Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts ("Oral Torah") and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history According to Rabbinic Judaism, the oral Torah, oral Law, or oral tradition ( is the oral tradition received in conjunction with the written Torah Geonim ( Hebrew: גאונים also transliterated Gaonim) were the presidents of the two great rabbinical colleges of Sura
Orthodox Judaism is characterized by belief that the Torah and its laws are Divine, were transmitted by God to Moses, are eternal, and are unalterable; belief that there is also an oral law in Judaism, which contains the authoritative interpretation of the written Torah's legal sections, and is also Divine by virtue of having been transmitted in some form by God to Moses along with the Written Law, as embodied in the Talmud, Midrash, and innumerable related texts, all intrinsically and inherently entwined with the written law of the Torah; belief that God has made an exclusive, unbreakable covenant with the Children of Israel to be governed by the Torah; adherence to Halakha, or Jewish law, including acceptance of codes, mainly the Shulchan Aruch, as authoritative practical guidance in application of both the written and oral laws, as well as acceptance of halakha-following Rabbis as authoritative interpreters and judges of Jewish law; belief in Jewish eschatology. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to See also Mitzvah See also Biblical law in Christianity The 613 Mitzvot ("commandments" (also " 613 Mitzvos In Judaism, the name of God is more than a distinguishing title Moses ( Latin: Moyses,; Greek: grc Mωυσής in both the Septuagint and the New Testament; Arabic: ar موسىٰ An oral law is a Code of conduct in use in a given Culture, Religion or community application by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted In Judaism, the name of God is more than a distinguishing title Moses ( Latin: Moyses,; Greek: grc Mωυσής in both the Septuagint and the New Testament; Arabic: ar موسىٰ The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש plural midrashim, lit "to repeat" is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact but comparative ( homiletic Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense can mean the entire spectrum of Rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law The Shulchan Aruch (שולחן ערוך literally " Set Table " (also Shulhan Aruch or Shulchan Arukh) is a Codification Rabbi (pronunciation, although in English usually) in Judaism, means a religious ‘teacher’ or more literally ‘my great one’ when addressing any master Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law Jewish eschatology is concerned with the Jewish Messiah, Afterlife, and the revival of the dead. Orthodox beliefs may be most found in their adherence to the thirteen Jewish principles of faith as stated by the Rambam (Maimonides). Although Jews and religious leaders share a core of monotheistic principles Judaism has no formal statement of principles of faith such as a Creed or Catechism Moses Maimonides ( March 30 1135 – December 13 1204) also known as the Rambam, was a Rabbi, Physician, and Moses Maimonides ( March 30 1135 – December 13 1204) also known as the Rambam, was a Rabbi, Physician, and
Although Orthodox Jews are expected to observe all 613 mitzvot, certain core practices are generally considered essential to being Orthodox and converts are generally required to promise to observe:
Orthodoxy is not a single movement or school of thought. There is no single rabbinic body to which all its rabbis are expected to belong, or any one organization representing its member congregations. In the United States at the present moment, there are a number of Orthodox congregational organizations, such as Agudath Israel, the Orthodox Union, and the National Council of Young Israel; none of which can claim to represent even a majority of all Orthodox congregations. Agudath Israel of America (or Agudas Yisroel of America or Agudat Yisrael of America or simply the Agudah is [[Hebrew language|Hebrew] for "gathering" The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America (UOJCA more popularly known as the Orthodox Union, or OU, is one of the oldest Orthodox Jewish National Council of Young Israel ( NCYI) or Young Israel (in Hebrew Yisrael Hatza'ir, ישראל הצעיר is a Synagogue -based Orthodox
What the exact forms of Judaism were during the times of Moses or during the eras of the Mishnah and Talmud cannot be exactly known today in all their details, but Orthodox Jews maintain that contemporary Orthodox Judaism maintains the same basic philosophy and legal framework that existed throughout Jewish history, whereas the other denominations depart from it. The Mishnah or Mishna (he משנה "repetition" from the verb shanah he שנה or "to study and review" is a major work of Rabbinic Judaism The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history Jewish history is the History of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. It may be said that Orthodox Judaism, as it exists today, is an outgrowth that stretches from the time of Moses, to the time of the Mishnah and Talmud, through the oral law, and rabbinic literature ongoing until the present time. An oral law is a Code of conduct in use in a given Culture, Religion or community application by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense can mean the entire spectrum of Rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history
