Orientalism refers to the imitation or depiction of aspects of Eastern cultures in the West by writers, designers and artists, and can also refer to a sympathetic stance towards the region by a writer or other person. The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre located in Paris is the world's most visited art museum a historic monument and a national museum of France Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 &ndash 13 August 1863 was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre located in Paris is the world's most visited art museum a historic monument and a national museum of France Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various Cultures social structures and philosophical systems of " the East " An "Orientalist" may be a person engaged in these activities, but is also the traditional term for any scholar of Oriental studies. Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures languages peoples history and archaeology in recent 
These meanings were given a new twist by Edward Said in his controversial 1978 book Orientalism, where he uses the term to describe a tradition, both academic and artistic, of hostile and deprecatory views of the East by the West, shaped by the attitudes of the era of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries. Edward Wadie Saïd MRSL ( إدوارد وديع سعيد,; 1 November 1935 &ndash 25 September Orientalism is the 1978 book by Edward Said that has been highly influential in postcolonial studies. Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar When used in this sense, it often implies essentializing and prejudiced outsider interpretations of Eastern cultures and peoples. Said was critical of this scholarly tradition and also of a few modern scholars, including Princeton University professor Bernard Lewis. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. Bernard Lewis (born May 31, 1916 in London, England) is a British - American In contrast, the term has also been used by some modern scholars to refer to writers of the Imperialist era who had pro-Eastern attitudes, as opposed to those who saw nothing of value in non-Western cultures. 
Like the term Orient, Orientalism derives from the Latin word oriens (rising) and, equally likely, from the Greek word ('he'oros', the direction of the rising sun). The Orient is a term which simply means the " East " It originated in Western Asia to describe that part of the world "Orient" is the opposite of Occident. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings In terms of The Old World, Europe was considered The Occident (The West), and its farthest-known extreme The Orient (The East). The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans Asians and Africans in the 15th century The Occident ( 1843 - 1869) was the first general Jewish Periodical published in the United States. The Orient is a term which simply means the " East " It originated in Western Asia to describe that part of the world Dating from the Roman Empire until the Middle Ages, what is now, in the West, considered 'the Middle East' was then considered 'the Orient'. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. In that time, the flourishing cultures of the Far East were unknown, likewise Europe was unknown in the Far East. The Far East is a term often used by people in the Western world to refer to the countries of East Asia.
In time, the common understanding of 'the Orient' has continually shifted eastwards, as Western explorers traveled farther in to Asia. In Biblical times, the Three Wise Men 'from the Orient' were actually Magi from "The East", (relative to Judea), probably meaning the Persian Empire or Arabia. "Three Kings" or "Three Wise Men" redirects here The Magi (singular Magus, from Latin via Greek μάγος; Old English: Mage; from Persian maguš and Kurdish The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) After a period, as Europe learned of countries farther East, the defined limit of 'the Orient' shifted eastwards, until it reached the Pacific Ocean, in what Westerners came to call 'the Far East'. The Far East is a term often used by people in the Western world to refer to the countries of East Asia. In the West, these shifts in time confuse the scope (historical and geographic) of Oriental Studies.
Yet, there remain contexts where 'the Orient' and 'Oriental' denote older definitions, e. g. 'Oriental spices' typically are from the Earth's regions extending from the Middle East to sub-continental India to Indo-China. Moreover, travel on the Orient Express train (Paris–Istanbul), is eastward (to the sun), but does not reach what is currently understood to be the Orient. The Orient Express is the name of a long-distance Passenger train originally operated by the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey
In contemporary English, Oriental is usually synonymous for the peoples, cultures, and goods from the parts of East Asia traditionally occupied by East Asians and Southeast Asians racially categorised as "Mongoloid". The term " Mongoloid " is a variation of the word "Mongol" meaning "Mongol-like" This excludes Indians, Arabs, and the other West Asian peoples. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country In some parts of the United States, the term is considered derogatory; for example, Washington state prohibits use of the word "Oriental" in legislation and government documentation, preferring the word "Asian" instead. 
