Olynthus (Greek: Όλυνθος olunthos, a fig which ripens too early; the area abounded in figs) was an ancient city of Chalcidice, built mostly on two flat-topped hills 30–40m in height, in a fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone, near the neck of the peninsula of Pallene, about 2. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Chalkidiki, also Halkidiki or Chalcidice, less often Khalkidiki and rarely Chalkidice (Χαλκιδική xalkʲiðiˈkʲi is one of the 5 kilometers from the sea, and about 60 stadia (c. 9–10 kilometers) from Poteidaea. Potidaea ( Greek: Ποτίδαια Potidaia, modern transliteration Potidea) was a Colony founded by the Corinthians around 600
The South Hill bore a small Neolithic settlement; was abandoned during the Bronze Age; and was resettled in the seventh century BC. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Subsequently, the town was captured by the Bottiaeans, a Thracian tribe ejected from Macedon by Alexander I. Bottiaea ( Greek: Bottiaia) was a region of ancient Macedon. It was previously inhabited by the Bottiaeans who according to Strabo, were Alexander I (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μακεδών was ruler of Macedon from 498 BC to 454 BC The town of Olynthus remained in their possession until 479 BC. Events By place Greece The Persian commander Mardonius, now based in Thessaly, wins support In that year the Persian general Artabazus, on his return from escorting Xerxes to the Hellespont, suspecting that a revolt from the Great King was meditated, handed the town over to Kritovoulos from Toroni and to a fresh population consisting of Greeks from the neighboring region of Chalcidice (Herod. viii. Artabazus was the name of a Satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia (now northwest Turkey) under the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia Xerxes I of Persia was a King of Persia (reigned 485–465 BC of the Achaemenid dynasty. See also Dardanelles Hellespont ( Turkish, Greek; ie "Sea of Helle" variously named in classical literature Hellespontium Pelagus History According to mythology Toroni was wife to Proteus, son of Poseidon. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash 127). Though Herodotus reports that Artabazus slaughtered them, Boetiaeans continued to live in the area.
Olynthus became a Greek polis, but it remained insignificant (in the quota-lists of the Delian League it appears as paying on the average 2 talents, as compared with 6 to 15 paid by Scione, 6 to 15 by Mende, 6 to 12 by Toroni), and 3 to 6 by Sermylia from 454 to 432 . The Delian League was an association of approximately 150 5th-century BC Greek City-states under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue Subdivisions Frama (Φράμα pop 21 Nearest places Agia Paraskevi Chanioti Mende (Μένδη was an ancient Greek city located in the western coast of Pallene peninsula in Chalkidiki facing the coast of Pieria across the narrow History According to mythology Toroni was wife to Proteus, son of Poseidon. Ormylia (Ορμύλια is a municipality in Halkidiki, Greece. Events By place Persian Empire Persian rule in Egypt is finally restored by Megabyzus, Satrap of Syria Events By place Greece Sparta calls and hosts a conference of the Peloponnesian League.