In the early 1800s, elements within German Jewry sought to reform Jewish belief and practice in response to The Age of Enlightenment and the Jewish Emancipation. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Jewish question Jewish emancipation was the abolition of discriminatory laws as applied especially to Jews in Europe in the nineteenth century the recognition of Jews In light of contemporary scholarship, they denied divine authorship of the Torah, declared only those biblical laws concerning ethics to be binding, and stated that the rest of halakha (Jewish law) need no longer be viewed as normative (see Reform Judaism). Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently subjected to vandalism and the insertion of personal opinions
At the same time, there were those German Jews who actively maintained their traditions and adherence to Jewish law while simultaneously engaging with a post-Enlightenment society. This camp was best represented by the work and thought of Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch. Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch ( June 20, 1808 – December 31, 1888) was the intellectual founder of the Torah im Derech Eretz Hirsch held that Judaism demands an application of Torah thought to the entire realm of human experience—including the secular disciplines. This philosophy is termed "Torah im Derech Eretz". Torah im Derech Eretz (תורה עם דרך ארץ - Torah with "the way of the land" is a philosophy of Orthodox Judaism articulated by Rabbi Samson While insisting on strict adherence to Jewish beliefs and practices, he held that Jews should attempt to engage and influence the modern world, and encouraged those secular studies compatible with Torah thought. This form of Judaism is sometimes termed "neo-Orthodoxy". Neo-Orthodoxy can also refer to a form of Orthodox Judaism following the philosophy of " Torah im Derech Eretz " and can additionally refer to the The religious and social realities of Western European Jewry are considered by some to be the precursors to Modern Orthodoxy. Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance While Modern Orthodoxy is considered traditional by most Jews today, some within the Orthodox community groups to its right consider it of questionable validity, and the neo-Orthodox movement of today holds that Hirsch's views are unalike in essence to those of Modern Orthodoxy. [See Torah im Derech Eretz and Torah Umadda "Relationship with Torah im Derech Eretz" for a more extensive listing. Torah im Derech Eretz (תורה עם דרך ארץ - Torah with "the way of the land" is a philosophy of Orthodox Judaism articulated by Rabbi Samson Torah Umadda ( Hebrew: תורה ומדע "Torah and secular knowledge" is a Philosophy of Modern Orthodox Judaism, concerning the interrelationship ]
In the 20th century, a large segment of the Orthodox population (notably as represented by the World Agudath Israel movement formally established in 1912) disagreed, and took a stricter approach. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on World Agudath Israel (The World Jewish Union usually known as the Aguda, was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting For a few of them, the motto "recent is forbidden by Torah" was appealing, but they too followed various routes of observance and practice. The leading rabbis of Orthodoxy viewed innovations and modifications within Jewish law and customs with extreme care and caution. Some today refer to this form of Judaism as "Haredi Judaism", or "Ultra-Orthodox Judaism". Haredi or Chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. Both terms are controversial: in some circles, the label "Haredi" is considered pejorative, as is the case of the label "ultra-Orthodox".
The various approaches have proved resilient. It is estimated that presently there are more Jews studying in yeshivot (Talmudical schools) and Kollelim (post-graduate Talmudical colleges for married students) than at any other time in history. In 1915 Yeshiva College (later Yeshiva University) and its Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary was established in New York, New York for training in a Modern Orthodox milieu. Yeshiva University is a private Jewish University in New York City whose first component was founded in 1886. Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary ( RIETS) or Yeshivat Rabbeinu Yitzchak Elchanan, is the most important Yeshiva component of Yeshiva The City of New York Eventually a school branch was established in Los Angeles, California. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West A number of other influential Orthodox seminaries, mostly Haredi, were also established throughout the country, most notably in New York, New York, Baltimore, Maryland, and Chicago, Illinois. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Beth Medrash Govoha, the Haredi yeshiva in Lakewood, New Jersey is the largest Talmudic academy in the United States with a student body of over 5,000 students. Beth Medrash Govoha ( Hebrew: he בית מדרש גבוה is the largest Talmudical Academy in the United States and one of the largest in the world Lakewood Township is a township in Ocean County, New Jersey, United States.
