|One Canada Square|
The tallest building in the United Kingdom
|Location||London, England, UK|
|Antenna/Spire||244 metres (800 ft)  above sea level, or 235. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. 1 metres (771 ft) above ground level. |
(See height section for other quoted heights). One Canada Square (also known as the Canary Wharf Tower) is a Skyscraper in Canary Wharf, London.
|Floor area||115,000 m² (1,238,000 sq ft)|
|Elevator count||32 + 2 freight + 2 firemen|
|Architect|| César Pelli & Associates|
Frederick Gibberd Coombes & Partners
| MS Yolles & Partners|
|Contractor|| Sir Robert McAlpine |
Olympia & York
+ approximately 40 sub-contractors
|Developer||Olympia & York|
|Owner||Canary Wharf Group plc (current majority shareholder is Songbird Estates plc)|
|Management||Canary Wharf Group plc|
One Canada Square (also known as the Canary Wharf Tower) is a skyscraper in Canary Wharf, London. Cesar Pelli (born October 12 1926 in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina) is an Argentine Architect known for designing some of the Sir Robert McAlpine Ltd is a private British company headquartered in London. History Early years It was founded by Paul Reichmann and his brothers Albert and Ralph in Toronto in the early 1950s as an History Early years It was founded by Paul Reichmann and his brothers Albert and Ralph in Toronto in the early 1950s as an Canary Wharf Group plc is the owner and developer of nearly 100 acres of property at Canary Wharf in London. Canary Wharf Group plc is the owner and developer of nearly 100 acres of property at Canary Wharf in London. A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable Building. There is no official definition or a precise cutoff height above which a building may clearly be classified as a skyscraper Canary Wharf is a large business and shopping development in London, located in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, centred on the old West India Docks London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. It is currently the tallest building in the United Kingdom at 244 metres (800 ft) above sea level, or 235. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The term above mean sea level ( AMSL) refers to the Elevation (on the ground or Altitude (in the Air) of any object relative to the 1 metres (771 ft) above ground level (see height section for other quoted heights). In Aviation and Atmospheric sciences, an Altitude is said to be above ground level ( AGL) when it is measured with respect to the underlying One Canada Square (also known as the Canary Wharf Tower) is a Skyscraper in Canary Wharf, London. It is currently the sixth tallest building in the European Union. Skyscrapers above 140m This lists ranks skyscrapers in the European Union that stand at least tall based on standard height measurement
One Canada Square is a conspicuous London landmark, clearly visible at a distance from large areas of East and South London in particular. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. East London is the name commonly given to the north eastern part of London, England on the north side of the River Thames. South London is the southern part of London, England. The area it covers is defined differently for a range of purposes
It appears that the tower can be seen approximately 30 miles away from the following observations: Its visibility reaches to Gore Hill, Amersham, around 28 miles (45 km) away, from where it, and the rest of Canary Wharf can be seen on a clear day. Amersham is a Market town and Civil parish within Chiltern district in Buckinghamshire, England, 27 miles north west of Canary Wharf is a large business and shopping development in London, located in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, centred on the old West India Docks It can also be seen from the higher parts of the Lea Valley in southern Hertfordshire and Essex; this is particularly apparent when travelling towards London on the M11 motorway or A10 road. Hertfordshire (ˈhɑːtfədʃə(r, abbreviated Herts) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East region of Essex is a county in the East of England. The County town is Chelmsford, and the highest point of the county is Chrishall Common This page is about the M11 motorway in England For the M11 motorway in the Republic of Ireland see N11 road. On a clear evening, the illuminated pyramid which forms the roof of the building can even be seen from ZSL Whipsnade Zoo in Bedfordshire, over 32 miles (51 km) away. ZSL Whipsnade Zoo is a Zoo located at Whipsnade, near Dunstable in Bedfordshire, England. Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a County in England that forms part of the East of England region. The building can also be seen from the hills overlooking Guildford, a distance of around 31 miles (50 km). Guildford ( IPA /ˈgɪlfəd/ is the County town of Surrey, England, as well as the seat for the borough of Guildford and the
The original plans for Canary Wharf being a business district came from G Ware Travelstead. Canary Wharf is a large business and shopping development in London, located in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, centred on the old West India Docks Gooch Ware "G" Travelstead is an American property developer and entrepreneur born in Kentucky in 1938 He wanted 3 different towers at Canary Wharf being 850 feet high. Travelstead was unable to find the money for his project, so he sold the plans to Olympia & York in 1987. History Early years It was founded by Paul Reichmann and his brothers Albert and Ralph in Toronto in the early 1950s as an
Olympia & York concentrated all 3 towers into an area known as Docklands Square. One Canada Square was building number 7, being given a designation known as DS7 (D is Docklands, S is Square, 7 is Building 7). Docklands Square was later renamed as Canada Square. Canada Square is a public square at Canary Wharf, on the Isle of Dogs in London's Docklands.
