|Part of World War II|
The Möhne dam on the day after the attacks. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
|No. 617 Squadron||Nazi Germany|
|19 aircraft||Various anti-aircraft defences|
|Casualties and losses|
|8 aircraft shot down|
|2 Dams breached|
1 dam heavily damaged
Operation Chastise was the official name for the attacks on German dams on 17 May 1943 in World War II using a specially developed "bouncing bomb". Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Eder is a 177 km long River in Germany, left tributary of the Fulda River. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. No 617 Squadron of the Royal Air Force is better known as the "Dambusters" squadron Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Wing Commander Guy Penrose Gibson VC, DSO & Bar, DFC & Bar, RAF ( 12 August 1918 – A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water while other structures such as Floodgates, Levees Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including A bouncing bomb is a bomb designed specifically to bounce to a target such as across water to avoid Torpedo nets Unlike Skip bombing, which uses conventional The attack was carried out by Royal Air Force No. 617 Squadron, subsequently known as the Dambusters. No 617 Squadron of the Royal Air Force is better known as the "Dambusters" squadron
Prior to the war, the industrial heartland of Germany had been identified by the Air Ministry as an important strategic target and the dams of the area considered as particular targets. The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the British Government with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the Royal Air Force. Besides providing power they were used to provide water into the canal transport system. The methods to attack the dams had been duly considered. Calculations indicated that repeated strikes with large bombs would be effective but the necessary accuracy with the standard bombers of Bomber Command in the face of enemy defences was unlikely to be met. RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAF 's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968
The mission developed out of a bomb designed by Barnes Wallis and developed into a working device by a team at Vickers. Sir Barnes Neville Wallis, CBE, Kt, FRS, RDI, FRAeS ( 26 September 1887  &ndash 30 October Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 2004 Wallis was an aircraft designer and had the successful Wellesley and Wellington bombers to his credit. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout While working on the Warwick, he also began work on bomb design with dams specifically in mind. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
His initial idea was for a 10-ton bomb to be dropped from 40,000 feet (12,200 m). This was part of the earthquake bomb concept. The earth quake bomb was a concept that was invented by the British aeronautical engineer Barnes Wallis before World War II and subsequently developed and used during However, at the time there was no aircraft capable of flying at this height with such a heavy load. A much smaller charge would suffice if it could be exploded directly against the dam wall below the surface of the water. The major German dams were protected by heavy torpedo netting to prevent such an attack, and Wallis's breakthrough was to overcome this. Torpedo nets were a passive naval Warship defensive device against Torpedoes whose use was common practice from the 1890s through World War I. A drum-shaped bomb, spinning rapidly backwards (over 500 rpm) and dropped from a sufficiently low altitude at the right speed, would skip for the required distance over the surface of the water in a series of bounces before reaching the dam wall and then, using its residual spin, run down the wet side to the dam's base. An accurate drop could bypass the dam protection and let the bomb be detonated against the dam with a hydrostatic fuse. After testing, and many meetings, the idea was adopted on February 26, 1943. Events 747 BC - Epoch (origin of Ptolemy 's Nabonassar Era 364 - Valentinian I is proclaimed Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The bomb was codenamed 'Upkeep'. The dams were to be bombed in May of that year, when water levels would be highest and create the most damage to the German war effort.
The operation was given to 5 Group which formed a new squadron to undertake the mission. Air Chief Marshal Sir Ralph Alexander Cochrane GBE KCB AFC RAF ( 24 February 1895 &ndash 17 December Wing Commander Guy Penrose Gibson VC, DSO & Bar, DFC & Bar, RAF ( 12 August 1918 – Air Commodore John Nicholas Haworth Whitworth CB, DSO, DFC and Bar, RAF ( 10 January 1912 &ndash 13 November Squadron Leader Les Munro CNZM, DSO, QSO, DFC, JP (born 1919 is the last surviving pilot of the Dambusters Raid No 5 Group (Motto "Undaunted") was a Royal Air Force bomber group of the Second World War, led during the latter part (February 1943 Initially called Squadron 'X', it was led by Wing Commander Guy Gibson, a veteran of over 170 missions. Wing Commander ( Wg Cdr in the RAF, WGCDR in the RNZAF and RAAF, W/C in the former RCAF) is a commissioned Wing Commander Guy Penrose Gibson VC, DSO & Bar, DFC & Bar, RAF ( 12 August 1918 – A further 21 crews were chosen from 5 Group to join the new squadron based at RAF Scampton, 5 miles north of Lincoln. RAF Scampton is a Royal Air Force station situated north of Lincoln in England, near the village of Scampton, on the site of an old Lincoln (ˈlɪŋkən is a Cathedral city and County town of Lincolnshire, England.