While many Orthodox Jews accept the label "Orthodox", others reject and criticise it because it was never traditionally applied to Jews who strictly interpreted and followed halakha in ancient times or the Middle Ages. Many Orthodox Jews prefer to call their faith Torah Judaism. See United Torah Judaism and Degel HaTorah for the Haredi Israeli political parties. The word "orthodox" itself is derived from the Greek orthos meaning "straight/correct" and doxa meaning "opinion". Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly
Use of the "Orthodox" label seems to have begun towards the beginning of the 19th century. Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch wrote in 1854 that:
Others, however, say that Rabbit Isaac Leeser was the first to use the term in the US in his journal "The Occident," whose target audience was the more "traditional" or Orthodox Jew. Isaac Leeser ( December 12, 1806, Neuenkirchen, in the province of Westphalia, Prussia - February 1, 1868, Yet others explain that the term arose out of the growth of the then-new Reformer Movement, which was "unorthodox", hence making the traditionalists the "orthodox. "
Orthodox Judaism's central belief is that Torah, including both the Written Law and the Talmud, was given directly from God to Moses and can never be altered or rejected in any way. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history In Judaism, the name of God is more than a distinguishing title As a result, all Jews are required to live in accordance with the Commandments and Jewish law. This article is about commandments in Judaism For the Jewish rite of passage see Bar Mitzvah and Bat Mitzvah Mitzvah ( Hebrew: מצוה Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law
However, since there is no one unifying Orthodox body, there is no one canonical statement of principles of faith. Although Jews and religious leaders share a core of monotheistic principles Judaism has no formal statement of principles of faith such as a Creed or Catechism Although Jews and religious leaders share a core of monotheistic principles Judaism has no formal statement of principles of faith such as a Creed or Catechism Rather, each Orthodox group claims to be a non-exclusive heir to the received tradition of Jewish theology, while still affirming a literal acceptance of Maimonides' thirteen principles. Moses Maimonides ( March 30 1135 – December 13 1204) also known as the Rambam, was a Rabbi, Physician, and Moses Maimonides ( March 30 1135 – December 13 1204) also known as the Rambam, was a Rabbi, Physician, and
Given this (relative) philosophic flexibility, variant viewpoints are possible, particularly in areas not explicitly demarcated by the Halakha. The result is a relatively broad range of hashkafot, or world views, within Orthodoxy. The greatest differences within strains of Orthodoxy are over:
The above differences are realised in the various subgroups of Orthodoxy, which maintain significant social differences, and differences in understanding Halakha. Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc from the Hebrew: he '''''חסידות''''', Chassidus, meaning "piety" from the Hebrew Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the The Western Wall (הכותל המערבי translit: HaKotel HaMa'aravi) sometimes referred to as the Wailing Wall or simply the Kotel (lit These groups, broadly, comprise Modern Orthodox Judaism and Haredi Judaism, the latter also containing the smaller subgroup of Hasidic Judaism. Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance Haredi or Chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc from the Hebrew: he '''''חסידות''''', Chassidus, meaning "piety" from the Hebrew
Modern Orthodoxy comprises a fairly broad spectrum of movements each drawing on several distinct, though related, philosophies, which in some combination provide the basis for all variations of the movement today. In general, Modern Orthodoxy holds that Jewish law is normative and binding, while simultaneously attaching a positive value to interaction with the modern world. Normative has specialized meanings in several academic disciplines In this view, Orthodox Judaism can “be enriched” by its intersection with modernity; further, “modern society creates opportunities to be productive citizens engaged in the Divine work of transforming the world to benefit humanity”. Tikkun olam ( תיקון עולם) is a Hebrew phrase that means "repairing the world" or "perfecting the world At the same time, in order to preserve the integrity of halakha, any area of “powerful inconsistency and conflict” between Torah and modern culture must be avoided. .
Modern Orthodoxy, additionally, assigns a central role to the "People of Israel" . Modern Orthodoxy, in general, places a high national, as well as religious, significance on the State of Israel, and Modern Orthodox institutions and individuals are, typically, Zionist in orientation. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the An additional manifestation is that involvement with non-orthodox Jews will extend beyond "outreach" to continued institutional relations and cooperation; see further under Torah Umadda. See also Repentance in Judaism Baal teshuva ( Hebrew: he בעל תשובה; for a woman he בעלת תשובה baalat/baalas teshuva; Torah Umadda ( Hebrew: תורה ומדע "Torah and secular knowledge" is a Philosophy of Modern Orthodox Judaism, concerning the interrelationship
Haredi Judaism advocates segregation from non-Jewish culture, although not from non-Jewish society entirely. It is characterised by its focus on community-wide Torah study (in contrast with Modern Orthodoxy, which in practice decentralises the role of Torah study for lay people through the emphasis of other concurrent religious values). In religious organizations the laity comprises all persons who are not Clergy.
Haredi Orthodoxy's differences with Modern Orthodoxy usually lie in interpretation of the nature of traditional halakhic concepts and in understanding of what constitutes acceptable application of these concepts. Engaging in the commercial world is often seen as a legitimate means to achieving a livelihood, but participation in modern society is not perceived as an inherently worthy ambition.
