An organization (or organisation — see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. American and British English spelling differences are one aspect of American and British English differences. The word itself is derived from the Greek word ὄργανον (organon) meaning tool. The term is used in both daily and scientific English in multiple ways.
In the social sciences, organizations are studied by researchers from several disciplines, the most common of which are sociology, economics, political science, psychology, management, and organizational communication. Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and Management (covering theory practice and scope of management and Manager' (covering the people who manage might help clarify and systematise Organizational communication, broadly speaking is people working together to achieve individual or collective goals The broad area is commonly referred to as organizational studies, organizational behavior or organization analysis. Therefore, a number of different theories and perspectives exist, some of which are compatible, and others that are competing.
In sociology "organization" is understood as planned, coordinated and purposeful action of human beings to construct or compile a common tangible or intangible product. Institutions are structures and mechanisms of Social order and Cooperation governing the Behavior of a Set of Individuals In Marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a Market that might satisfy a want or need This action is usually framed by formal membership and form (institutional rules). Sociology distinguishes the term organization into planned formal and unplanned informal (i. e. spontaneously formed) organizations. Sociology analyzes organizations in the first line from an institutional perspective. In this sense, organization is a permanent arrangement of elements. These elements and their actions are determined by rules so that a certain task can be fulfilled through a system of coordinated division of labor. Division of labour or specialization is the specialization of cooperative labour in specific circumscribed tasks and roles intended to increase the Productivity
An organization is defined by the elements that are part of it (who belongs to the organization and who does not?), its communication (which elements communicate and how do they communicate?), its autonomy (Max Weber termed autonomy in this context: Autocephaly)(which changes are executed autonomously by the organization or its elements?) and its rules of action compared to outside events (what causes an organization to act as a collective actor?). Communication is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood the same way Maximilian Carl Emil Weber (maks 'veːbɐ (21 April 1864 &ndash 14 June 1920 was a German political economist and sociologist who was considered Autocephaly, in Hierarchical Christian churches and especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches is the status of a hierarchical church whose
By coordinated and planned cooperation of the elements, the organization is able to solve tasks that lie beyond the abilities of the single elements. The price paid by the elements is the limitation of the degrees of freedom of the elements. Advantages of organizations are enhancement (more of the same), addition (combination of different features), and extension. Disadvantages can be inertness (through co-ordination) and loss of interaction. Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an Effect upon one another
Management is interested in organization mainly from an instrumental point of view. Management (covering theory practice and scope of management and Manager' (covering the people who manage might help clarify and systematise For a company organization is a means to an end to achieve its goals. and also an organizaton is where two or more persons work togather to achieve a goal or a common purpose is called an Organization.
Among the theories that are or have been most influential are:
The study of organizations includes a focus on optimizing organizational structure. Henri Fayol (1841 in Istanbul – 1925 in Paris) was a French Management theorist Chester Irving Barnard (1886 &ndash 1961 was an American executive and an early Organizational theorist. Contingency theory refers to any of a number of management theories New institutionalism or neoinstitutionalism describes social theory that focuses on developing a sociological view of Institutions --the way they interact New institutional economics (NIE is an Economic perspective that attempts to extend economics by focusing on the social and Legal norms and Network analysis can refer to Analysis of general networks see Network theory. Economic sociology is the Sociological analysis of economic phenomena Organizational ecology (also organizational demography and the population ecology of organizations) is a theoretical and empirical approach in the Social sciences In Economics and related disciplines a transaction cost is a Cost incurred in making an economic exchange In political science and Economics, the principal-agent problem or agency dilemma treats the difficulties that arise under conditions of incomplete and asymmetric Critical management studies (CMS is a loose but rapidly growing grouping of politically Left wing and theoretically innovative approaches to Management, business Complexity theory has been used extensively in the field of Strategic management and Organizational studies, sometimes called Complexity strategy or complex In Economics and