The targets were the three key dams near the Ruhr area, the Möhne, the Sorpe and the Eder Dam on the Eder River. The Ruhr Area, ( German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott, Kohlenpott or Revier) is an Urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia The Möhne Reservoir is an artificial Lake in North Rhine-Westphalia, some 45 km east of Dortmund. The Edersee is a large reservoir created by the construction from 1908 to 1914 of a rock and concrete Dam across the Eder river near the small town of The Eder is a 177 km long River in Germany, left tributary of the Fulda River. The loss of hydroelectric power was important but the loss of water to industry, cities and canals would have greater effect.
The aircraft were adapted Avro Lancaster Mk IIIs, known as B Mark III Special (Type 464 Provisioning). The Imperial War Museum Duxford in Cambridgeshire, England, commonly referred to simply as 'Duxford', houses the Imperial War Museum 's "Lanc" redirects here Distinguish from Lank (adjective and from Amon Lanc (a place in Tolkien's fiction  To reduce weight, much of the armour was removed, as was the mid-upper turret. The substantial bomb and its unusual shape meant that the bomb doors were removed and the bomb itself hung, in part, below the body of the aircraft. It was mounted in two crutches and before dropping, it was spun up to speed by an auxiliary motor. 
Bombing from 60 feet (18 m) at 240 mph (390 km/h), at a very precise distance from the target, required expert crews, intensive night and low-altitude flight training, and the solutions to two technical problems. The first was to know when the aircraft was the correct distance from the target. The two key dams at Möhne and Eder had a tower at each end. A special aiming device (a device with two prongs making the same angle as the two towers at the correct distance from the dam) showed when to release the bomb. Geometry Two geometrical objects are called similar if one is congruent to the result of a uniform scaling (enlarging or shrinking of the other The second problem was to measure the aircraft's altitude (the usual barometric altimeters lacked sufficient accuracy). Two spotlights were mounted, one under the nose and another under the fuselage, such that at the correct height their light beams would converge on the surface of the water. The fuselage (from the French fuselé "spindle-shaped" is an Aircraft 's main body section that holds crew and passengers or Cargo The crews practised over the Eyebrook Reservoir in Leicestershire/Rutland (built in 1940 to supply Corby steelworks, Stewarts and Lloyds), the Derwent Reservoir, Derbyshire, and the Fleet Lagoon at Chesil Beach, Dorset. Eyebrook Reservoir is a Reservoir in the East Midlands of England formed by the damming of the Eye Brook. Leicestershire (ˈlɛstəʃə(r or ˈlɛstəʃɪə(r abbreviation Leics Rutland is a county of mainland England, bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire, and southeast by Corby is an industrial town and a local government district located 13km north of Kettering in Northamptonshire, England. Not to be confused with Derwent Water in Cumbria Derwent Reservoir is the middle of three reservoirs in the Upper Derwent Valley Chesil Beach, sometimes called Chesil Bank, is a Tombolo in Dorset, southern England. Dorset ( (or archaically, Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast
The bombs were delivered to the squadron on 13 May, after the final tests on 29 April. Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. With promising weather reports the pilots, navigators and bomb aimers were informed of the targets on 15 May, the rest of the crews on the following day. Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the
The Lancasters were organised into three groups. Formation 1 was to attack the Möhne and after that, aircraft still with bombs would attack the Eder. Formation 2 was to attack the Sorpe. The third group was a mobile reserve; it would take off two hours later on May 17th and bomb as directed, either attacking the main dams or bombing smaller dams at Schwelm, Ennepe and Diemel.
Formation 1 was of nine aircraft in three groups—Gibson, Hopgood, Martin; Young, Astell, Maltby; and Maudslay, Knight, Shannon. Squadron Leader Henry Melvin "Dinghy" Young DFC & Bar (died 17 March 1943 aged 27 was a Royal Air Force Voluntary Reserve Bomber Command Formation 2 was of five aircraft, those of McCarthy, Byers, Barlow, Rice and Munro. Squadron Leader Les Munro CNZM, DSO, QSO, DFC, JP (born 1919 is the last surviving pilot of the Dambusters Raid Formation 3 consisted of the aircraft of Anderson, Townsend, Brown, Ottley and Burpee. Two crews were unable to make the mission because of illness.