The same outlook is applied with regard to obtaining degrees necessary to enter one's intended profession: where tolerated in the Haredi society, attending secular institutions of higher education is viewed as a necessary but inferior activity. Pure academic interest is instead directed toward the religious edification found in the yeshiva. Depending on various factors, both boys and girls attend school and proceed to higher Torah study, starting anywhere between the ages of 13 and 18. A significant proportion of students, especially boys, remain in yeshiva until marriage (which is often arranged through facilitated dating. See shiduch), and many study in a kollel (Torah study institute for married men) - for many years after marriage. The Shidduch ( Hebrew: שידוך pl shidduchim שידוכים is a system of Matchmaking in which Jewish singles are introduced A kollel (כולל "a gathering/collection scholars" (plural kollelim is an institute for advanced studies of the Talmud and of Rabbinic literature for Most men, even those not in Kollel, will make certain to study Torah daily. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to Families tend to be large, reflecting adherence to the Torah commandment "be fruitful and multiply" (Book of Genesis 1:28, 9:1,7).
Hasidic Judaism originated in Eastern Europe (what is now Belarus and Ukraine) in the 18th century. Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc from the Hebrew: he '''''חסידות''''', Chassidus, meaning "piety" from the Hebrew Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Founded by Israel ben Eliezer (1698–1760), it originated in an age of persecution of the Jewish people, when European Jews had turned inward to Talmud study; many felt that most expressions of Jewish life had become too "academic" and that they no longer had any emphasis on spirituality or joy. Rabbi Yisroel (Israel ben Eliezer (רבי ישראל בן אליעזר August 27, 1698 (18 Elul &ndash May 22, 1760) often called The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history Spirituality, in a narrow sense concerns itself with matters of the Spirit, a concept closely tied to religious belief and Faith, a transcendent reality The Ba'al Shem Tov set out to improve the situation.
For guidance in practical application of Jewish law the majority of Orthodox Jews appeal, ultimately, to the Shulchan Aruch ("Code of Jewish Law" composed in the 16th century by Rabbi Joseph Caro) together with its surrounding commentaries. The Shulchan Aruch (שולחן ערוך literally " Set Table " (also Shulhan Aruch or Shulchan Arukh) is a Codification Yosef ben Ephraim Caro (sometimes Joseph Caro) (1488 ( Portugal) - March 24, 1575 ( Safed, Ottoman Empire) was one of the Thus, at a general level, there is a large degree of uniformity amongst all Orthodox Jews. Concerning the details, however, there is often variance: decisions may be based on various of the standardized codes of Jewish Law that have been made over the centuries, as well as on the various responsa. Posek ( Hebrew פוסק po·ˈseq pl Poskim, פוסקים is the term in Jewish law for "decider"—a legal scholar who decides the Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law Responsa ( Latin: plural of responsum, "answers" comprise a body of written decisions and rulings given by Legal scholars in response to questions These codes and responsa may differ from each other as regards detail (and reflecting the above differences, on the weight assigned to various issues).
By and large, however, the differences result from the historic dispersal of the Jews and the consequent regional differences in practice (see minhag). The term Diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά &ndash " a scattering or sowing of seeds " refers any population sharing common ethnic Minhag ( Hebrew: מנהג "custom" pl minhagim) is an accepted tradition or group of traditions in Judaism.
(Note that on an individual level there is a considerable range in the level of observance amongst "Orthodox Jews". Thus there are those who would consider themselves "Orthodox" and yet may not be observant of, for example, the laws of family purity. Niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew:נִדָּה is a Hebrew term which literally means separation, generally considered to refer )
There are several Jewish laws that Orthodox Judaism has traditionally placed an emphasis on. Amongst them are the rules of Kashrut, Shabbat, Family Purity, and Tefilah (Prayer). Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus, he כַּשְׁרוּת refers to Jewish dietary laws. Shabbat or Shabbos ( Hebrew: שַׁבָּת, shabbāt, shabbes, "rest/inactivity" is the Weekly Sabbath Niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew:נִדָּה is a Hebrew term which literally means separation, generally considered to refer Jewish services ( Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah; plural תפלות, tefillos or tefillot; Yinglish: davening
Externally, Orthodox Jews can often be identified by their manner of dress and family lifestyle. Orthodox women will traditionally dress very modestly; keeping most of their skin covered. Additionally, most married women will cover their hair outside of their home usually in the form of hat, bandanna, or wig. Orthodox men traditionally wear a skullcap known as a Kipa. "Kipa" redirects here For the supermarket please see Kipa (supermarket. In the last century Haredi men have often distinguished themselves by growing beards, wearing black hats and dressing in formal attire.
