The Older Dryas was a somewhat variable cold, dry Blytt-Sernander period of North Europe, roughly equivalent to Pollen zone 1c. The Blytt-Sernander classification or sequence is a series of north European climatic periods or phases based on the study of Danish Peat bogs by Axel Prehistoric Europe refers to prehistorical period of the History of Europe. Pollen zones are a system of subdividing late Pleistocene and early Holocene paleoclimate using the data from Pollen cores The sequence provides a It is named after an indicator genus, the alpine/tundra plant Dryas, which flourished during the penultimate stadial of the Pleistocene. A stadial is a period of colder Temperatures during an Interglacial, of insufficient duration or intensity to be considered a Glaciation, or glacial period The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period The Older Dryas period was preceded by the Bølling and followed by the Allerød periods. The Bølling Oscillation was a warm period that occurred during the final stages of the last Glaciation of Europe. The Allerød period is a part of a temperature oscillation toward the end of the last Glaciation, during which temperatures in the northern Atlantic region rose from
The Older Dryas may or may not appear in the climatological evidence for different regions. If it does not appear, then the Bølling-Allerød are considered one interstadial period. The strength of the Older Dryas depends to some degree on latitude. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the It is strongest in northern Eurasia. For the superstate in George Orwell 's novel see Nations of Nineteen Eighty-Four.
In the Greenland oxygen isotope record, the Older Dryas appears as a downward peak establishing a small, low-intensity gap between the Bølling and the Allerød. Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the This configuration presents a difficulty in estimating its time, as it is more of a point than a segment. But which point, and how long a segment should be assigned? The segment is small enough to escape the resolution of most C-14 series; i. e. , the points are not close enough together to find it.
One approach to the problem assigns a point and then picks an arbitrary segment. You might read that the Older Dryas is "centered" near 14,100 BP or is 100 to 150 years in duration "at"14,250 BP.
A second approach finds C-14 or other dates as close to the end of the Bølling and the beginning of the Allerød as possible and selects end points based on them. This type of date is of the form, for example, 12,000-11,800 C-14 BP uncalibrated, 14,000-13,700 BP cal.
The best approach attempts to include the Older Dryas in a sequence of points as close together as possible (high resolution), or within a known event. For example, pollen from the island of Hokkaidō in Japan records a Larix pollen peak and matching sphagnum decline at 12,400-11,800 uncal. WikipediaWikiProject Japanese prefectures for guidelines --> formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japan 's For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Larches are Conifers in the genus Larix, in the family Pinaceae. Sphagnum is a Genus of between 151-350 species of Mosses commonly called peat moss, due to its prevalence in Peat bogs , 14,600-13700 BP cal. In the White Sea a cooling occurred at 14,700-13,400/13,000, which resulted in a readvance of the glacier in the initial Allerød. In Canada, the Shulie Lake phase (a readvance) is dated to 14,000-13,500 BP. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page On the other hand, varve chronology in southern Sweden indicates a range of 14,050-13,900 there. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation.
Capturing the Older Dryas through high resolution dating continues to be of concern to researchers in climatology.