In 432 King Perdiccas II of Macedon encouraged several nearby coastal towns to disband and remove their population to Olynthus, preparatory to a revolt to be led by Potidaea against Athens (Thuc. 1. Events By place Greece Sparta calls and hosts a conference of the Peloponnesian League. Perdiccas II ( Greek: Περδίκκας Β) was King of Macedonia from about 454 BC to about 413 BC Thucydides ( C 460 BC &ndash C 395 BC) ( Greek Θουκυδίδης Thoukydídēs) was a Greek 58). This synoecism (συνοικισμός) was effected, though against Perdiccas's wishes the contributing cities were preserved. Synoecism or synœcism ( Ancient Greek: συνοικισμóς is the amalgamation of villages and small towns in Ancient Hellas into larger political units such This increase in population led to the settlement of the North Hill, which was developed on a grid plan. A 423 Olynthus became the head of a formal Chalcidic League, occasioned by the synoecism or by the beginning of the Peloponnesian War and fear of Athenian attack. Events By place Persian empire Ochus, Satrap of Hyrcania and son of Artaxerxes I and a Babylonian concubine During the Peloponnesian war it formed a base for Brasidas in his expedition of 424 and refuge for the citizens of Mende and Poteidaea that had rebelled against the Athenians (Thu. ii, 70). Brasidas ( Greek: Βρασίδας) (d 422 BC was a Spartan officer during the first decade of the Peloponnesian War. Events By place Persian empire Xerxes II rules as King of Persia for only about 45 days until he is killed Potidaea ( Greek: Ποτίδαια Potidaia, modern transliteration Potidea) was a Colony founded by the Corinthians around 600 Thucydides ( C 460 BC &ndash C 395 BC) ( Greek Θουκυδίδης Thoukydídēs) was a Greek
After the end of the Peloponnesian War the development of the league was rapid and ended consisting of 32 cities. About 393 we find it concluding an important treaty with Amyntas III of Macedon (the father of Philip II), and by 382 it had absorbed most of the Greek cities west of the Strymon, and had even got possession of Pella, the chief city in Macedon. Amyntas III ( Greek Αμύντας Γ΄) (Unknown - 370 BC son of Arrhidaeus and father of Philip II, was king of Macedon in 393 BC and Philip II of Macedon, ( Greek: Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών &mdash φίλος = friend + ίππος = Horse Pella (Πέλλα was the Capital of the ancient kingdom of Macedon. Macedon or Macedonia ( Greek grc Μακεδονία grc-Latn Makedonía) was the name of a kingdom centered in the northern-most (Xenophon, Hell. V. 2, 12).
In this year Sparta was induced by an embassy from Acanthus and Apollonia, which anticipated conquest by the league, to send an expedition against Olynthus. Acanthus or Akanthos ( Greek: or Modern Greek: Aχανθος (modern town of Ierissos, also Erisso) was an ancient Greek city After three years of indecisive warfare Olynthus consented to dissolve the confederacy (379). Events By place Greece Sparta suppresses the Chalcidian League and imposes terms favourable to King Amyntas III of Macedonia It is clear, however, that the dissolution was little more than formal, as the Chalcidians (Χαλκιδῆς ἀπò Θρᾴκης) appear, only a year or two later, among the members of the Athenian naval confederacy of 378-377. Twenty years later, in the reign of Philip, the power of Olynthus is asserted by Demosthenes to have been much greater than before the Spartan expedition. For the Athenian general see Demosthenes (general. For the ancient physician see Demosthenes Philalethes. The town itself at this period is spoken of as a city of the first rank (πóλις μuρἰανδρος), and the league included thirty-two cities.
When the Social War broke out between Athens and its allies (357), Olynthus was at first in alliance with Philip. Events By place Persian Empire Rhodes falls to the Persian Satrap Mausolus of Halicarnassus. Subsequently, in alarm at the growth of his power, it concluded an alliance with Athens. Olynthus made three embassies to Athens, the occasions of Demosthenes's three Olynthiac Orations. On the third, the Athenians sent soldiers from among its citizens. After Philip had deprived Olynthus of the rest of the League, by force and by the treachery of sympathetic factions, he besieged Olynthus in 348. Events By place Persian Empire After being besieged by the Persian forces of King Artaxerxes III, Sidon is taken and The siege was short; he bought Olynthus's two principal citizens, Euthycrates and Lasthenes, who betrayed the city to him. He then looted and razed the city and sold its population—including the Athenian garrison—into slavery. According to the latest researches only a small area of the North Hill was ever re-occupied, up to 318, before Cassander forced the population to move in his new city of Kassandreia. Events By place Macedonian Empire Antigonus resolves to become lord of all Asia and in conjunction with Cassander and Ptolemy Cassander ( Greek: Κάσσανδρος, Kassandros; ca 350 - 297 BC King of Macedon (305 - 297 BC was a son of Antipater Kassandreia or Cassandreia ( Greek: Κασσάνδρεια former name Valta or Βάλτα etymologically means "town in the swamps
Though the city was extinguished, through subsequent centuries there would be men scattered through the Hellenistic world who called them Olynthians.
The city of Olynthus lies in the hill named Megale Toumba near the village of Myriophyto. The probable site of Olynthus was identified as early as 1902. Between 1914 and 1916 plans were made for an excavation by the British School at Athens, but these fell through.
The ancient city extends in two hills that detach from a small coulee and possess an area with 1500 m long and 400 m in width. Excavations began in 1928. Prof. D. M. Robinson of Johns Hopkins, under the American School for Classical Studies at Athens, conducted four seasons of work: in 1928, 1931, 1934, and 1939. Johns Hopkins ( May 19, 1795, Anne Arundel County, Maryland &ndash December 24, 1873 Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The results of the excavations were digested into fourteen folio volumes. The excavation had uncovered more than five hectares of Olynthus and a portion of Mecyberna (the harbor of Olynthus). On the North Hill this hurried pace proved relatively harmless due to the simple stratigraphy of an area of the city occupied only for 84 years and subjected to a sudden, final destruction; but the data from the South Hill was badly muddled. Nonetheless the work was excellent for its time, and remains supremely valuable. Much of the stratigraphy of the North Hill has been reconstructed by Nicholas Cahill. The site is now in the charge of Dr. Julia Vokotopoulou, and the XVI Ephorate of Classical Antiquities.
The neolithic settlement is located in the edge of the southern hill and was dated in the 3rd millennium BC. The houses were built by stone blocks and had one or two rooms. The pottery that was found was the typical of that period comprising monochrome ceramic vases. The end of this rural settlement was abrupt and is placed around the first millennium.
The archaic city was built under a provincially urban planning and extended throughout the whole south hill. Two avenues were revealed along the eastern and western edges of the hill that communicated inter se with crossing streets. Along the south avenue shops and small houses were found while the administrative part was located in the north part of the hill, where the agora and a deanery were found. The Agora was an open "place of assembly" in ancient Greek city-states Deanery is an ecclesiastical entity in both the Catholic Church and the Church of England.
The classical city was established on the must larger north hill and to its western slope. The excavations, which cover only the 1/10 of the city's total area, have revealed a Hippodamian grid plan. Hippodamus of Miletus ( or Hippodamos Greek Ἱππόδαμος (498 BC &mdash 408 BC was an ancient Greek Architect Urban Planner Physician Mathematician Meteorologist The grid plan or gridiron plan is a type of City plan in which Streets run at right angles to each other forming a grid. Two large avenues were discovered, with an amplitude of 7 meters, along with vertical and horizontal streets that divided the urban area into city blocks. A city block, urban block or simply block is a central element of Urban planning and Urban design. Each one had ten houses with two floors and a paved yard. Very important for the archaeological research are considered the rich villas that were excavated in the aristocratic suburb of the city located in the eastern part of the north hill since there was found some of the earliest floor mosaics in Greek art. A villa was originally an Upper-class Country house, though since its origins in Roman times the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably Art History Mosaics of the 4th century BC are found in the Macedonian palace-city of Aegae, and they enriched the floors of Hellenistic Greece has a rich and varied artistic history spanning some 5000 years
Both the archaic and classical city were protected by an extended land wall. Parts of the foundations of the wall were revealed in the north hill and elsewhere, but they are not enlightening on which method was followed for their construction. Archaeologists suppose that it was built with sun-dried bricks with a stone base, but it's difficult to tell since the city was literally leveled by Phillip. Philip II of Macedon, ( Greek: Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών &mdash φίλος = friend + ίππος = Horse
As it concerns the public buildings, the Agora is placed in the south egde of the north hill, near the eastern gate, along with a public fountain, an arsenal and the city's parliament builting (Βουλευτήριον). The Agora was an open "place of assembly" in ancient Greek city-states An arsenal is an establishment for the construction repair storage and issue of Weapons and Ammunition.
There is a small museum featuring artifacts recovered from Olynthus, and the whole archaeological site is open to public tours during daylight hours.
The modern city, formerly Myriophyto, now called Olynthos or Nea Olynthos, sits on a small plateau on the western side of the river Olynthios or Resetenikia (in ancient times known as Sandanus), across from the ruins of the ancient city. In Geology and Earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting
The chief passages in ancient literature are the Olynthiac Orations of Demosthenes, and Xenophon, Hell. v. 2.