|13 Principles of Faith:|
Orthodox Judaism is composed of different groups with intertwining beliefs, practices and theologies, although in their core beliefs, all Orthodox movements share the same principles. Moses Maimonides ( March 30 1135 – December 13 1204) also known as the Rambam, was a Rabbi, Physician, and
Orthodoxy collectively considers itself the only true heir to the Jewish tradition. The Orthodox Jewish movements generally consider all non-Orthodox Jewish movements to be unacceptable deviations from authentic Judaism; both because of other denominations' doubt concerning the verbal revelation of Written and Oral Torah, and because of their rejection of Halakhic precedent as binding. As such, most Orthodox groups characterise non-Orthodox forms of Judaism as heretical; see the article on Relationships between Jewish religious movements. The relationships between the various denominations of American Judaism can be conciliatory welcoming or even antagonistic
Orthodox Judaism affirms monotheism, or the belief in one God. For the Celtic Frost album see Monotheist (album In Theology, monotheism (from Greek grc [[wiktμόνος μόνος]] Among the in-depth explanations of that belief are Maimonidean rationalism, Kabbalistic mysticism, and Chassidic Philosophy (Chassidut). Moses Maimonides ( March 30 1135 – December 13 1204) also known as the Rambam, was a Rabbi, Physician, and Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה lit "receiving" is a discipline and school of thought discussing the mystical aspect of Judaism. A few affirm self-limited omniscience (the theology elucidated by Gersonides in "The Wars of the Lord". Levi ben Gershom ( לוי בן גרשום) better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344 was a famous Rabbi, philosopher Mathematician )
Orthodox Judaism maintains the historical understanding of Jewish identity. A Jew is someone who was born to a Jewish mother, or who converts to Judaism in accordance with Jewish law and tradition. Orthodoxy thus rejects patrilineal descent as a means of establishing Jewish national identity. Patrilineality (aka agnatic kinship) is a system in which one belongs to one's father's lineage it generally involves the Inheritance of property names or titles Similarly, Orthodoxy strongly condemns intermarriage. Interfaith marriage, traditionally (especially in the Catholic Church) called Mixed marriage, is Marriage (either religious or civil Intermarriage is seen as a deliberate rejection of Judaism, and an intermarried person is effectively cut off from most of the Orthodox community. However, some Orthodox Jewish organizations do reach out to intermarried Jews.
Orthodox Judaism holds that the words of the Torah, including both the Written Law (Pentateuch) and those parts of the Oral Law which are halacha leMoshe m'Sinai, were dictated by God to Moses essentially as they exist today. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to The laws contained in the Written Torah were given along with detailed explanations as how to apply and interpret them, the Oral Law. Although Orthodox Jews believe that many elements of current religious law were decreed or added as "fences" around the law by the rabbis, all Orthodox Jews believe that there is an underlying core of Sinaitic law and that this core of the religious laws Orthodox Jews know today is thus directly derived from Sinai and directly reflects the Divine will. As such, Orthodox Jews believe that one must be extremely careful in changing or adapting Jewish law. Orthodox Judaism holds that, given Jewish law's Divine origin, no underlying principle may be compromised in accounting for changing political, social or economic conditions; in this sense, "creativity" and development in Jewish law is limited.
However, there is significant disagreement within Orthodox Judaism, particualrly between Haredi Judaism and Modern Orthodox Judaism, about the extent and circumstances under which the proper application of Halakha should be re-examined as a result of changing realities. As a general rule, Haredi Jews believe that when at all possible the law should be maintained as it has been practiced through the generations; Modern Orthodox authorities are more willing to assume that under scrupulous exmaination, identical principles may lead to different applications in the context of modern life. To the Orthodox Jew, halakha is a guide, God's Law, governing the structure of daily life from the moment he or she wakes up to the moment he goes to sleep. It includes codes of behaviour applicable to a broad range of circumstances (and many hypothetical ones). There are though a number of meta-principles that guide the halakhic process and in an instance of opposition between a specific halakha and a meta-principle, the meta-principle often wins out. Examples of Halachic Meta-Principles are: Deracheha Darchei Noam-the ways of Torah are pleasant, Kavod Habriyot-basic respect for human beings, Pikuach Nefesh-the sanctity of human life.