The architects chosen for One Canada Square were Cesar Pelli & Associates, Adamson Associates, and Frederick Gibberd Coombes & Partners. Cesar Pelli (born October 12 1926 in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina) is an Argentine Architect known for designing some of the
One Canada Square is remarkably similar in design to Three World Financial Center, New York City, which was also developed by Olympia & York and designed by Cesar Pelli too. Three World Financial Center is one of the thirty tallest Skyscrapers in New York City, located on West Street between Liberty Street and Vesey The City of New York Olympia & York wanted to clad One Canada Square in stone, just like the World Financial Center buildings, but the architects insisted on steel to reflect Britain’s heritage as an industrial nation. Geographical list of stone used for decorative purposes in Construction and Sculpture; currently or historically produced in various countries The World Financial Center is a complex of buildings across West Street from the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan in New York City, In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11 The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors
The architects wanted to reflect the design of the tower like other London landmarks being simple geometric forms, such as St. Paul’s and the Houses of Parliament. Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position St Paul's Cathedral, is the Anglican Cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories
The design of the tower did gain a fair share of criticism. According to Cesar Pelli, the most damaging criticism came from Prince Charles who said "I personally would go mad if I had to work in a place like that".
To comply with air traffic safety regulations, the architects took off 5 floors of the tower. After losing 5 floors, Olympia & York insisted the other floors had to make up the lost floor space.
Construction on the tower began in 1988. Construction was given to Sir Robert McAlpine & Sons in association with Ellis Don of Toronto, but they were so slow at building the tower, partly due to building workers going on strike in the Summer of 1989, so Lehrer McGovern took over. Sir Robert McAlpine Ltd is a private British company headquartered in London. Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work.
On 8 November 1990, the tower was topped out when the top piece of the pyramid roof was put in place by crane.
In August 1991, One Canada Square was completed and open for business.
The majority of the tower was empty after opening because most tenants had not moved in yet and there was a global recession. A recession is a contraction phase of the Business cycle. The U
During the Christmas celebrations of 1991, lights and lasers were installed in One Canada Square. Architectural lighting design is a field within Architecture and Architectural engineering that concerns itself primarily with the illumination of architecture A laser is a device that emits Light ( Electromagnetic radiation) through a process called Stimulated emission. Some say this was to brighten up most of the dark windows.
In May 1992, the original developers, Olympia & York, went into bankruptcy administration. History Early years It was founded by Paul Reichmann and his brothers Albert and Ralph in Toronto in the early 1950s as an Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against A majority of the tenants who were due to move into One Canada Square refused. (Only a handful of tenants actually believed in the Canary Wharf project and still moved in despite the bankruptcy situation. )
Over the next several years, ultimate ownership of the tower changed several times (see Ownership section). One Canada Square (also known as the Canary Wharf Tower) is a Skyscraper in Canary Wharf, London.