Orientalism has also come to mean the adoption of typical eastern motifs, styles and subject matter in art, architecture, and design. Turquerie was the oldest such fashion, which began as early as the late 15th century, and continued until at least the 18th. Turquerie is the Orientalist fashion for imitating aspects of Turkish art and culture in Western Europe between roughly the 16th to 18th centuries
Early use in architecture of motifs lifted from the Indian subcontinent have sometimes been called "Hindoo style. Hindoo, an archaic spelling of Hindu, is a term used in architectural history to refer to Western imitations of Indian architecture in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries " One of the earliest examples can be seen in the façade of Guildhall, London (1788–1789) and the style gained momentum in the west with the publication of the various views of India by William Hodges and the Daniells from about 1795. The Guildhall is a building in the City of London, off Cheapside and Basinghall Street, in the wards of Bassishaw and Cheap. William Hodges ( October 28, 1744, London - March 6, 1797) was an English painter. William Daniell (1769-1837 was a British draughtsman.Daniell was fourteen when he accompanied his uncle Thomas Daniell to India. Thomas Daniell ( 1749 - March 19, 1840) was an English landscape painter. One of the finest examples of "Hindoo" architecture is Sezincote House (c. Sezincote is a British estate located in Gloucestershire, England. 1805) in Gloucestershire. History See also History of Gloucestershire Gloucestershire is a historic county mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 10th century Other notable buildings using the Hindoo style of Orientalism are Casa Loma in Toronto, Sanssouci in Potsdam, and Wilhelma in Stuttgart. Casa Loma (Spanish for Hill House) is the former home of financier Sir Henry Mill Pellatt and a major tourist attraction in Toronto. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Sanssouci is the former summer palace of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, at Potsdam, near Also see Potsdam New York (in the USA For the Potsdam Conference see Potsdam Conference. This article is about the zoo For the templer settlement see Wilhelma Palestine Wilhelma is a Zoo in Stuttgart, Stuttgart (ˈʃtʊtgaɐ̯t is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany.
Chinoiserie is the catch-all term for the fashion for Chinese themes in decoration in Western Europe, beginning in the late 17th century and peaking in waves, especially Rococo Chinoiserie, ca 1740–1770. Chinoiserie, a French term signifying "Chinese-esque" refers to a recurring theme in European artistic styles since the seventeenth century which reflecting Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design. From the Renaissance to the 18th century Western designers attempted to imitate the technical sophistication of Chinese ceramics with only partial success. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Early hints of Chinoiserie appear, in the 17th century, in the nations with active East India companies: England (the British East India Company), Denmark (the Danish East India Company), Holland (the Dutch East India Company) and France (the French East India Company). The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or The Danish East India Company (Dansk Østindisk Kompagni was a Danish Chartered company. The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian The French East India Company ( French: La Compagnie française des Indes orientales or Compagnie française pour le commerce des Indes orientales) was a Tin-glazed pottery made at Delft and other Dutch towns adopted genuine blue-and-white Ming decoration from the early 17th century, and early ceramic wares at Meissen and other centers of true porcelain imitated Chinese shapes for dishes, vases and teawares (see Chinese export porcelain). Delft is a city and Municipality in the province of South Holland (Zuid-Holland the Netherlands. For other uses see Blue and white "Blue and white wares" designate white Pottery and Porcelain decorated under The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Meissen (in German orthography: Meißen; Sorbian: Mišno; Misena Misnia Misnensium is a Town of approximately 30000 near Porcelain is a Ceramic material made by heating raw materials generally including Clay in the form of Kaolin, in a Kiln to temperatures Teaware is the entire spectrum of equipment used in the production of Tea. Chinese export porcelain concerns a wide range of Porcelain that was made and decorated in China exclusively for Export to Europe and later to
Pleasure pavilions in "Chinese taste" appeared in the formal parterres of late Baroque and Rococo German palaces, and in tile panels at Aranjuez near Madrid. Population 2002 40928 2004 46891 2005 48139 May 2007 52873 Government Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Thomas Chippendale's mahogany tea tables and china cabinets, especially, were embellished with fretwork glazing and railings, ca 1753–70, but sober homages to early Xing scholars' furnishings were also naturalized, as the tang evolved into a mid-Georgian side table and squared slat-back armchairs suited English gentlemen as well as Chinese scholars. Thomas Chippendale ( Otley, near Leeds baptised - November 1779 was a London Cabinet-maker and furniture designer in the mid-Georgian Not every adaptation of Chinese design principles falls within mainstream "chinoiserie. " Chinoiserie media included imitations of lacquer and painted tin (tôle) ware that imitated japanning, early painted wallpapers in sheets, and ceramic figurines and table ornaments. Small pagodas appeared on chimneypieces and full-sized ones in gardens. A pagoda is the general term in the English language for a tiered Tower with multiple Eaves common in China, Japan, Korea Kew has a magnificent garden pagoda designed by Sir William Chambers. Kew is a place in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in South West London. Sir William Chambers ( 27 October 1723 &ndash 17 February 1796) was a Scottish Architect, born in Gothenburg