The operations room for the mission was at 5 Group headquarters in Grantham, Lincolnshire. Grantham is a Market town within the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England. Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England. The codes (transmitted in morse) for the mission were agreed on as Goner for bomb dropped, Nigger for the Möhne breached and Dinghy for the Eder breached. Morse code is a Character encoding for transmitting telegraphic information using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters numerals The Nigger code was after Gibson's black dog  that had been run over and killed on the morning of May 17th, the day of the attack. Dinghy was from the nickname of Gibson's friend Young who would be flying A-Apple — Young had had to make forced landings in the sea several times on operations, he and his crew having to resort to the aircraft's inflatable liferaft. Thereafter, he had been known as "Dinghy Young".
The aircraft flew two routes, carefully skirting known flak hot spots. Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging hostile military Aircraft in defence of ground objectives, ground or naval forces
Formation 1 entered continental Europe between Walcheren and Schouwen, crossed the Netherlands, skirting the airbases at Eindhoven and Gilze-Rijen, curved round the Ruhr defences and turned north to avoid Hamm before turning to head south to the Möhne. Walcheren is a former Island in the Province of Zeeland in the Netherlands at the mouth of the Scheldt Estuary Schouwen-Duiveland ( is a Municipality and an Island in the southwestern Netherlands. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Eindhoven ( is a Municipality and a city located in the province of Noord-Brabant in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence Gilze en Rijen ( is a Municipality in the southern Netherlands. Hamm is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW Germany. It is located on the Lippe River, in the northeastern part of the Ruhr area. Formation 2 flew further northwards, cutting over Vlieland and crossing the IJsselmeer before joining the first route near Wesel and then flying south beyond the Möhne to the Sorpe. Vlieland ( Flylân is a Municipality in the northern Netherlands. IJsselmeer (sometimes translated as Lake Ĳssel, alternative international spelling Lake Yssel) is a shallow lake of 1100 km² in the central Netherlands Wesel (ˈveːzəl is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The first aircraft, those of Formation 2 and heading for the longer northern route, took off at 21h10. McCarthy's aircraft had a hydraulics fault and he took off in a reserve craft twenty minutes later. Formation 1 took off from 21h25, May 16th.
The aircraft flew low, at around 100 feet, in order to avoid radar. Flight Sergeant George Chalmers, wireless operator on 'O for Orange', observing through the astrodome, was astonished that his pilot was flying to the target along a fire break in a forest below tree level. Flight Sergeant ( Flt Sgt, F/Sgt, F/S, FSgt or FS) is a senior non-commissioned rank in the British Royal An astrodome is a hemispherical transparent dome fitted in the cabin roof of an Aircraft for the purpose of allowing the use of a Sextant during On the return flight over the Dutch coast, German flak shells were bouncing off the surface of the sea .
The first casualties were taken soon after the craft reached the Dutch coast. Formation 2 did not fare well: Munro's aircraft lost his radio to flak and turned back over the Ijsselmeer while Rice flew too low and lost his bomb in the water but recovered the aircraft to return to base. Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging hostile military Aircraft in defence of ground objectives, ground or naval forces IJsselmeer (sometimes translated as Lake Ĳssel, alternative international spelling Lake Yssel) is a shallow lake of 1100 km² in the central Netherlands The aircraft of both Barlow and Byers crossed over the coast around the island of Texel. Texel is a municipality and an Island in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. Byers was hit by flak and shot down shortly thereafter crashing into the Waddenzee. The Wadden Sea ( Vadehavet, Waddenzee, Wattenmeer, Low German: Wattensee, West Frisian: Waadsee Only the late aircraft of McCarthy survived across the Netherlands. By contrast, Formation 1 lost Astell, somewhere over Roosendaal. Roosendaal ( is both a city and a Municipality in the southern Netherlands.
Formation 1 arrived over Möhne lake and Gibson's aircraft (G for George) bombed first. Hopgood (M for Mother) attacked second. Hopgood's aircraft was hit by flak as it made its low-level run and was then caught in the blast of its own bomb and destroyed. Subsequently Gibson flew his aircraft across the dam to draw flak from Martin's run. Martin (P for Peter (Popsie)) bombed third; his aircraft was hit but made a successful attack. Then Young (A for Apple) made a successful run and after him Maltby (J for Johnny) and then, finally, the dam was breached. Gibson then led Young, Shannon, Maudslay and Knight to the Eder.