related disciplines a transaction cost is a Cost incurred in making an economic exchange The Garbage Can Model is a theory within the science of Public administration that explains organizational decision making from a systemic-anarchic perspective Actor-network theory, often abbreviated as ANT, is a distinctive approach to Social theory and research which originated in the field of Science studies Social entrepreneurship is the work of a social entrepreneur. An organizational structure is a mostly hierarchical concept of subordination of entities that collaborate and contribute to serve one common aim An organizational structure is a mostly hierarchical concept of subordination of entities that collaborate and contribute to serve one common aim According to management science, most human organizations fall roughly into four types:
A hierarchy exemplifies an arrangement with a leader who leads leaders. Management science (MS, is the discipline of using Mathematical modeling and other analytical methods to help make better business Management decisions Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus A pyramid is a Building where the upper surfaces are triangular and converge on one point @@@ main@@@ - title Hierarchy@@@ keywords structure; sociology; information@@@ review@@@ - A committee (some of which are titled instead as a "Commission" or other terms discussed below in) is a type of small Deliberative assembly that is usually intended A jury a sworn body of persons convened to render a rational, impartial Verdict (a finding of fact on a question officially submitted to them An organisation (or organization &mdash see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals which controls its own performance and An organisation (or organization &mdash see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals which controls its own performance and @@@ main@@@ - title Hierarchy@@@ keywords structure; sociology; information@@@ review@@@ - The word leadership can refer to Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading This arrangement is often associated with bureaucracy. Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity usually in large organizations and government Hierarchies were satirized in The Peter Principle (1969), a book that introduced hierarchiology and the saying that "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence". Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human The Peter Principle is the principle that "In a Hierarchy Every Employee Tends to Rise to His Level of Incompetence Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
An extremely rigid, in terms of responsibilities, type of organization is exemplified by Führerprinzip. The, German for "leader principle" prescribes a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure
These consist of a group of peers who decide as a group, perhaps by voting. The difference between a jury and a committee is that the members of the committee are usually assigned to perform or lead further actions after the group comes to a decision, whereas members of a jury come to a decision. A jury a sworn body of persons convened to render a rational, impartial Verdict (a finding of fact on a question officially submitted to them A committee (some of which are titled instead as a "Commission" or other terms discussed below in) is a type of small Deliberative assembly that is usually intended In common law countries legal juries render decisions of guilt, liability and quantify damages; juries are also used in athletic contests, book awards and similar activities. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive Sometimes a selection committee functions like a jury. In the Middle Ages juries in continental Europe were used to determine the law according to consensus amongst local notables.
Committees are often the most reliable way to make decisions. Condorcet's jury theorem proved that if the average member votes better than a roll of dice, then adding more members increases the number of majorities that can come to a correct vote (however correctness is defined). A Condorcet method is any single-winner election method that meets the Condorcet criterion, that is which always selects the Condorcet winner, the candidate The problem is that if the average member is worse than a roll of dice, the committee's decisions grow worse, not better: Staffing is crucial.
Parliamentary procedure, such as Robert's Rules of Order, helps prevent committees from engaging in lengthy discussions without reaching decisions. TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those Robert's Rules of Order is the informal short title of a book containing Rules of order intended to be adopted for use by a Deliberative assembly.
A staff helps an expert get all his work done. Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. An "expert" ( is someone widely recognized as a reliable source of technique or Skill whose faculty for judging or deciding rightly justly To this end, a "chief of staff" decides whether an assignment is routine or not. If it's routine, he assigns it to a staff member, who is a sort of junior expert. The chief of staff schedules the routine problems, and checks that they are completed.
If a problem is not routine, the chief of staff notices. He passes it to the expert, who solves the problem, and educates the staff – converting the problem into a routine problem.
In a "cross functional team", like an executive committee, the boss has to be a non-expert, because so many kinds of expertise are required.