In 1999, One Canada Square was completely let for the very first time. Lease Renting is an agreement where a payment is made for the temporary It took 11 years to fill up the tower (as tenants were first sought from the date of construction).
The official name given to the building is 'One Canada Square'.
Royal Mail / The Post Office (as well as some building tenants and other sources) refers to the building as '1 Canada Square'. Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. A post office is a facility authorized by a Postal system for the posting receipt sorting handling transmission or delivery of Mail.
The building has also been legally referred to as the 'Canary Wharf Tower', rather than 'One Canada Square'.
The incorrect names that have been used on One Canada Square are:
The building may have been referred to as the 'vertical Fleet Street', after several of London's newspapers moved from Fleet Street in the City of London to One Canada Square. Fleet Street is a street in London, England named after the River Fleet. For London as a whole see the main article London. The City of London is a geographically
The height of the building may differ depending on:
The height of One Canada Square has been stated differently from many sources. The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH is the leading international body in the field of tall buildings and sustainable urban design In Aviation and Atmospheric sciences, an Altitude is said to be above ground level ( AGL) when it is measured with respect to the underlying The term above mean sea level ( AMSL) refers to the Elevation (on the ground or Altitude (in the Air) of any object relative to the For lip-rounding in phonetics see Labialisation and Roundedness. Some of the measurements given to One Canada Square are as follows:
The criteria for this measurement is:
1. Height is measured from pavement/sidewalk level of the main entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage or flag poles.
2. A completed building can be considered such if it fulfils all three of the following criteria:
2. a) topped out structurally and architecturally
2. b) fully-clad
2. c) open for business, or at least partially occupied
Canary Wharf buildings cannot be much taller due to the interference with flight paths. Canary Wharf is a large business and shopping development in London, located in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, centred on the old West India Docks
One Canada Square was reduced from 55 floors to 50 floors as it got in the way of the flight path to London City Airport. London City Airport is a single-runway Airport, intended for use by STOL (Short Take Off and Landing Airliners and principally serving the financial Their management keeps a close eye on the building plans and applications made by Canary Wharf Group. Canary Wharf Group plc is the owner and developer of nearly 100 acres of property at Canary Wharf in London.
The pyramid roof lights up in the evenings and can be seen 20 miles away.
The pyramid roof contains a maintenance plant. The following is what goes on inside.
Water is pumped up to the pyramid roof, and is continuously rotated. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. A common sound that is heard inside the pyramid roof is water being moved around. There are two possible uses:
1) General water requirements, such as toilets, etc.
2) Water for the fire system. If a fire occurs inside the building, the sprinklers can get the water from the roof, as it is easier for water to flow downwards.
The machines for washing the building windows are stored inside the pyramid roof. There are two types:
1) An automatic window washing machine that run on rails on the sides of the building. This machine can clean a window in seconds.
2) A manual window washing cradle.
Both of these machines for cleaning the windows are supported by rails that run around the outside of the pyramid roof that are bolted down into the maintenance floor itself.
The aircraft warning light is at the very top of the pyramid. Aircraft warning lights are high-intensity lighting devices that are attached to tall structures and used as collision avoidance measures Access is via a ladder with a sign that warns of unauthorised entry will lead to dismissal.
The HVAC (climate control) system release air and vapours through the pyramid roof. HVAC (pronounced either "H-V-A-C" or occasionally " H-vak " is an Initialism or Acronym that stands for " Heating HVAC (pronounced either "H-V-A-C" or occasionally " H-vak " is an Initialism or Acronym that stands for " Heating Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five A vapor or vapour (see Spelling differences) is a substance in the Gas phase at a Temperature lower than its Critical temperature Sometimes in winter, the discharges can be clearly seen, and often mistaken as smoke, where local people have frequently called the fire brigade thinking the tower was on fire. Smoke is the collection of airborne solid and liquid Particulates and Gases ref> ''Smoke Production and Properties'' - SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering A fire station (also called stationhouse) is a structure or other area set aside for storage of firefighting apparatus (i Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction.