The Eder valley was heavily fogged but not defended. The tricky topography of the surrounding hills made the approach difficult and the first aircraft, Shannon's, made six runs before taking a break. Maudslay (Z for Zebra) then attempted a run but the bomb struck the top of the dam and the aircraft was caught in the blast. Shannon made another run and successfully dropped his bomb. The final bomb of the formation, from Knight's aircraft (N for Nan), breached the dam.
McCarthy (T for Tom) reached the Sorpe alone. It was the least likely to be breached — a vast earth dam rather than the two concrete structures successfully attacked. Despite the mist and ill-placed hills, McCarthy's aircraft successfully dropped its bomb but did not breach the dam. Three of the reserve aircraft were directed to the Sorpe. Burpee (S for Sugar) never reached the dam. Brown (F for Freddy) reached the dam and in increasingly dense mist finally dropped his bomb without breaking the dam. Anderson (Y for Yorker) arrived last and the mist was too dense for him to even attempt the run. The remaining two aircraft were sent to subsidiary targets, Ottley (C for Charlie) was shot down en route while Townsend (O for Orange) dropped his bomb on the Ennepe without breaching the dam.
There is some evidence that Townsend may have mistakenly attacked the Bever Dam rather than the Ennepe. Townsend reported difficulty in finding the dam and in his post-raid report complained that the map of the Ennepe dam was incorrect. The Bever dam is located only about 5 miles southwest of the Ennepe dam and the reservoir has similar geography. However, the Bever dam is located on the south side of the reservoir while the Ennepe is located on the north side of its reservoir. With the mist filling the valleys in the early morning hours, it would be understandable to mistake the two reservoirs. The War Diary of the German Naval Staff reported that the Bever Dam had been attacked at nearly the same time as the Sorpe. In addition, the Wupperverband authority responsible for the Bever recovered the remains of a mine. Paul Keiser, a 19-year-old soldier on leave at his home very near the dam, also reported an aircraft making several approaches to the dam and eventually dropping a weapon leaving a big explosion and a great pillar of flame in a column of water. The Dambusters Raid author, John Sweetman, claims that Townsend's report of the moon reflecting on the mist and water is consistent with an attack heading for the Bever rather than the Ennepe given the moon's azimuth and altitude during the attack. Sweetman also points out that the Ennepe-Wasserverband authority is adamant that only a single bomb was dropped near the Ennepe during the whole war and this bomb fell in the woods by the side of the dam, not in the water as in Townsend's report. Finally, members of Townsend's crew independently reported seeing a manor house and attacking an earthen dam, which is consistent with the Bever rather than the Ennepe. The main evidence supporting an attack of the Ennepe is Townsend's post-flight report that he attacked the Ennepe on a heading of 355 deg. M. Assuming that the heading was incorrect, all other evidence points toward an attack on the Bever.
On the way back, flying again at treetop level, one further aircraft was lost, that of Young which was hit by flak and crashed into the sea just off the coast of Holland.