Orthodox Judaism holds that on Mount Sinai the Written Law was transmitted along with an Oral Law. For other places named Mount Sinai see Mount Sinai (disambiguation Mount Sinai (Arabic طور سيناء, Hebrew הר סיני also The words of the Torah (Pentateuch) were spoken to Moses by God; the laws contained in this Written Torah, the Mitzvot, were given along with detailed explanations in the oral tradition as to how to apply and interpret them. Revelation is the act of revealing or disclosing (see etymology or in the theological perception making something obvious and clearly understood through active or passive communication See also Mitzvah See also Biblical law in Christianity The 613 Mitzvot ("commandments" (also " 613 Mitzvos Furthermore, the Oral law includes principles designed to create new rules. The Oral law is held to be transmitted with an extremely high degree of accuracy. Jewish theologians, who choose to emphasize the more evolutionary nature of the Halacha point to a famous story in the Talmud, where Moses is magically transported to the House of Study of Rabbi Akiva and is clearly unable to follow the ensuing discussion. The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history Moses ( Latin: Moyses,; Greek: grc Mωυσής in both the Septuagint and the New Testament; Arabic: ar موسىٰ Akiva redirects here For other people and things with this name see Akiva (disambiguation.
According to Orthodox Judaism, Jewish law today is based on the commandments in the Torah, as viewed through the discussions and debates contained in classical rabbinic literature, especially the Mishnah and the Talmud. Orthodox Judaism thus holds that the halakha represents the "will of God", either directly, or as closely to directly as possible. The laws are from the word of God in the Torah, using a set of rules also revealed by God to Moses on Mount Sinai, and have been derived with the utmost accuracy and care, and thus the Oral Law is considered to be no less the word of God. If some of the details of Jewish law may have been lost over the millennia, they were reconstructed in accordance with internally consistent rules; see The 13 rules by which Jewish law was derived. Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law
In this world view, the Mishnaic and Talmudic rabbis are closer to the Divine revelation; by corollary, one must be extremely conservative in changing or adapting Jewish law. Furthermore, Orthodox Judaism holds that, given Jewish law's Divine origin, no underlying principle may be compromised in accounting for changing political, social or economic conditions; in this sense, "creativity" and development in Jewish law is held to have been limited. Orthodox Jews will also study the Talmud for its own sake; this is considered to be the greatest mitzvah of all; see Torah study. This article is about commandments in Judaism For the Jewish rite of passage see Bar Mitzvah and Bat Mitzvah Mitzvah ( Hebrew: מצוה
Haredi and Modern Orthodox Judaism vary somewhat in their view of the validity of Halakhic reconsideration. It is held virtually as a principle of belief among many Haredi Jews that halakha never changes. Haredi Judaism thus views higher criticism of the Talmud as inappropriate, and almost certainly heretical. At the same time, many within Modern Orthodox Judaism do not have a problem with historical scholarship in this area. See the entry on Higher criticism of the Talmud. The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history Modern Orthodox Judaism is also somewhat more willing to consider revisiting questions of Jewish law through Talmudic arguments. Although in practice such instances are rare, they do exist. Notable examples include acceptance of rules permitting farming during the Shmita year and permitting the advanced religious education of women. Shmita ( Hebrew: שמיטה literally "release" also called the Sabbatical Year, is the seventh year of the seven-year agricultural cycle mandated by the
The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America, known as the Orthodox Union, or "OU", and the Rabbinical Council of America, "RCA" are organizations that represent Modern Orthodox Judaism, a large segment of Orthodoxy in the United States and Canada. Beth Midrash ( Hebrew: בית מדרש; also Beis Medrash, Beit Midrash, pl The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America (UOJCA more popularly known as the Orthodox Union, or OU, is one of the oldest Orthodox Jewish The Rabbinical Council of America ( RCA) is one of the world's largest organizations of Orthodox Jewish rabbis it is affiliated with The Union of Orthodox Jewish These groups should not be confused with the similarly named Union of Orthodox Rabbis (described below). The Agudas HaRabonim should not be confused with the Agudath Israel of America ( Agudas Yisroel) organization, or with the Union of Orthodox
The National Council of Young Israel, and the Council of Young Israel Rabbis are smaller groups that were founded as Modern Orthodox organizations, are Zionistic, and are in the right wing of Modern Orthodox Judaism. National Council of Young Israel ( NCYI) or Young Israel (in Hebrew Yisrael Hatza'ir, ישראל הצעיר is a Synagogue -based Orthodox National Council of Young Israel ( NCYI) or Young Israel (in Hebrew Yisrael Hatza'ir, ישראל הצעיר is a Synagogue -based Orthodox Young Israel strongly supports and allies itself with the settlement movement in Israel. While the lay membership of synagogues affiliated with the NCYI are almost exclusively Modern Orthodox in orientation, the rabbinical leadership of the synagogues ranges from Modern Orthodox to Haredi.