After 1860, Japonisme, sparked by the arrival of Japanese woodblock prints, became an important influence in the western arts in particular on many modern French artists such as Monet. Japonism, or Japonisme, the original French term which is also used in English is a term for the influence of the arts of Japan on those of the "pictures of the floating world" is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or Woodcuts) and Paintings produced between the 17th Claude Monet ( French klod mɔnɛ also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (14 November 1840 &ndash 5 December 1926 was a founder The paintings of James McNeill Whistler and his "Peacock Room" are some of the finest works of the genre; other examples include the Gamble House and other buildings by California architects Greene and Greene. The Gamble House, also known as David B Gamble House, (constructed 1908 - 1909 is a National Historic Landmark and museum in Pasadena, California Brothers Charles Sumner Greene (1868-1957 and Henry Mather Greene (1870-1954 who established the architectural firm of Greene and Greene, were influential
Depictions of Islamic "Moors" and "Turks" (imprecisely named Muslim groups of North Africa and West Asia) can be found in Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque art. Stereotypes of Arabs presented in Western culture and in American culture The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent The first stirrings of Orientalism in Western art are found in Biblical scenes in Early Netherlandish painting, where secondary figures, especially Roman and Jewish ones, are given exotic costumes that distantly reflect the turbans and other clothes of the contemporary Near East. Early Netherlandish painting is the work of those painters who were active in the Low Countries during the 15th and early 16th century Northern renaissance The turban (from Persian fa دلبند or دولبند dulband via the Turkish tr tülbent) is a headdress consisting of a long B Syria - Belka Woman from Damascus Arab from Baghdadjpg|thumb|Inhabitants of the Near East late nineteenth century The Three Magi in Nativity scenes were an especial focus for this. "Three Kings" or "Three Wise Men" redirects here The Nativity of Jesus has been a major subject of Christian art since the 4th century Renaissance Venice had a phase of particular interest in depictions of the Ottoman Empire in painting; Gentile Bellini, who travelled to Constantinople and painted the Sultan, and Vittore Carpaccio were the leading exponents. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Gentile Bellini (c 1429 &ndash February 23, 1507) was an Italian painter Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Vittore Carpaccio (c 1460 &ndash 1525/1526 was an Italian painter of the Venetian school, who studied under Gentile Bellini. By then the depictions were rather more accurate, with men typically dressed all in white.
In the nineteenth century the numbers of Oriental scenes greatly increased. In many of these works the myth of the Orient as exotic and decadently corrupt is most fully articulated. Such works typically concentrated on Near-Eastern Islamic cultures. Artists such as Eugène Delacroix, Jean-Léon Gérôme and Alexander Roubtzoff painted many depictions of Islamic culture, often including lounging odalisques, and stressing lassitude and visual spectacle. Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 &ndash 13 August 1863 was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of Jean-Léon Gérôme ( May 11, 1824 – January 10, 1904) was a French painter and sculptor in the style An odalisque (Odalık was a virgin female slave in an Ottoman Seraglio. When Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, director of the French Académie de peinture painted a highly-colored vision of a turkish bath (illustration, right), he made his eroticized Orient publicly acceptable by his diffuse generalizing of the female forms, who might all have been of the same model. The Turkish bath (hamam from حمّام) is the Middle Eastern variant of a steam bath, which can be categorized as a wet relative of the If his painting had simply been retitled "In a Paris Brothel," it would have been far less acceptable. Sensuality was seen as acceptable in the exotic Orient. This orientalizing imagery persisted in art into the early 20th century, as evidenced in Matisse's orientalist nudes. Henri Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954 was a French Artist, known for his use of Colour and his fluid brilliant and original draughtsmanship In these works the "Orient" often functions as a mirror to Western culture itself, or as a way of expressing its hidden or illicit aspects. In Gustave Flaubert's novel Salammbô ancient Carthage in North Africa is used as a foil to ancient Rome. Gustave Flaubert (gystaːv flobɛːʁ in French ( December 12, 1821 &ndash May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among Salammbô (1862 is an Historical novel by Gustave Flaubert, which interweaves historical and fictional characters Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers A foil is a character that contrasts with another character usually the protagonist and so highlights various facets of the main character's personality Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Its culture is portrayed as morally corrupting and suffused with dangerously alluring eroticism. This novel proved hugely influential on later portrayals of ancient Semitic cultures. In Linguistics and Ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical " Shem " Hebrew שם translated as "name" Arabic: ساميّ
The use of the orient as an exotic backdrop continued in the movies for instance in many movies with Rudolph Valentino. Rudolph Valentino ( May 6, 1895 &ndash August 23, 1926) was an Italian Actor, Sex symbol, and early Later the rich Arab in robes became a more popular theme, especially during the oil crisis of the 1970s. In the 1990s the Arab terrorist became a common villain figure in Western movies.