Northern Europe offered an alternation of steppe and tundra environments depending on the permafrost line and the latitude. In physical Geography, a steppe ( German, from степь - "a flat and arid land" степ - /stɛp/ тал - tal дала - /dɑlɑ/ pronounced In physical Geography, tundra is an area where the Tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons This article is about frozen ground For other meanings see Permafrost (disambiguation. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the In moister regions around lakes and streams were thickets of dwarf birch, willow, sea buckthorn, and juniper. Betula nana ( Dwarf Birch) is a species of Birch in the family Betulaceae. Willows, sallows and osiers form the Genus Salix, around 400 species of Deciduous Trees and Shrubs found primarily The sea-buckthorns ( Hippophae L are Deciduous Shrubs in the genus Hippophae, family Elaeagnaceae. Junipers are Coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. In the river valleys and uplands to the south were open birch forests. Birch is the name of any Tree of the genus Betula ( Bé-tu-la) in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the
The first trees, birch and pine, had spread into north Europe 500 years previously. This article is about the tree For other uses of the term "pine" see Pine (disambiguation. During the Older Dryas, the glacier advanced again and the trees retreated southward, to be replaced by a mixture of grassland and cool-weather alpine species. This type of biome has been called “park tundra”, “Arctic tundra”, “Arctic pioneer vegetation” or “birch woodlands. A biome is a climatically and geographically defined area of ecologically similar climatic conditions such as communities of Plants Animals and ” It exists today in the transition between taiga and tundra in Siberia. Taiga (ˈtaɪgə from Turkic or Mongolian) is a Biome characterized by Coniferous forests In physical Geography, tundra is an area where the Tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving Then it stretched from Siberia to Britain in a more or less unbroken expanse. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands
To the northwest was the Baltic ice lake, which was truncated by the edge of the glacier. The Baltic ice lake is a name given by geologists to a freshwater lake that gradually formed in the Baltic Sea basin as glaciation retreated from that region at the Species had access to Denmark and southern Sweden. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Most of Finland and the Baltic countries were under the ice or the lake for most of the period. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The Baltic states (Balti riigid Baltijas valstis Baltijos valstybės or Baltic countries are three countries in Northern Europe, all members of the Northern Scandinavia was glaciated. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well Between Britain and the mainland were rolling hills prolifically populated with animals. Thousands of specimens, hundreds of tons of bones, have been recovered from the bottom of the North Sea, termed “doggerland”, and continue to be recovered. The North Sea is a marginal, Epeiric sea of the Atlantic Ocean on the European Continental shelf. In the relatively recent geological past several great floods are widely suspected to have occurred with varying amounts of supporting evidence usually as a result of the last Ice
The brief lists of plants and animals stated below are a fraction of the total number of species found for the period. Most families were more diverse than they are today, and were yet more so in the last interglacial. A great extinction, especially of mammals, continued throughout the end of the Pleistocene, and may be continuing today. In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period
Older Dryas species are usually found in sediment below the bottom layer of the bog. Indicator species are the Alpine plants:
Grasslands species are:
A well-stocked biozone prevailed on the Arctic plains and thickets of the late Pleistocene. The sea-buckthorns ( Hippophae L are Deciduous Shrubs in the genus Hippophae, family Elaeagnaceae. Plains mammals were most predominant.
So much meat on the hoof must have supported large numbers of Carnivora, such as:
The sea also had its share of carnivores, which due to their maritime location, survived until modern times. The woolly rhinoceros ( Coelodonta antiquitatis) is an Extinct species of Rhinoceros native to the northern Steppes of Eurasia Proboscidea is an order containing only one family of living animals Elephantidae the Elephants with three living Species ( African Bush A mammoth is any Species of the Extinct Genus Mammuthus. These Proboscideans are members of the elephant family and The diverse order Carnivora (kɑrˈnɪvərə or sometimes /ˌkɑrnɪˈvɔərə/ from Latin carō (stem carn-) "flesh" + vorāre The Brown Bear ( Ursus arctos) is an Omnivorous Mammal of the family Ursidae, distributed across much of northern Eurasia and The Cave Bear ( Ursus spelaeus) was a Species of Bear which lived in Europe during the Pleistocene and became extinct at The Hyaenidae is a Mammalian family of order Carnivora. The Hyaenidae family native to both African and Asian continents consists of four The Hyaenidae is a Mammalian family of order Carnivora. The Hyaenidae family native to both African and Asian continents consists of four Felidae is the biological family of the cats a member of this family is called a felid. The cave lion (Panthera leo spelaea also known as the European or Eurasian cave lion, is an Extinct Subspecies of Lion The Canidae (ˈkænədiː ′kanə′dē family is a part of the order Carnivora within the Mammals (Class Mammalia The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora The Arctic Fox ( Vulpes lagopus) also known as the White Fox or Snow Fox, is a small Fox native to cold Arctic regions of the Mustelidae or Mustelids (from Latin mustela, Weasel) commonly referred to as the weasel family, is a family of carnivorous Mammals Phocidae:
The top of the food chain was supported by larger numbers of smaller animals farther down it, which lived in the herbaceous blanket covering the tundra or steppe and helped maintain it by carrying seeds, manuring and aerating it. The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of Mammals within the seal Suborder, Pinnipedia. The Harp Seal ( Phoca groenlandica; syn Pagophilus groenlandicus) is a species of earless seal native to the northernmost Atlantic The Ringed Seal ( Pusa hispida) also known as the Jar Seal and as Netsik or Nattiq by the Inuit, is an Earless seal inhabiting The walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered Marine mammal with a discontinuous circumpolar distribution in the Arctic Ocean and The walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered Marine mammal with a discontinuous circumpolar distribution in the Arctic Ocean and The Order Cetacea (sɪˈteɪʃiə L cetus, whale includes Whales Dolphins and Porpoises Cetus is The toothed whales ( Systematic name Odontoceti) form a Suborder of the Cetaceans including sperm whales beaked whales orca dolphins The Cetacean family Monodontidae comprises two unusual Whale species the Narwhal, in which the male has a long tusk and the white Beluga Oceanic dolphins are the members of the Delphinidae family of Cetaceans These aquatic Mammals are related to Whales and Porpoises They The Orca or Killer Whale ( Orcinus orca) less commonly Blackfish or Seawolf, is the largest species of the Oceanic dolphin family The baleen whales, also called whalebone whales or great whales, form the Mysticeti, one of two suborders of the Cetacea (whales dolphins and The Gray Whale or Grey Whale ( Eschrichtius robustus) is a Whale that travels between feeding and breeding grounds yearly The Gray Whale or Grey Whale ( Eschrichtius robustus) is a Whale that travels between feeding and breeding grounds yearly
Eurasia was populated by Homo sapiens sapiens (Cro-Magnon man) in the late Upper Paleolithic stage of tool development. The Sciurids or Squirrels are a large family of Rodents. The word Sciuridae means "shade-tail" and refers to the bushy appendage possessed The genus Spermophilus is the largest genus of ground squirrels and the one that contains the species that are most common and familiar in North America. The Dipodidae, or dipodids, are a family of Rodents found across the Northern hemisphere. The genus Allactaga contains the four and five-toed jerboas of Asia. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Cro-Magnon ( French) is one of the main types of Homo sapiens of the European Upper Paleolithic, living approximately 40000 to 10000 years The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe Africa Bands of humans survived by hunting the plains mammals. In north Europe they preferred reindeer; in Ukraine—the wooly mammoth. Prehistoric Europe refers to prehistorical period of the History of Europe. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. A mammoth is any Species of the Extinct Genus Mammuthus. These Proboscideans are members of the elephant family and They sheltered in huts and manufactured tools around campfires. Ukrainian shelters were supported by mammoth tusks. Man was already across Siberia and in north America. Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving
Man did not hunt alone. Two domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, have been found in late Pleistocene Ukraine. The dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated Subspecies of the gray wolf, a Mammal of the Canidae family of the order Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. They were a heavy breed similar to a Great Dane, perhaps of use in running down Elephantidae. The Great Dane, Danish Hound, or German Mastiff, is a breed of Domestic dog ( The large number of mammoth bones at campsites make it clear that even then the Elephantidae in Europe were approaching the limit of their duration. Their bones were used for many purposes, not the least interesting of which are the numerous objects of art, including an engraved star map.
Late upper palaeolithic culture was by no means uniform. A large number of local traditions have been defined. The Hamburgian culture had occupied the lowlands and north Germany before the Older Dryas. The Hamburg culture ( 12400 BC - 12100 BC, C14-years was a late Upper Paleolithic culture of Reindeer hunters during the last part of the During the Older Dryas, contemporaneous with the Havelte Group of the late Hamburgian, the Federmesser culture appeared and occupied Denmark and south Sweden, following the reindeer. Federmesser culture is a toolmaking tradition of the late Upper Palaeolithic era of the Northern European Plain dating to between c South of the Hamburgian was the Magdalenian, which at that time was long-standing. The Magdalenian, also spelled Magdalénien refers to one of the later cultures of the Upper Palaeolithic in Western Europe. In Ukraine was the Molodovan, which used tusks in building shelters.