The Chief Rabbinate of Israel was founded with the intention of representing all of Judaism within the State of Israel, and has two chief rabbis: One is Ashkenazic (of the East European and Russian Jewish tradition) and one is Sephardic (of the Spanish, North African and middle-eastern Jewish tradition. ) The rabbinate has never been accepted by most Israeli Haredi groups. Since the 1960s the Chief rabbinate of Israel has moved somewhat closer to the positions of Haredi Judaism. Chief Rabbinate of Israel
Mizrachi, Mafdal and National Union (Israel) all represent certain sectors within the Religious Zionist movement, both in diaspora and Israel. The National Religious Party (מפלגה דתית לאומית Miflaga Datit Leumit, commonly known in Israel by its Hebrew acronym Mafdal, (Hebrew מפד"ל The National Union (האיחוד הלאומי HaIhud HaLeumi) is a right wing political party in Israel and consists of an alliance of Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement (a branch of which is also called Mizrachi) is an ideology that combines Zionism and religious Gush Emunim, Meimad, Tzohar, Hazit and other movements represent over competing divisions within the sector. Gush Emunim (גוש אמונים Block the faithful) was an Israeli political movement Meimad (מימד an acronym for Medina Yehudit Medina Demokratit (מדינה יהודית מדינה דמוקרטית lit Tzohar (צוחר is a communal settlement and regional centre in southern Israel. The Jewish National Front (חזית יהודית לאומית Hazit Yehudit Leumit) commonly known in Israel by its Hebrew acronym Hayil (Hebrew חי"ל They firmly believe in the 'Land Of Israel for the People of Israel according to the principles Torah of Israel. ', although Meimad are pragmatic about such programme. Meimad (מימד an acronym for Medina Yehudit Medina Demokratit (מדינה יהודית מדינה דמוקרטית lit Gush Emunim are the settlement wing of National Union (Israel) and support widespread kiruv as well, through such institutions as Machon Meir, Merkaz HaRav and Rabbi Shlomo Aviner. Gush Emunim (גוש אמונים Block the faithful) was an Israeli political movement The National Union (האיחוד הלאומי HaIhud HaLeumi) is a right wing political party in Israel and consists of an alliance of Machon Meir ( Hebrew:מכון מאיר is a Religious Zionist outreach organization and Yeshiva situated in the Jerusalem neighborhood Mercaz HaRav (מרכז הרב lit The Rav Centre) also known as Yeshivat Mercaz HaRav, is a Hardal Yeshiva Rabbi Shlomo Chaim haKohen Aviner is the Rosh yeshiva of the Ateret Cohanim Yeshiva in the Muslim Quarter of Jerusalem and the rabbi of Another sector includes the Hardal faction, which tends to be unallied to the Government and quite centristic. For the settlement in Bangladesh see Hardal Bangladesh. Hardal (also Chardal;) refers to those strictly Orthodox Jews who
Chabad Lubavitch is a branch of Hasidic Judaism widely known for its emphasis on outreach and education. Chabad-Lubavitch is one of the largest Hasidic movements in Orthodox Judaism, and is based in the Crown Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn Orthodox Jewish outreach commonly referred to as Kiruv or Keruv (קירוב - close in Hebrew) is the collective work or movement of Orthodox The organization has been in existence for 200 years, and especially after the Second World War, it began sending out emissaries (shluchim) who have as a mission the bringing back of disaffected Jews to a level of observance consistent with authentic and proper norms (ie, Orthodox Judaism). They are major players in what is known as the Baal Teshuva movement. See also Repentance in Judaism Baal teshuva ( Hebrew: he בעל תשובה; for a woman he בעלת תשובה baalat/baalas teshuva; Their mandate is to make nonobservant Jews more Jewishly aware.
Agudath Israel of America is a large and influential Haredi group in America. Agudath Israel of America (or Agudas Yisroel of America or Agudat Yisrael of America or simply the Agudah is [[Hebrew language|Hebrew] for "gathering" Its roots go back to the establishment of the original founding of the Agudath Israel movement in 1912 in Katowitz, Prussia (now KatowicePoland). Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The American Agudath Israel was founded in 1939. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. There is an Agudat Israel (Hasidic) in Israel, and also Degel HaTorah (non-Hasidic "Lithuanian"), as well as an Agudath Israel of Europe. Agudat Israel (אגודת ישראל "Union Israel" also Agudat Yisrael, Agudath Israel, or Agudas Yisroel) began as the original Degel HaTorah (דגל התורה lit Banner of the Torah) is an Ashkenazi ultra-orthodox political party in Israel. Lithuanian Jews (known in Yiddish and Yeshivish as Litvish (adjective or Litvaks (noun are Ashkenazi Jews with roots in the These groups are loosely affiliated through the World Agudath Israel, which from time to time holds a major gathering in Israel called a knessia. World Agudath Israel (The World Jewish Union usually known as the Aguda, was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism Agudah unites many rabbinic leaders from the Hasidic Judaism wing with those of the non-Hasidic "yeshiva" world. It is generally non-nationalistic. 