There is electrical equipment that regulates the power to the rest of the building on the mezzanine floor. In Architecture, a mezzanine or entresol is an intermediate Floor between main floors of a Building, and therefore typically not counted
In the event of a fire, One Canada Square is not fully evacuated. Only the floor that has the fire and the floor above are evacuated. The fire sprinkler system is activated, air conditioning will work in reverse to extract smoke, and air is blown in from the emergency exits (so that smoke does not enter the emergency exits). A fire sprinkler system is an Active fire protection measure consisting of a water supply providing adequate pressure and flowrate to a water distribution piping system The term air conditioning refers to the cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for Thermal comfort. Emergency Exit, by Manlio Santanelli, is a play written originally in Italian. Emergency Exit, by Manlio Santanelli, is a play written originally in Italian.
The only time when One Canada Square was fully evacuated was on 30 October 2001, during a test drill in response to the "September 11, 2001 attacks". Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. A fire drill is a method of practicing the evacuation of a building for a Fire or other Emergency.
The ground floor, foyer area and basement levels of One Canada Square are open to the general public, having an underground shopping area and a transport interchange from Canary Wharf tube and Docklands Light Railway stations. An elevator or lift is a Transport device used to move people or goods vertically from one floor to another A lobby is a Room in a Building which is used for entry from the outside An elevator or lift is a Transport device used to move people or goods vertically from one floor to another An elevator or lift is a Transport device used to move people or goods vertically from one floor to another An elevator or lift is a Transport device used to move people or goods vertically from one floor to another A floor is the walking surface of a room or vehicle Floors vary from simple dirt in a cave to many-layered surfaces using modern technology A lobby is a Room in a Building which is used for entry from the outside Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Theory The clamp load also called preload of a cap screw is created when a torque is applied and is generally a percentage of the cap screw's proof strength A loading dock is an architectural fixture where Trucks may be loaded and unloaded Canary Wharf is a large business and shopping development in London, located in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, centred on the old West India Docks The London Underground is a Metro system serving a large part of Greater London and neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire The Docklands Light Railway (DLR is a Light rail system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of East London England. Access from the basement also links to Canada Square shopping mall.
The floors above the lobby are not opened to the public as they contain offices.
Despite its status as the United Kingdom's tallest building, there is currently no public observation floor. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located However, there was an exception during 12 September 1992 - 15 November 1992, when bankruptcy administrators for Olympia & York Canary Wharf Limited opened the 50th floor to the public, in order to maintain interest in Canary Wharf. The scheme was stopped on 15 November 1992 when the IRA attempted to bomb the tower (see Terrorism section). One Canada Square (also known as the Canary Wharf Tower) is a Skyscraper in Canary Wharf, London.
One Canada Square was 'named and shamed' for being the top building to leave the lights on unnecessarily. The research carried out by the BBC Inside Out team found that on midnight Sunday, One Canada Square left more lights on than any other building in London.
However, Canary Wharf Group did say that some tenants have staff working around the clock, and 100% of the energy comes from renewable resources. Canary Wharf Group plc is the owner and developer of nearly 100 acres of property at Canary Wharf in London. A natural resource qualifies as a renewable resource if it is replenished by natural processes at a rate comparable or faster than its rate of consumption by humans or other users
Perhaps due to superstition, there is no rentable space on the thirteenth floor floor and instead the floors are numbered 11, 12, 14, 15. Triskaidekaphobia (from Greek tris=three kai=and deka=ten is an irrational fear of the number 13; it is a Superstition and related to a specific fear The levels of a multi-story Building are numbered sequentially from "basement" "one" or "ground" upwards  Elevators travelling between the ground floor and 16th floor have a blank button for what should be the 13th floor. People claim that using the fire escape stairs reveals that the floors go straight from the 12th floor to the 14th floor with no space for an extra floor in between. They say that there are no observable signs of an extra floor from within the building or from outside. This view is similar to the remarks made by employees of The Daily Telegraph, who formerly occupied floors 11-16 of the tower.