A central idea of Edward Said is that Western knowledge about the East is not generated from facts, but through imagined constructs that see all "Eastern" societies as fundamentally similar, all sharing crucial characteristics unlike those of "Western" societies, thus, this ‘a priori’ knowledge established the East as antithetical to the West. Chung Ling Soo was the stage name of American Stage magician William Ellsworth Robinson (1861-1918 Théodore Chassériau ( September 20, 1819 – October 8, 1856) was a French romantic painter noted for his Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 &ndash 13 August 1863 was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of Edmund Dulac (born Edmond Dulac, October 22, 1882 &ndash May 25, 1953) was a French book illustrator prominent Eugène Fromentin ( October 24, 1820 – August 27, 1876) was a French painter and writer Jean-Léon Gérôme ( May 11, 1824 – January 10, 1904) was a French painter and sculptor in the style William Holman Hunt (b 2 April 1827 in Cheapside, London &ndash d John Frederick Lewis ( July 14, 1805 &ndash August 15, 1876) was an Orientalist English painter Théodore Jacques Ralli (also known as Theodoros Scaramanga Rallis ( Constantinople, 16 February 1852 – Lausanne, 2 October 1909 was a Greek painter watercolourist David Roberts RA ( October 24, 1796 &ndash November 25, 1864) was a Scottish painter. James Jacques Joseph Tissot ( October 15, 1836 &ndash August 8, 1902) was a French painter. Émile Jean-Horace Vernet ( 30 June 1789 - 17 January 1863) was a French painter of battles portraits and Orientalist Roger Fenton ( March 20, 1819 - August 8, 1869) was a pioneering British photographer, one of the first war photographers Francis Frith (also spelled Frances Frith) ( October 31, 1822 – February 25, 1898) was an English photographer of the Middle The Sheik is a 1921 silent movie produced by Famous Players-Lasky, directed by George Melford and starring Rudolph Valentino The Lives of a Bengal Lancer is a 1935 Adventure film loosely adapted from the 1930 book of the same name by Francis Yeats-Brown. Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom is a 1984 period Adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg. Orientalism is the 1978 book by Edward Said that has been highly influential in postcolonial studies. Léon Cogniet ( August 29 1794 – November 20 1880) was a French painter Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Edward Wadie Saïd MRSL ( إدوارد وديع سعيد,; 1 November 1935 &ndash 25 September Such Eastern knowledge is constructed with literary texts and historical records that often are of limited understanding of the facts of life in the Middle East. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. 
Before Said's book, "Oriental" was widely used as the opposite of "occidental" ('Western'). The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings The comparisons between them generally were unfavorable to the Orient, however, respected institutions like the Oriental Institute of Chicago, the London School of Oriental and African Studies or Università degli studi di Napoli L'Orientale, carried the term with no explicit reproach. The School of Oriental and African Studies (commonly abbreviated to " SOAS " pronounced (so as or (so az is a constituent college of the University of The University of Naples "L'Orientale" ( Italian: Università degli Studi di Napoli "L'Orientale") is a university located in Naples, The word "Orient" fell into disrepute after the word "Orientalism" was coined with the publication of Said's book. Following the ideas of Michel Foucault, Said emphasized the relationship between power and knowledge in scholarly and popular thinking, in particular regarding European views of the Islamic Arab world. Michel Foucault ( (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984 was a French philosopher, Historian, Intellectual, Critic and Sociologist. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Said argued that Orient and Occident worked as oppositional terms, so that the "Orient" was constructed as a negative inversion of Western culture. The work of another thinker, Antonio Gramsci, was also important in shaping Edward Said's analysis in this area. In particular, Said can be seen to have been influenced by Gramsci's notion of hegemony in understanding the pervasiveness of Orientalist constructs and representations in Western scholarship and reporting, and their relation to the exercise of power over the 'Orient'. 
