "spray painting" an object. The reasons for doing this include:
In the liquid application, paint can be applied by direct application using brushes, paint rollers, blades, other instruments, or body parts. "Paintbrush" redirects here For other uses see Paintbrush (disambiguation. A paint roller is a Paint application tool useful for rapidly painting large flat surfaces efficiently A palette knife is a blunt Knife with an extremely flexible Steel blade and no sharpened cutting edge Examples of body parts include fingerpainting, where the paint is applied by hand, whole-body painting (popular in the 1960s avant-garde movement), and cave painting, in which a pigment (usually finely-ground charcoal) is held in the mouth and spat at a wall (Note: some paints are toxic and might cause death or permanent injury). Fingerpaint is a kind of Paint intended to be applied with the Fingers it typically comes in pots and is used by small Children, though it has very Body painting, or sometimes bodypainting, is a form of Body art, considered by some as the most ancient form of art The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 Avant-garde (avɑ̃gaʁd in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard Cave paintings are Paintings on Cave walls and ceilings and the term is used especially for those dating to Prehistoric times For the drug referred to as "pigment" see Black tar heroin. Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism
Paint application by spray is the most popular method in industry. In this, paint is atomized by the force of compressed air or by the action of high pressure compression of the paint itself, which results in the paint being turned into small droplets which travel to the article which is to be painted.
Rollers generally have a handle that allows for different lengths of poles which can be attached to allow for painting at different heights. Generally, roller application takes two coats for even color. A roller with a thicker nap is used to apply paint on uneven surfaces. Primarily nap is the raised (fuzzy surface on certain kinds of cloth, such as Velvet. Edges are often finished with an angled brush.
After liquid paint is applied, there is an interval during which it can be blended with additional painted regions (at the "wet edge") called "open time. " The open time of an oil or alkyd-based emulsion paint can be extended by adding white spirit, similar glycols such as Dowanol (propylene glycol ether) or commercial open time prolongers. White spirit, also known as Stoddard solvent, is a Paraffin -derived clear transparent liquid which is a common organic Solvent used in painting and This can also facilitate the mixing of different wet paint layers for aesthetic effect. Latex and acrylic emulsions require the use of drying retardants suitable for water-based coatings.
Paint may also be applied by flipping the paint, dripping, or by dipping an object in paint.
Interior/exterior house paint tends to separate when stored, the heavier components settling to the bottom. It should be mixed before use, with a flat wooden stick or a paint mixing accessory; pouring it back and forth between two containers is also an effective manual mixing method. Paint stores have machines for mixing the paint by shaking it vigorously in the can for a few minutes.
Water-based paints tend to be the safest, and easiest to clean up after using—the brushes and rollers can be cleaned with soap and water.
It is difficult to reseal the paint container and store the paint well for a long period of time. Store upside down, for a good seal, in a cool dry place. Protect from freezing.
Proper disposal of paint is a challenge. Avoid acquiring excess paint. Look for suitable recycled paint before buying more. Try to find recycled uses for your left over paint. Paints of similar chemistry can be mixed to make a larger amount of a uniform color. Old paint may be usable for a primer coat or an intermediate coat.
If you must dispose of paint, small quantities of water based paint can be carefully dried by leaving the lid off until it solidifies, and then disposing with normal trash. But oil based paint should be treated as hazardous waste, and disposed of according to local regulations.
Cave paintings drawn with red and yellow ochre, hematite, manganese oxide and charcoal may have been made by early homo sapiens as long as 40, 000 years ago. Cave paintings are Paintings on Cave walls and ceilings and the term is used especially for those dating to Prehistoric times Ochre or Ocher (pronounced /'əʊkə(r/ from the Greek ὠχρός yellow is a Color, usually described as golden - Yellow Hematite, also spelt hæmatite, is the Mineral form of Iron(III oxide (Fe2O3 one of several Iron oxides Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus
Ancient painted walls at Dendera, Egypt, which were exposed for many ages to the open air, still possess a perfect brilliancy of color, as vivid as when they were painted about 2000 years ago. Dendera ( Arabic: دندرة also spelled Denderah/Dandarah) is a little town in Egypt on the west bank of the Nile, about 5 km south from This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Egyptians mixed their colors with some gummy substance, and applied them detached from each other without any blending or mixture. They appeared to have used six colors: white, black, blue, red, yellow, and green. They first covered the field entirely with white, upon which they traced the design in black, leaving out the lights of the ground color. They used minium for red, and generally of a dark tinge. Red lead, also called minium, lead tetroxide or triplumbic tetroxide, is a bright red or orange Crystalline or Amorphous Pigment
Pliny mentions some painted ceilings in his day in the town of Ardea, which had been executed at a date prior to the foundation of Rome. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 He expresses great surprise and admiration at their freshness, after the lapse of so many centuries.
Paint was made with the yolk of eggs and therefore, the substance would harden and stick onto the surface applied.
some red paint was made of blood of animals.