|Aircraft Call Sign||Commander||Target||Returned?||Notes|
|G George||Wing Commander Guy Gibson||Möhne Dam||Yes||Raid leader. Wing Commander Guy Penrose Gibson VC, DSO & Bar, DFC & Bar, RAF ( 12 August 1918 – Mine exploded short of dam. Used aircraft to draw AA fire away from other crews.|
|M Mother||Flight Lieutenant Hopgood||No||Hit by AA fire outbound. Flight Lieutenant ( Flt Lt in the RAF; FLTLT in the RAAF and RNZAF, F/L in the former RCAF) is a junior Mine bounced over dam. Shot down over target while attacking.|
|P Peter (Popsie)||Flight Lieutenant Martin||Yes||Mine missed target. Air Marshal Sir Harold Brownlow Morgan "Micky" Martin, KCB, DSO & Bar, DFC & Two Bars, AFC ( 27 February|
|A Apple||Squadron Leader Young||No||Mine hit dam and caused small breach. Squadron Leader is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence Shot down over Dutch coast while returning.|
|J Johnny||Flight Lieutenant Maltby||Yes||Mine hit dam and caused large breach.|
|L Leather||Flight Lieutenant Shannon||Eder Dam||Yes||Mine hit target—no effect.|
|Z Zebra||Squadron Leader Maudsley||No||Mine overshot target and damaged aircraft. Shot down over Germany while returning.|
|N Nancy (Nan)||Pilot Officer Knight||Yes||Mine hit dam and caused large breach. Pilot Officer ( Plt Off officially in the RAF PLTOFF in the RAAF and RNZAF P/O in the former RCAF and frequently in the RAF is the lowest commissioned|
|B Baker||Flight Lieutenant Astell||N/A||No||Crashed after hitting power lines outbound.|
|T Tommy||Flight Lieutenant McCarthy||Sorpe Dam||Yes||Mine hit target—no effect.|
|E Easy||Flight Lieutenant Barlow||N/A||No||Crashed after hitting power lines outbound.|
|K King||Pilot Officer Byers||No||Shot down over Dutch coast outbound.|
|H Harry||Pilot Officer Rice||Yes||Lost mine after clipping sea outbound. Returned without attacking target.|
|W Willie||Flight Lieutenant Munro||Yes||Damaged by AA fire over Dutch coast. Squadron Leader Les Munro CNZM, DSO, QSO, DFC, JP (born 1919 is the last surviving pilot of the Dambusters Raid Returned without attacking target.|
|Y York||Flight Sergeant Anderson||Lister Dam||Yes||Could not find target due to mist. Flight Sergeant ( Flt Sgt, F/Sgt, F/S, FSgt or FS) is a senior non-commissioned rank in the British Royal Landed at Scampton with armed mine.|
|F Freddy||Flight Sergeant Brown||Sorpe Dam||Yes||Mine hit target—no effect.|
|O Orange||Flight Sergeant Townsend||Ennepe Dam||Yes||Mine hit target—no effect.|
|S Sugar||Pilot Officer Burpee||N/A||No||Shot down over Holland outbound.|
|C Charlie||Pilot Officer Ottley||No||Shot down over Germany outbound.|
Bomber Command wanted to conduct bomb damage assessment as soon as possible. RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAF 's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968 Bomb damage assessment, often referred to as BDA, is the practice of assessing damage inflicted on a target by an air campaign Accordingly, the Commanding Officer of No. 542 Squadron was informed by Bomber Command HQ of the exact time of the attacks. A photographic reconnaissance Spitfire of No. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout 542 Squadron, piloted by Flying Officer Frank "Jerry" Fray  took off from RAF Benson at 07:30 and arrived over the Ruhr just after first light. Flying Officer ( Fg Off in the RAF FLGOFF in the RAAF FGOFF in the RNZAF F/O in the former RCAF and frequently in the RAF is a junior commissioned BEX redirects here For the airline that operated under that name from 1984 to 2000 see Business Express Airlines. Photographs were taken of the breached dams and the huge floods.  The pilot later described the experience: 
|“||When I was about 150 miles from the Mohne dam I could see the industrial haze over the Ruhr area and what appeared to be a cloud to the east. On flying closer I saw that what had seemed to be cloud was the sun shining on the floodwaters. |
I looked down into the deep valley which had seemed so peaceful three days before [on an earlier reconnaissance mission] but now it was a wide torrent.
The whole valley of the river was inundated with only patches of high ground and the tops of trees and church steeples showing above the flood. I was overcome by the immensity of it.
In total, 53 of the 133 aircrew who participated in the attack were killed in action and three bailed out to be made Prisoners of war. Killed in action ( KIA or K I A) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own forces by other This represents a casualty rate of almost 40%. Of the aircrew who survived, thirty-three were decorated at Buckingham Palace on 22 June, with Gibson awarded the Victoria Cross. Buckingham Palace is the official London residence of the British monarch. Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. See below the section "Separate Commonwealth awards" Note that since There were five Distinguished Service Orders, ten Distinguished Flying Crosses and four bars, twelve Distinguished Flying Medals and two Conspicuous Gallantry Medals. The Distinguished Service Order ( DSO) is a Military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries awarded for The Distinguished Flying Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom 's Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly The Distinguished Flying Medal was (until 1993 a military decoration awarded to personnel of the Royal Air Force ( United Kingdom) and the other services See also Pingat Gagah Perkasa for Conspicuous Gallantry Medal of Singapore The Conspicuous Gallantry Medal (CGM was until 1993 a military decoration awarded
After a public relations tour of America, Gibson returned to operations and was killed on a mission in 1944.