A theory put forth by renowned scholar Stephen John has asserted that throughout the cyclical nature of one’s life organizational patterns are key to success. Through various social and political constraints within society one must realize that organizational skills are paramount to success. Stephen John suggests that emphasis needs to be put on areas such as individual/ group processes, functionality, and overall structures of institutions in order to maintain a proper organization. Furthermore, the individual's overall organizational skills are pre-determined by the processes undertaken. :
This organizational type assigns each worker two bosses in two different hierarchies. Matrix management is a type of organizational Management in which people with similar skills are pooled for work assignments One hierarchy is "functional" and assures that each type of expert in the organization is well-trained, and measured by a boss who is super-expert in the same field. The other direction is "executive" and tries to get projects completed using the experts. Projects might be organized by regions, customer types, or some other schema. matrix management
This organization has intense competition. Competition is a rivalry between individuals groups nations or animals for territory or resources Bad parts of the organization starve. Good ones get more work. Everybody is paid for what they actually do, and runs a tiny business that has to show a profit, or they are fired.
Companies who utilize this organization type reflect a rather one-sided view of what goes on in ecology. Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of It is also the case that a natural ecosystem has a natural border - ecoregions do not in general compete with one another in any way, but are very autonomous. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( An ecoregion ( ecological region) sometimes called a bioregion, is an ecologically and geographically defined area smaller than a "realm" or "
The pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline talks about functioning as this type of organization in this external article from The Guardian. GlaxoSmithKline plc () is a United Kingdom -based pharmaceutical, biological and Healthcare Company. The Guardian (until 1959 The Manchester Guardian) is a British Newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group.
The chaordic model of organizing human endeavors emerged in the 1990s, based on a blending of chaos and order (hence "chaordic"), comes out of the work of Dee Hock and the creation of the VISA financial network. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 Chaos (derived from the Ancient Greek, Chaos) typically refers to Unpredictability, and is the antithesis of Cosmos. Dee Ward Hock (born 1929 is the founder and former CEO of the VISA credit card association. Blending democracy, complex system, consensus decision making, co-operation and competition, the chaordic approach attempts to encourage organizations to evolve from the increasingly nonviable hierarchical, command-and-control models. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system This article describes complex system as a type of system For other meanings see Complex systems. WikipediaConsensus here as this is the article namespace and that information is irrelevant to the reader Distinguish from Corporation. Cooperation, co-operation, or coöperation is the process of working or acting together Competition is a rivalry between individuals groups nations or animals for territory or resources
Similarly, emergent organizations, and the principle of self-organization. The term emergent organizations (alternatively emergent organisations) first appeared in the late 1990s and was the topic of the Seventh Annual Washington Evolutionary Systems Self-organization is a process of Attraction and repulsion in which the internal organization of a System, normally an open system, increases See also group entity for an anarchist perspective on human organizations. In individualist anarchist Discourse, a group entity is usually distinguished from an individual hominid, or animal groups from a single living being Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i
Organizations that are legal entities: government, international organization, non-governmental organization, armed forces, corporation, partnership, charity, not-for-profit corporation, cooperative, university. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. International Organization is a peer-reviewed Academic journal that covers the entire field of International affairs. For the military meaning see Armed forces. For the Soviet sports society see Armed Forces (sports society Armed Forces A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business For partnership in cricket terminology see List of cricket terms A partnership is a type of Business entity in which partners The definition of charitable organization, and of charity varies according to the country and in some instances the region of the country in which the charitable organization operates A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects
The organization of the artist is a term first used by architect Frank Gehry to denote the organizational set-up he enforces in order to ensure that the architect/artist is in control of design through construction. The organization of the artist is a concept devised by architect Frank Gehry and first used in writing by professor Bent Flyvbjerg in 2005 in Harvard Design Magazine Frank Owen Gehry CC (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize -winning Architect The organization of the artist deliberately eliminates the influence of politicians and business people on design. The purpose of the organization of the artist is to ensure that it is the design of the architect/artist that is actually implemented and not some compromise decided by political and business interests.