This belief may have originated when the tower owners insisted that it was merely an architectural coincidence that the thirteenth floor of One Canada Square houses the air conditioning equipment and no rentable offices.
The ownership of One Canada Square has changed since it was constructed. The table below shows who have previously owned One Canada Square, and also who are the current owners.
Any use of a holding company has been excluded from this list, as it is easier to trace the true owner.
|1988-1991||(Building under construction) Olympia & York Canary Wharf Limited (Ultimate parent: Olympia & York Developments Limited)|
|1991-1992||Olympia & York Canary Wharf Limited (Ultimate parent: Olympia & York Developments Limited)|
|1992-1993||None (previous owners were in administration due to bankruptcy)|
|1993-1995||Canary Wharf Limited (Parent: Sylvester Investments) (Ultimate parent: a consortium of 11 banks owned by Barclays Bank, CIBC, Chemical Bank, Citibank, Commerzbank, Credit Lyonnais, Credit Suisse, Kansallis-Osake-Pankki, Lloyds Bank, National Bank of Canada, and Royal Bank of Canada)|
|1995-1999||Canary Wharf Limited (Parent: International Property Corporation Limited) (Ultimate parent: a consortium owned by CNA Financial Corporation, Franklin Mutual Series Fund, HRH Prince Al Waleed bin Talal bin Abdulaziz al Saud, affiliates of Republic New York Corporation, Paul Reichmann)|
|1999-2004||Canary Wharf Group plc (public company, no majority shareholder)|
|2004-||Canary Wharf Group plc (public company, majority shareholder is Songbird Estates plc)|
Titles such as the 'tallest building in the UK' has many methods to determine this. History Early years It was founded by Paul Reichmann and his brothers Albert and Ralph in Toronto in the early 1950s as an History Early years It was founded by Paul Reichmann and his brothers Albert and Ralph in Toronto in the early 1950s as an Barclays PLC is a major global financial services provider operating in Europe, North America, the Middle East, Latin America, Australia The Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce () better known to most customers as CIBC, is one of Canada 's major Banks CIBC is classified as a Domestic The Chemical Banking Corporation was the Bank holding company for Chemical Bank in New York City from 1823 until 1996 Citibank is a major international Bank, founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York, later First National City Bank of New York. Commerzbank AG ( is the second-largest Bank in Germany (after Deutsche Bank) headquartered in Frankfurt am Main. See also LCL (Le Crédit Lyonnais Crédit Lyonnais is a historic French Bank. The Credit Suisse Group () is a Financial services company headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland. Kansallis-Osake-Pankki ( KOP) was a Finnish commercial bank operating from 1889 to 1995 Lloyds Bank Plc was a British Commercial bank which operated in England and Wales (and to a much lesser extent Scotland) from 1833 until its National Bank of Canada ( Banque Nationale du Canada) ( is the sixth largest Bank in Canada. The Royal Bank of Canada ( Banque Royale du Canada in French is Canada 's largest company and Bank. CNA Financial Corporation ( is a financial corporation based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, and noted for its 600 foot tall red headquarters Franklin Resources Inc is an Investment firm originally founded in New York in 1947 as Franklin Distributors Inc Khaled bin al-Walid Reem bint al-Walid Republic New York Corporation was the holding company for the Republic National Bank of New York and the Safra Republic Bank. Paul Reichmann (פול רייכמן born 1930 is a Canadian businessman best known for his leadership of the Olympia & York property development company Canary Wharf Group plc is the owner and developer of nearly 100 acres of property at Canary Wharf in London. A Public Limited Company ( PLC, plc or plc or p l c is a type of Limited company in the United Kingdom or the Republic of Ireland which is The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) determines this by: when a building is complete, clad and at least partially open for business. The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH is the leading international body in the field of tall buildings and sustainable urban design Another method is using the construction date of when a building surpassed the height of another building or structure. A third method is to use the top out date.