Following the dams raid, 617 Squadron was kept together as a specialist unit. The squadron badge ("on a roundel, a wall in fesse, fracted by three flashes of lightning in pile and issuant from the breach, water proper") was chosen and a motto "Après moi le déluge" (After me the Flood). According to Brickhill there was some controversy over the motto, with the original version Après nous le déluge (After us the flood) being rejected by the heralds as having inappropriate provenance (having been coined, reportedly, by Madame Pompadour), and après moi le déluge having been used by Louis XV in an "irresponsible" context. Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson marquise de Pompadour, also known as Madame de Pompadour ( December 29, 1721 &ndash April 15, 1764 Louis XV (15 February 1710 &ndash 10 May 1774 ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774 The motto having been chosen by the King, the latter was finally deemed acceptable.
The squadron went on to drop Wallis' massive Tallboy bomb and Grand Slam bomb, including an attack on the German battleship Tirpitz, using an advanced bomb sight which enabled the bombing of small targets with far greater accuracy than was routinely obtained with conventional bomb aiming techniques. The Tallboy was an Earth quake bomb developed by Barnes Wallis and brought into operation by the British in 1944 The Grand Slam was a 22000 lb Earth quake bomb used by RAF Bomber Command against strategic targets during the Second World War. Operational history This battleship was launched on 1 April 1939 and she was planned to be deployed in a manner similar to the ''Bismarck'', as a Commerce raider The squadron is still active today.
The Möhne and Sorpe lakes poured around 330 million tons of water (equivalent to a cube 687 metres on each side) into the western Ruhr region. Mines were flooded and houses, factories, roads, railways and bridges destroyed as the flood waters spread for around 50 miles (80 km) from the source. The Eder drains towards the east into the Fulda, flooding farmland and several villages. Estimates show that before 15 May 1943 water production on the Ruhr was 1 million tonnes, which dropped to a quarter of that level after the raid. Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In terms of deaths: according to the latest sources, at least 1,650 people were killed: around 70 in the Eder valley, and at least 1,579 bodies were found along the Möhne and Ruhr rivers, with hundreds missing. 1,026 of the bodies found downriver of the Möhne dam were foreign prisoners of wars and forced-labourers in different camps, mainly from the Soviet Union. Worst-hit was the city of Neheim (now part of Neheim-Hüsten) at the confluence of the Möhne and Ruhr rivers, where over 800 people perished, among them at least 526 female forced-labourers from the Soviet Union. Arnsberg is a town in the Hochsauerland district in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. (Some non-German sources erroneously cite an earlier total of 749 for all foreigners in all camps in the Möhne and Ruhr valleys as the casualty at a camp just below the Eder Dam. ) After the operation Barnes Wallis wrote, "I feel a blow has been struck at Germany from which she cannot recover for several years".
However, on closer inspection, Operation Chastise did not have the military effect that was at the time believed. By 27 June, full water output was restored, thanks to an emergency pumping scheme inaugurated only the previous year, and the electricity grid was again producing power at full capacity. Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden The raid proved to be costly in lives (more than half the lives lost belonging to allied POWs and forced-labourers), but in fact no more than a minor inconvenience to the Ruhr's industrial output.
In his book Inside the Third Reich, Albert Speer expressed puzzlement at the raids; destruction of one of the dams served no purpose at all, he claimed, and the failure to follow up with additional raids represented a major lost opportunity for the Allies. Inside the Third Reich is a Memoir written by Albert Speer, the Nazi Minister of Armaments from 1942 to 1945 serving as Hitler's main architect Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer, commonly known as Albert Speer ( 19 March 1905 - 1 September 1981 was an Architect, author and for part of World
The Dams Raid was, like many British air raids, undertaken with a view to the need to keep drawing German defensive effort back into Germany and away from actual and potential theatres of ground war, a policy which culminated in the Berlin raids of the winter of 1943–44. The Battle of Berlin was a British bombing campaign on Berlin from November 1943 to March 1944 as well as other German cities to prevent concentration In May 1943 this meant keeping the Luftwaffe and anti-aircraft defence forces' effort away from the Soviet Union; in early 1944, it meant clearing the way for the aerial side of the forthcoming Operation Overlord. ( German 'luftvafe is a generic German term for an Air force. Operation Overlord was the code name for the invasion of northwest Europe during World War II by Allied forces
By far the greatest and most unexpected effect was on German food production. The Ruhr valley below the dams was a major source of vital food for Germany, and large areas of arable land were rendered unusable and huge numbers of farm animals were killed. This had an immediate negative effect on German morale. In addition, the pictures of the broken dams proved to be a propaganda and morale boost to the Allies, especially to the British, still suffering under German bombing. 