Gehry initially developed the concept of the organization of the artist as a reaction against what he calls the "marginalization of the architect/artist. " Gehry explains:
"There's a tendency to marginalize and treat the creative people like women are treated, 'sweetie, us big business guys know how to do this, just give us the design and we'll take it from there. ' That is the worst thing that can happen. It requires the organization of the artist to prevail so that the end product is as close as possible to the object of desire [the design] that both the client and architect have come to agree on. " (Flyvbjerg 2005, 53).
Gehry argues that the organization of the artist, in addition to making possible artistic integrity, also helps keep his buildings on time and budget, which is rare for the type of innovative and complex designs that Gehry is known for. The organization of the artist thus serves the dual purpose of artistic freedom and economic prudence. Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation.
An organization that is established as an instrument or means for achieving defined objectives has been referred to as a formal organization. Its design specifies how goals are subdivided and reflected in subdivisions of the organization. Divisions, departments, sections, positions, jobs, and tasks make up this work structure. Structure is a fundamental and sometimes Intangible notion covering the Recognition, Observation, nature, and Stability of Thus, the formal organization is expected to behave impersonally in regard to relationships with clients or with its members. According to Weber's definition, entry and subsequent advancement is by merit or seniority. Each employee receives a salary and enjoys a degree of tenure that safeguards him from the arbitrary influence of superiors or of powerful clients. The higher his position in the hierarchy, the greater his presumed expertise in adjudicating problems that may arise in the course of the work carried out at lower levels of the organization. It is this bureaucratic structure that forms the basis for the appointment of heads or chiefs of administrative subdivisions in the organization and endows them with the authority attached to their position. 
In contrast to the appointed head or chief of an administrative unit, a leader emerges within the context of the informal organization that underlies the formal structure. The informal organization expresses the personal objectives and goals of the individual membership. A goal or objective consists of a projected state of affairs which a Person or a System plans or intends to achieve or bring about — a personal or Their objectives and goals may or may not coincide with those of the formal organization. The informal organization represents an extension of the social structures that generally characterize human life — the spontaneous emergence of groups and organizations as ends in themselves. 
In prehistoric times, man was preoccupied with his personal security, maintenance, protection, and survival. Now man spends a major portion of his waking hours working for organizations. His need to identify with a community that provides security, protection, maintenance, and a feeling of belonging continues unchanged from prehistoric times. This need is met by the informal organization and its emergent, or unofficial, leaders. 
Leaders emerge from within the structure of the informal organization. Their personal qualities, the demands of the situation, or a combination of these and other factors attract followers who accept their leadership within one or several overlay structures. FACTOR may also refer to the Object Oriented programming requirements caputre acronym "Functionality Application domain Conditions Technology Objects and Responsibility" Instead of the authority of position held by an appointed head or chief, the emergent leader wields influence or power. Influence is the ability of a person to gain cooperation from others by means of persuasion or control over rewards. Power is a stronger form of influence because it reflects a person's ability to enforce action through the control of a means of punishment. 
An individual who is appointed to a managerial position has the right to command and enforce obedience by virtue of the authority of his position. However, he must possess adequate personal attributes to match his authority, because authority is only potentially available to him. In the absence of sufficient personal competence, a manager may be confronted by an emergent leader who can challenge his role in the organization and reduce it to that of a figurehead. However, only authority of position has the backing of formal sanctions. It follows that whoever wields personal influence and power can legitimize this only by gaining a formal position in the hierarchy, with commensurate authority. 
A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector, simultaneously fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the Public sector and the Private sector, simultaneously fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market The public sector is the part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the Government, whether national Regional In Economics, the private sector is that part of the economy which is both run for private Profit and is not controlled by the State. As a result the hybrid organization becomes a mixture of both a part of government and a private corporation. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business