There are two views that separate if One Canada Square was ever the tallest skyscraper in the European Union (not to be confused with the tallest skyscraper in Europe). Skyscrapers above 140m This lists ranks skyscrapers in the European Union that stand at least tall based on standard height measurement This list of tallest buildings in Europe ranks skyscrapers in Europe by height
If it is based on completion date, then One Canada Square was never the European Union's tallest skyscraper as MesseTurm was completed in 1990, and One Canada Square was completed in 1991. Messeturm is a well-known Skyscraper in Frankfurt, Germany. Its name translates as "Fair Tower" ("fair" in the sense of "trade
If based on construction structural height or topping out date, then One Canada Square was the European Union's tallest building for a period of about six months before losing this title to MesseTurm, Frankfurt, Germany. Messeturm is a well-known Skyscraper in Frankfurt, Germany. Its name translates as "Fair Tower" ("fair" in the sense of "trade Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
There are several views of when One Canada Square surpassed the previous tallest building in the United Kingdom, which was Tower 42 (formerly known as NatWest Tower) (183 m, 600 ft). The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Tower 42 is the tallest Skyscraper in the City of London and the fifth tallest in London as a whole
If based on completion date, then it is August 1991.
If based on top out date, then One Canada Square became the tallest building in Britain on 8 November 1990.
If based on construction structural height, then it is Summer 1990.
One Canada Square may be overtaken as the tallest building in Canary Wharf by Riverside Tower 1. Canary Wharf is a large business and shopping development in London, located in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, centred on the old West India Docks Riverside South is a major office development under construction in Canary Wharf, London. The exact height of the final development has not been released by Canary Wharf Group with consideration the site is in preparation and not development. Canary Wharf Group plc is the owner and developer of nearly 100 acres of property at Canary Wharf in London. Planning permission has been granted to build to a maximum height of 241. 1 metres though development height may not reach this. Speculation on the height are as follows:
On 15 November 1992, the Provisional Irish Republican Army attempted to place a large improvised explosive device near to the tower. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Óglaigh na hÉireann ( IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the An improvised explosive device ( IED) is a Bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional Military action The IRA had already worked out that to cause maximum damage, the bomb had to be placed under the Docklands Light Railway bridge to disrupt infrastructure and near to the Canary Wharf Tower for a devastating effect. The Docklands Light Railway (DLR is a Light rail system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of East London England. The bomb was in a van which was driven to the designated place. As the bombers were about to make their escape, security guards approached the van because it was parked illegally on double yellow lines. A double-yellow line is a common Road marking meaning different things in many parts of the world Two men got out of the vehicle and pointed guns at the security guards. A gun is a particular Weapon that propels Projectiles The projectile is generally fired through a hollow tube known as the gun's barrel. The security guards tried to calm the situation thus challenged the two men, but the men decided to flee the scene having accomplished their mission. Canary Wharf Security pursued them as far as the boundary of the wharf, but the men escaped. The police was called and it was later discovered that the vehicle contained a bomb. Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force The detonator failed to ignite the main charge, and the bomb did not go off, so there was no bomb damage to Canary Wharf. For the Ratt album see Detonator (album A detonator is a device used to trigger an Explosive device. A few days later, the IRA described it as 'sheer ill luck' as the bomb failed to detonate. There was criticism that the intelligence services did not know about this massive bomb travelling through London. An intelligence agency is a governmental agency that is devoted to the Information gathering (known in the context as " intelligence " As a result of this attempted bombing, the observation floor was closed (see Public access section) and security was dramatically increased at Canary Wharf. One Canada Square (also known as the Canary Wharf Tower) is a Skyscraper in Canary Wharf, London.
On 9 February 1996, the IRA did detonate a large bomb at South Quay, south of Canary Wharf (outside of Canary Wharf), which killed two people and devastated several buildings. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) South Quay is a Docklands Light Railway station on the Isle of Dogs, in London. This explosion is commonly, but erroneously, referred to as the "Canary Wharf bomb". The Docklands bombing (also known as the Canary Wharf bombing or South Quay bombing) on February 9, 1996, was one of the most significant
There have been many news articles in recent years stating that the towers at Canary Wharf have been a target for terrorist. However, some of these plots have been denied by the government. 
As the Canary Wharf Tower is the first skyscraper to be cladded in stainless steel with metallised windows, this may have caused television reception interference for local people living in the area. In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11 In the case Patricia Hunter and others v. Canary Wharf Ltd. , the House of Lords concluded there is no legal right to receive good television reception. Patricia Hunter and others lost the case because of a variety of reasons that included:
In Spring 2001, the BBC received some television interference complaints from residents in the Poplar area (north of Canary Wharf). Microwave radio relay is a technology for transmitting digital and analog signals, such as long-distance Telephone calls and the relay of A plaintiff ( Π in Legal shorthand) also known as a claimant or complainant, is the party who initiates a Lawsuit Poplar is an area of the East End of London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. A possible cause for the interference are the other Canary Wharf towers being built. Their advice was to get digital television, satellite or cable. 
In the movie Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Harry and some members of the Order of the Phoenix pass next to One Canada Square as they head to Grimmauld Place near the beginning of the movie on their broomsticks. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix is a 2007 fantasy adventure Film, based on the novel of the same name by
In the movie The Bourne Supremacy, One Canada Square appeared as the CIA's London listening station. The Bourne Supremacy is the second Jason Bourne Novel written by Robert Ludlum, first published in 1986 near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all
In the movie Johnny English, One Canada Square had another identical building next to it. Johnny English is a British comic Film Parodying the James Bond Secret agent genre released in 2003 One of the One Canada Square buildings was a hospital and the other was villain Pascal Sauvage's HQ.
The tower and the Docklands area around it are one of the main settings for the post-apocalyptic horror-thriller 28 Weeks Later. 28 Weeks Later is a 2007 British post-apocalyptic Horror film, and Sequel to the 2002 film 28 Days Later
In the movie The World Is Not Enough, James Bond sails past One Canada Square. The World Is Not Enough is a 1999 film&mdashthe nineteenth entry in the James Bond series, and the third to star Pierce Brosnan as Commander James Bond, CMG, RNVR is a Fictional character created by novelist Ian Fleming in 1952
Other movies featuring the Canary Wharf Tower can be read from a publication called Canary Wharf And Isle Of Dogs Movie Map.
In the British television series Doctor Who (as revealed in the episode Army of Ghosts), One Canada Square is the headquarters of the Torchwood Institute. Legoland Windsor is a child-oriented Theme park in Windsor Berkshire in England, themed around the Lego toy system A Dalek (, ˈdɑːlεk is a member of a Fictional extraterrestrial race of Mutants from the British science fiction television Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. " Army of Ghosts " is the twelfth and penultimate episode in the second series of the British Science fiction television series Doctor This article is about the organisation within Doctor Who; for the spinoff programme see Torchwood. In the series, its true name is "Torchwood Tower" and it was originally built to investigate a hole in reality 600 feet above London created by a Dalek Void Ship. A Dalek (, ˈdɑːlεk is a member of a Fictional extraterrestrial race of Mutants from the British science fiction television It is the setting for the most of the two-part finale of season 2. This appearance has become so popular among the British public that in the Miniland model of One Canada Square in Legoland Windsor, a miniature Dalek Sec can be seen inside the building. Legoland Windsor is a child-oriented Theme park in Windsor Berkshire in England, themed around the Lego toy system The Cult of Skaro was an elite order of Daleks from the television series Doctor Who, and the first individual Daleks whose recurring nature has been explicit