In Israel it shares a similar agenda with the Sephardic Shas political party, although Shas is more bipartisan when it comes to its own issues and non-nationalistic-based with a huge emphasis on Sephardi Judaism and Mizrahi Judaism. Shas (ש״ס is a political party in Israel, primarily representing Haredi Sephardi and Mizrahi Judaism. Sephardic Judaism is the practice of Judaism as observed by the Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews, so far as it is peculiar to themselves and not shared with other Jewish Shas has its own positions and plays a more prominent role in the government of the State, usually having something to say about almost every Jewish issue. It is usually in fierce contention with Agudat Yisrael in Israel.
The Agudath HaRabbonim, also known as the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States and Canada, is a small Haredi-leaning organization founded in 1902. The Agudas HaRabonim should not be confused with the Agudath Israel of America ( Agudas Yisroel) organization, or with the Union of Orthodox Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting It should not be confused with "The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America" (see above) which is a separate organization. While at one time influential within Orthodox Judaism, the Agudath HaRabbonim in the last several decades has progressively moved further to the right; its membership has been dropping and it has been relatively inactive. Some of its members are rabbis from Chabad Lubavitch; some are also members of the RCA (see above). It is currently most famous for its 1997 declaration (citing Israeli Chief Rabbi Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog, Lubavitcher Rebbe Menachem Mendel Schneerson, and Modern Orthodox Rabbi Joseph Soloveitchik) that the Conservative and Reform movements are "not Judaism at all. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Rabbi Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog (1889&ndash1959 also known as Isaac Herzog, was the first Chief Rabbi of the Irish Free State, his term lasting from 1921 Menachem Mendel Schneerson ( April 18 1902 – June 12 1994) known as The Rebbe, was a prominent Hasidic Rabbi Joseph Ber (Yosef Dov Yoshe Ber Soloveitchik (יוסף דב הלוי סולובייצ'יק was an American Orthodox Rabbi, Talmudist and modern Conservative Judaism (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel and Europe) is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently subjected to vandalism and the insertion of personal opinions "
The Igud HaRabbonim, the Rabbinical Alliance of America, is a small Haredi organization. Founded in 1944, it claims over 650 rabbis; recent estimates indicate that less than 100 of its members worldwide actually work as rabbis. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The Central Rabbinical Congress of the United States and Canada (CRC) was established in 1952. The Central Rabbinical Congress (in full Central Rabbinical Congress of the U Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. It is an anti-Zionist, Haredi organization, consisting mainly of the Satmar Hasidic group, which has about 100,000 adherents (an unknown number of which are rabbis), and like-minded Haredi groups. Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, an international political movement and ideology that supports a Homeland for the Jewish People in the land known Satmar (or Satmar Hasidism or Satmarer Hasidism) (חסידות סאטמאר is a Hasidic movement of mostly Hungarian Grand Rebbe Yoel Teitelbaum
During the past years, the left-wing Modern Orthodox advocacy group, Edah, consisting of American Modern Orthodox rabbis. Edah should not be confused with the Haredi communal body in Israel known as the Edah HaChareidis. Most of its membership came from synagogues affiliated with the Union of Orthodox Congregations and RCA (above). Their motto was, "The courage to be Modern and Orthodox". Edah ceased functioning in 2007 and merged some of its programs into the left-wing Yeshivat Chovevei Torah. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Yeshivat Chovevei Torah Rabbinical School ( YCT) is a Modern Orthodox Yeshiva founded by Rabbi Avi Weiss in 1999 and located
The Bais Yaakov movement, begun in 1917, introduced the concept of formal Judaic schooling for Orthodox women. Bais Yaakov (בית יעקב also written Beis Yaakov, Beit Yaakov or Beth Jacob -- literally "House Jacob" in Hebrew) is a common Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
The Orthodox community in Israel, approximately 800,000 people, represents an important economic niche. Because the community is an insular one and members obey their rabbis, it wields significant power in the marketplace and politics.