Although Edward Said limited his discussion to academic study of Middle Eastern, African and Asian history and culture, he asserted that "Orientalism is, and does not merely represent, a significant dimension of modern political and intellectual culture. " (p. 53) Said's discussion of academic Orientalism is almost entirely limited to late 19th and early 20th century scholarship. Most academic Area Studies departments had already abandoned an imperialist or colonialist paradigm of scholarship. In the Humanities and Social sciences, area studies are Interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to a particular geographical He names the work of Bernard Lewis as an example of the continued existence of this paradigm, but acknowledges that it was already somewhat of an exception by the time of his writing (1977). The idea of an "Orient" is a crucial aspect of attempts to define "the West. " Thus, histories of the Greco-Persian Wars may contrast the monarchical government of the Persian Empire with the democratic tradition of Athens, as a way to make a more general comparison between the Greeks and the Persians, and between "the West" and "the East", or "Europe" and "Asia", but make no mention of the other Greek city states, most of which were not ruled democratically. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various Cultures social structures and philosophical systems of " the East "
Taking a comparative and historical literary review of European, mainly British and French, scholars and writers looking at, thinking about, talking about, and writing about the peoples of the Middle East, Said sought to lay bare the relations of power between the colonizer and the colonized in those texts. Said's writings have had far-reaching implications beyond area studies in Middle East, to studies of imperialist Western attitudes to India, China and elsewhere. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National It was one of the foundational texts of postcolonial studies. Postcolonialism ( postcolonial theory, post-colonial theory) is an intellectual discourse that holds together a set of theories found among the texts and Said later developed and modified his ideas in his book Culture and Imperialism (1993).
Many scholars now use Said's work to attempt to overturn long-held, often taken-for-granted Western ideological biases regarding non-Westerners in scholarly thought. Some post-colonial scholars would even say that the West's idea of itself was constructed largely by saying what others were not. If "Europe" evolved out of "Christendom" as the "not-Byzantium," early modern Europe in the late 16th century (see Battle of Lepanto) certainly defined itself as the "not-Turkey. Christendom usually refers to Christianity as a territorial phenomenon "
Said puts forward several definitions of 'Orientalism' in the introduction to Orientalism. Some of these have been more widely quoted and influential than others:
In his Preface to the 2003 edition of Orientalism, Said also warned against the "falsely unifying rubrics that invent collective identities," citing such terms as "America," "The West," and "Islam," which were leading to what he felt was a manufactured "clash of civilisations. Orientalism is the 1978 book by Edward Said that has been highly influential in postcolonial studies. "
Critics of Said's theory, such as the historian Bernard Lewis, argue that Said's account contains many factual, methodological and conceptual errors. Bernard Lewis (born May 31, 1916 in London, England) is a British - American Said ignores many genuine contributions to the study of Eastern cultures made by Westerners during the Enlightenment and Victorian eras. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities Said's theory does not explain why the French and English pursued the study of Islam in the 16th and 17th centuries, long before they had any control or hope of control in the Middle East. He has been criticised for ignoring the contributions of Italian, Dutch, and particularly the massive contribution of German scholars. Lewis claims that the scholarship of these nations was more important to European Orientalism than the French or British, but the countries in question either had no colonial projects in the Mideast (Dutch and Germans), or no connection between their Orientalist research and their colonialism (Italians). Said's theory also does not explain why much of Orientalist study did nothing to advance the cause of imperialism. As Lewis asks,
What imperial purpose was served by deciphering the ancient Egyptian language, for example, and then restoring to the Egyptians knowledge of and pride in their forgotten, ancient past?—
Lewis argued that Orientalism arose from humanism, which was distinct from Imperialist ideology, and sometimes in opposition to it. Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal Orientalist study of Islam arose from the rejection of religious dogma, and was an important spur to discovery of alternative cultures. Lewis criticised as "intellectual protectionism" the argument that only those within a culture could usefully discuss it. 
In his rebuttal to Lewis, Said stated that Lewis' negative rejoinder must be placed into its proper context. Since one of Said's principal arguments is that Orientalism was used (wittingly or unwittingly) as an instrument of empire, he contends that Lewis' critique of this thesis could hardly be judged in the disinterested, scholarly light that Lewis would like to present himself, but must be understood in the proper knowledge of what Said claimed was Lewis' own (often masked) neo-imperialist proclivities, as displayed by the latter's political or quasi-political appointments and pronouncements.
Specifically, Lewis is aligned with prominent think tanks that promote neoconservative views on U. A think tank (also called a policy institute) is an organization institute corporation or group that conducts Research and engages in advocacy in areas such Neoconservatism (or Neocon is a Right-wing political philosophy that emerged in the United States from the rejection of the Social liberalism, Moral relativism S. Middle East Policy. This article provides an overview of American interventions in the Middle East executed between 1941 and before the Iranian Revolution in 1978-1979 Most scholars in Middle Eastern Studies departments at American and European universities take a position much closer to Said's than to Lewis', and scholars at certain privately-funded think tanks, such as Martin Kramer at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Daniel Pipes at the Middle East Forum, who are aligned with Lewis, have alleged that this constitutes bias, and is a reason to cut federal funding from these Middle Eastern Studies departments, and subject all such academic departments to federal government oversight in order to prevent scholarly bias. Middle Eastern studies, a subset of Asian studies, is a name given to a number of academic programs associated with the study of the Culture, Politics, A think tank (also called a policy institute) is an organization institute corporation or group that conducts Research and engages in advocacy in areas such Martin Seth Kramer (b 1954 Washington DC) is an American scholar of the Middle East at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, the The Washington Institute for Near East Policy (TWI known informally as WINEP is a Washington DC-based Think tank which concerns itself with U Daniel Pipes (born September 9 1949 is a American historian and political commentator who particularly focuses on the Middle East and Islam. The Middle East Forum (MEF is an American Think tank founded in 1990 by historian and columnist Daniel Pipes, who also serves as its director Middle Eastern studies, a subset of Asian studies, is a name given to a number of academic programs associated with the study of the Culture, Politics,  Pipes is the author of a website, campuswatch.org, which encourages students to report bias on the part of their professors. Campus Watch is an organisation which according its own website "reviews and critiques Middle East studies in North America with an aim to improving them
Bryan Turner critiques Said’s work saying there were a multiplicity of forms and traditions of Orientalism. He is therefore critical of Said’s attempt to try to place them all under the framework of the orientalist tradition.  Other critics of Said have argued that while many distortions and fantasies certainly existed, the notion of "the Orient" as a negative mirror image of the West cannot be wholly true because attitudes to distinct cultures diverged significantly.  In any case it is a logical necessity that other cultures will be identified as "different", since otherwise their distinctive characteristics would be invisible, and that the most striking differences will hold up the mirror to the observing culture.  John MacKenzie notes that Said’s Orientalism is critiqued for implying that western dominance is and has been unchallenged, ignoring for example the ‘Subaltern Studies’ group of scholars work of resistance and giving voice to the unvoiced. The Subaltern Studies Group (SSG or Subaltern Studies Collective are a group of South Asian scholars interested in the Postcolonial and post- imperial  Further criticism includes the observation that the criticisms levied by Said at Orientalist scholars of being essentialist can in turn be levied at him for the way in which he writes of the west as a hegemonic mass, stereotyping its characteristics. 
In contrast, many of the essentially dismissive and patronizing concepts associated with Western "Orientalism" as expressed above are summed up — but in reverse orientation — in the epilogue to the "Chapter on the Western Regions" according to the Hou Hanshu. The Book of the Later Han ( is one of the official Chinese Historical works which was compiled by Fan Ye in the 5th century, using This is the official history of the Later (or "Eastern") Han Dynasty (25-221 CE). The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The book was compiled by Fan Ye, (died 445 CE), and it succinctly expresses the Han opinion of the Western Hu culture (in what is now western China):
Derogatory or stereotyped portrayals of Westerners appear in many works of Indian, Chinese and Japanese artists.
In contrast, some Eastern artists adopted and adapted Western styles. The Indian painter Ravi Varma painted several works that are virtually indistinguishable from some Western orientalist images. Raja Ravi Varma ( April 29, 1848 - October 2, 1906) was an Indian painter who achieved recognition for his depiction of scenes In the late 20th century many Western cultural themes and images began appearing in Asian art and culture, especially in Japan. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. English words and phrases are prominent in Japanese advertising and popular culture, and many Japanese anime are written around characters, settings, themes, and mythological figures derived from various Western cultural traditions. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States (anime in Japanese, The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore"
Recently, the term Occidentalism has been coined to refer to negative views of the Western world sometimes found in Eastern societies today. The term Occidentalism usually refers to Stereotyped and sometimes dehumanizing views on the so-called Western world, including Europe and the In a similar ideological vein to Occidentalism, Eurocentrism can refer to both negative views and excessively positive views of the Western World found in discussions about 'Eastern culture'. Eurocentrism is the practice of viewing the world from a European perspective with an implied belief either consciously or subconsciously in the preeminence of European (and