In the series The Tomorrow People, One Canada Square is the headquarters of Sam Rees, an immortal pharaoh. The Tomorrow People is a children's science fiction television series, devised by Roger Price which first ran between 1973 and 1979 The pyramid at the building's top is used in the storyline as an ultraprecise pyramid used to harness Pyramid power to enable him to remain immortal. The term pyramid power was coined by Patrick Flanagan in 1973, to describe alleged supernatural properties of the ancient Egyptian pyramids and
During the 1990s, One Canada Square was home to the television station L!VE TV. L!VE TV was a British television station that was operated by MGN on Cable television from 15 June 1995 - 5 November
A near future sequence in the novel Freezeframes by Katharine Kerr, shows One Canada Square as a free college and youth drop-in centre. Katharine Kerr (born 1944 is a Science fiction and Fantasy novelist best known for her series of Celtic -influenced high fantasy novels set in the fictional It is nicknamed "Major's Last Erection", referring to John Major. Sir John Major KG CH ACIB (born 29 March 1943 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
One Canada Square previously appeared in the Virgin Missing Adventures novel Millennial Rites in which the top floor was the headquarters of a yuppie who inadvertently turned London into a "dark fantasy" kingdom in which he was a powerful sorcerer, with the tower as his citadel; and the Past Doctor Adventures novel The Time Travellers, in which it was the headquarters of the British Army in an alternate timeline. The Virgin Missing Adventures (often referred to simply as MA s in fandom were a series of novels from Virgin Publishing based on the British science-fiction Millennial Rites is an original novel written by Craig Hinton and based on the long-running British science fiction television series Dark fantasy is a subgenre that combines elements of fantasy including marvelous abilities with those of horror The Past Doctor Adventures (sometimes known by the abbreviation PDA or PDAs were a series of spin-off novels based on the long running BBC Science fiction See Time Travelers for either the 1964 or 1976 films of the same name The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. Parallel universe or alternative reality is a self-contained separate reality coexisting with one's own
One Canada Square also features prominently in an early issue of the Grant Morrison comic series The Invisibles, in which Dane MacGowan is encouraged to jump from the top by his mentor, Tom O'Bedlam, as an initiation rite that will allow him to see beyond reality and join The Invisibles. Grant Morrison (born January 31 1960 is a Scottish Comic book writer and artist The Invisibles is a mature readers Comic book series that was published by the Vertigo imprint of DC Comics from 1994 to
In 2002, French urban climber, Alain Robert, using only his hands and feet and with no safety devices of any kind, scaled the building's exterior wall to the 35th floor, when he gave up and had to be rescued with the window cleaning cradle. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Alain Robert (born as Robert Alain Philippe on 7 August 1962 is a French rock and urban climber, from Digoin, Saône-et-Loire However, in 1995, he managed to scale all the way to the top.
The square to the east of the tower was named after Canada because it was built by the Canadian firm Olympia and York, which was owned by the Reichmann family. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page History Early years It was founded by Paul Reichmann and his brothers Albert and Ralph in Toronto in the early 1950s as an The Reichmann family is a family best known for controlling The company went bankrupt in the face of a property crash which caused the upper half of the tower to stand empty for some time following its completion. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against
There are two towers alongside, which are not quite as tall (at 200 m, 660 ft, each; the pyramid provides the height advantage): HSBC Tower (8-16 Canada Square) and Citigroup Centre (25 Canada Square). 8 Canada Square (also known as HSBC Group Head Office, or HSBC Tower) is a Skyscraper located in the Canary Wharf development in the London Citigroup Centre, also known as Citi Centre, is a building complex in London.
One Canada Square (centre) with HSBC Tower to the left and Citigroup Centre to the right
One Canada Square, London
Tower and clock
Tower top with surrounding buildings
Tower (left), HSBC (centre), Citigroup Centre (right)
Tower side view
One Canada Square with its neighbouring buildings at Canary Wharf