An associated, but equally major effect was that Barnes Wallis's ideas on earth quake bombing, which had been rejected before, now became accepted by 'Bomber' Harris. The earth quake bomb was a concept that was invented by the British aeronautical engineer Barnes Wallis before World War II and subsequently developed and used during Prior to this raid bombing practice had been to 'area bomb' with many light bombs, in the hope that one would hit the target. Aerial area bombardment is the policy of indiscriminate bombing of an enemy's cities for the purpose of destroying the enemy's means of producing military Materiel, communications Work on the earthquake bomb theory resulted in the Tallboy and Grand Slam weapons, which caused unprecedented damage to German infrastructure in the later stages of the war. The Tallboy was an Earth quake bomb developed by Barnes Wallis and brought into operation by the British in 1944 The Grand Slam was a 22000 lb Earth quake bomb used by RAF Bomber Command against strategic targets during the Second World War. They rendered the V-2 assembly building unusable, buried the V-3 guns, sank the Tirpitz and destroyed many bridges and other hardened installations. See also Vergeltungswaffe The V-2 rocket ( Vergeltungswaffe 2 was the first Ballistic missile and first man-made object to achieve See also Vergeltungswaffe The V-3 ( Vergeltungswaffe 3) also known as the Hochdruckpumpe ("High Pressure Pump" HDP for Operational history This battleship was launched on 1 April 1939 and she was planned to be deployed in a manner similar to the ''Bismarck'', as a Commerce raider Notable amongst their successes were the U-Boat pens at Brest, where they penetrated 20 ft thick roofs of reinforced concrete, and the Saumur Tunnel, which was attacked by dropping the bombs straight through 60 feet of hill to explode in the tunnel below. Brest is a municipality in the district of Stade, Lower Saxony, Germany. Saumur is a town and commune in the Maine-et-Loire département of France on the Loire River at, with an approximate
An important reason for planning the raid was to persuade Stalin that Britain was capable of being an effective ally. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party This was the middle period of the war, when the United States had recently entered the war on Britain's side due to the Attack on Pearl Harbor. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The attack on Pearl Harbor (or Hawaii Operation, as it was called by the Imperial General Headquarters) was a surprise Military strike conducted by The Soviet Union, too, had relatively recently been forced to change sides due to their former allies' Operation Barbarossa, and was hard pressed by German forces. Operation Barbarossa ( Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the Codename for Nazi Germany 's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II Due to the seriousness of the situation for the Soviet Union during this period, Stalin often called upon the Western Allies to open a second front: the Dambusters raid provided the British with a valuable opportunity to prove that they were harrying the Germans in every way they could while building up forces for an eventual liberation of Western Europe. Operation Overlord was the code name for the invasion of northwest Europe during World War II by Allied forces Operation Overlord was the code name for the invasion of northwest Europe during World War II by Allied forces However, by the time the preparations for the British raid were complete, the USSR had managed to fight back against German forces; the USSR had also found the capacity to begin its counter-offensive on the Don and Volga. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Battle of Stalingrad is a commonly used name in English sources for several large operations by Germany and its allies and Soviet forces conducted with the Operation Uranus was the Soviet encirclement of German forces in the Battle of Stalingrad during World War 2. The Don (Дон is one of the major rivers of Russia. It rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 Kilometres southeast from Tula, southeast The Dams Raid enabled Churchill, in negotiations with the leaders of these new allies, to point to an effective strike against the hitherto apparently invincible German state. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 As a result, he was taken more seriously as an ally than might otherwise have been the case. This was most relevant in negotiations with Stalin, but also to a lesser degree in the USA. Although Churchill had the sympathetic ear of Roosevelt, many of the US military staff had until then been less persuaded of the value of British experience and capabilities. 
In 1977, Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions prohibited attacks against installations such as dams, dykes and nuclear power stations "if such attack may cause the release of dangerous forces and consequent severe losses among the civilian population". Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts ( Protocol 1) Introduction The Geneva Conventions consist of four Treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for International law for humanitarian The special protection covering dams and dykes terminates "only if it is used for other than its normal function and in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support".
The United Kingdom ratified Protocol I in 1998, but made the following reservation in respect of Article 56: