Outcrop is a geological term referring to the appearance of bedrock or superficial deposits exposed at the surface of the Earth. Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the surface of a terrestrial planet usually the Earth. In the British Geological Survey superficial deposits refer to all geological deposits of Quaternary age In most places the bedrock or superficial deposits are covered by a mantle of soil and vegetation and cannot be seen or examined closely. Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel However in places where the overlying cover is removed through erosion, the rock may be exposed, or crop out. Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind Such exposure will happen most frequently in areas where erosion is rapid and exceeds the weathering rate such as on steep hillsides, river banks, or tectonically active areas. Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind Weathering is the decomposition of earth rocks, Soils and their Minerals through direct contact with the planet's Atmosphere. Bedrock and superficial deposits may also be exposed at the earth's surface due to human excavations such as quarrying and building of transport routes.
Outcrops allow direct observation and sampling of the bedrock in situ for geologic analysis and creating geologic maps. In situ (ɪn siːˈtuː is a Latin phrase meaning in the place. A geologic map or geological map is a special-purpose Map made to show Geological features In situ measurements are critical for proper analysis of geological history and outcrops are therefore extremely important for understanding earth history. In situ (ɪn siːˈtuː is a Latin phrase meaning in the place. Geological history describes geological events that account for the Stratigraphy, Petrology and structure (see Structural geology) seen in rocks or Some of the types of information that can only be obtained from bedrock outcrops, or through precise drilling and coring operations, are; structural geology features orientations (e. Structural geology is the study of the three dimensional distribution of rock bodies and their planar or folded surfaces and their internal fabrics g. bedding planes, fold axes, foliation), depositional features orientations (e. See also Folding The term fold is used in Geology when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces such as Sedimentary In Mathematics, a foliation is a geometric device used to study manifolds Informally speaking a foliation is a kind of "clothing" worn on a manifold g. paleo-current directions, grading, facies changes), paleomagnetic orientations. The term " Facies " can also refer to distinctive Facial expressions associated with conditions such as Williams syndrome. Paleomagnetism is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field preserved in various Magnetic Minerals through time Outcrops are also critically important for understanding fossil assemblages, paleo-environment, and evolution as they provide a record of relative changes within geologic strata. In Geology and related fields a stratum (plural strata) is a layer of rock or Soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguishes
Accurate description, mapping, and sampling for laboratory analysis of outcrops made possible all of the geologic sciences and the development of fundamental geologic laws such as: law of superposition, principle of original horizontality, principle of lateral continuity, and principle of faunal succession. The law of superposition (or the principle of superposition) is a key axiom based on observations of Natural history that is a foundational principle of sedimentary The Principle of Original Horizontality was proposed by the Danish geological pioneer Nicholas Steno (1638-1686 The principle of lateral continuity states that layers of Sediment initially extend laterally in all directions in other words they are laterally continuous The principle of faunal succession is based on the observation that sedimentary rock strata contain Fossilised flora and fauna, and that these Outcrops can therefore be considered the fundamental element of geologic science.
On Ordnance Survey maps in Great Britain, cliffs are distinguished from outcrops: cliffs have a continuous line along the top edge with lines protruding down, outcrops have a continuous line around each area of bare rock. Ordnance Survey (OS is an Executive agency of the United Kingdom government See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands