|Derivative forms||Bluegrass, country music|
|American folk music revival|
Old-time music is a form of North American folk music, with roots in the folk musics of many countries, including England, Scotland, Ireland and Africa. Music from the United Kingdom has lost great popularity since the 1960s when a wave of musicians helped to popularise Rock and roll. The music of Africa is as vast and varied as the continent's many regions, nations and Ethnic groups Although there is no distinctly pan-African The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits variety acts dancing, and Music, Tin Pan Alley is the name given to the collection of New York City -centered music publishers and Songwriters who dominated the popular Gospel music is Music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life as well as (in terms of the varying music styles to England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The banjo is a Stringed instrument developed by enslaved Africans in the United States, adapted from several African instruments Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music, and is a sub-genre of Country music. Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. The American folk music revival was a phenomenon in the United States in the 1950s to mid-1960s Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world This musical form developed along with various North American folk dances, such as square dance, buck dance and clogging. Folk dance is a term used to describe a large number of dances mostly of European origin that tend to share the following attributes originally danced in about the Square dance is a Folk dance with four couples (eight dancers arranged in a square with one couple on each side beginning with Couple 1 facing away from the music and going Clogging is a type of Folk dance rooted in traditional European dancing from the British Isles, in which the dancer's footwear is used musically by striking the heel Clogging is a type of Folk dance rooted in traditional European dancing from the British Isles, in which the dancer's footwear is used musically by striking the heel The genre also encompasses ballads and other types of folk songs. A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other A ballad is a Poem usually set to Music; thus it often is a story told in a Song. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous It is played on acoustic instruments, generally centering on a combination of fiddle and plucked string instruments (most often the guitar and, more generally in regions outside of the Northeast U.S. and Canada, banjo). Acoustic music refers to music that solely or primarily uses instruments which produce sound through entirely acoustic means as opposed to Electronic means A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a Musical instrument that produces Sound by means of Vibrating strings In the Hornbostel-Sachs The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The banjo is a Stringed instrument developed by enslaved Africans in the United States, adapted from several African instruments
Reflecting the cultures that settled North America, the roots of old-time music are in the traditional musics of the British Isles (primarily English, Scottish and Irish), with a strong admixture of African music. Traditional music is the term now used in the terminology of Grammy Awards for what used to be called " folk music " The British Isles (Irish variously Na hOileáin Bhriotanacha, Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa, Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór; Ellanyn Goaldagh Eileanan The music of Africa is as vast and varied as the continent's many regions, nations and Ethnic groups Although there is no distinctly pan-African  In some regions French and German sources are also prominent. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. While many dance tunes and ballads can be traced to European sources, many others are of purely North American origin. This article is about music for dancing in general You may also be looking for Electronic dance music. A ballad is a Poem usually set to Music; thus it often is a story told in a Song. The culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures
With its origins in traditional music of Europe and Africa, old-time music represents perhaps the oldest form of North American traditional music other than Native American music, and thus the term "old-time" is an appropriate one. Traditional music is the term now used in the terminology of Grammy Awards for what used to be called " folk music " Traditional music is the term now used in the terminology of Grammy Awards for what used to be called " folk music " American Indian music is the Musics that are shared by or that distinguish American Indian Tribes and First Nations. As a label, however, it dates back only to 1923. Year 1923 ( MCMXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Fiddlin' John Carson made some of the first commercial recordings of traditional American country music for the Okeh label. Fiddlin' John Carson (born March 23, 1868 Fannin County Georgia – died December 11, 1949 Atlanta Georgia) was Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. Okeh Records began as an Independent record label based in the United States of America in The recordings became hits. Okeh, which had previously coined the terms "hillbilly music" to describe Appalachian and Southern fiddle-based and religious music and "race recording" to describe the music of African American recording artists, began using "old-time music" as a term to describe the music made by artists of Carson's style. Old-time music is a form of North American Folk music, with roots in the Folk musics of many countries including England, Scotland, Appalachia is a term used to describe a region in the eastern United States that stretches from southern New York state to northern Alabama, Religious music (also sacred music) is Music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa A musician is a person who plays or writes Music. Musicians can be classified by their roles in creating or performing music An instrumentalist plays a The term, thus, originated as a euphemism, but proved a suitable replacement for other terms that were considered disparaging by many inhabitants of these regions. A euphemism is a substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener or in the case of doublespeak It remains the term preferred by performers and listeners of the music. It is sometimes referred to as "old-timey" or "mountain music" by long-time practitioners. 
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, minstrel, Tin Pan Alley, gospel, and other popular music forms also entered the genre. The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits variety acts dancing, and Music, Tin Pan Alley is the name given to the collection of New York City -centered music publishers and Songwriters who dominated the popular Gospel music is Music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life as well as (in terms of the varying music styles to While old-time music was practiced in all regions of the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries, by the 20th century it had come to be associated primarily with the Appalachian region. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Appalachian region is among the most rural and beautiful areas in the United States.
Old-time music experienced a great revival in the early 1960s in areas such as Chapel Hill, North Carolina. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 Chapel Hill is a town in Durham and Orange counties in North Carolina and the home of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC Alan Jabbour, founding director of the Folklife Center at the Library of Congress, became a leader of this revival while a student at Duke University. Alan Jabbour (born 1942 is an American musician and folklorist The Library of Congress is the De facto National library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress Duke University is a private Research University located in Durham, North Carolina, United States. Other important revivalists include Mike Seeger and Pete Seeger, who brought the music to New York City as early as the 1940s. Mike Seeger (b August 15 1933 in New York New York) is an American folk musician and folklorist Peter "Pete" Seeger (born May 3 1919 is an American folk singer political Activist, and a key figure in the mid-20th century American The New Lost City Ramblers in particular took the revival across the country and often featured older musicians in their show. The New Lost City Ramblers is a contemporary old-time String band that formed in New York City in 1958 during the Folk Revival. The band was originally Mike Seeger, John Cohen, and Tom Paley. Mike Seeger (b August 15 1933 in New York New York) is an American folk musician and folklorist John Cohen (born Queens New York 1932 is a founding member of the New Lost City Ramblers as well as a photographer and filmmaker of note Tom Paley (born 19th March 1928 is an American Banjo -player Tom Paley was born and raised in New York City where he first fell in love with Old-time music. When Tom left the band, he was replaced by Tracy Schwarz. Ginny Hawker and Tracy Schwarz are an American Folk music duo known for performing traditional music from the early American canon of bluegrass, gospel Many of the musicians on the scene now acknowledge that it was because of the New Lost City Ramblers that they became interested in old-time music.
Old-time music is played using a wide variety of stringed instruments. The instrumentation of an old-time group is often determined solely by what instruments are available, as well as by tradition. The most common instruments are acoustic string instruments. A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a Musical instrument that produces Sound by means of Vibrating strings In the Hornbostel-Sachs Historically, the fiddle was nearly always the leading melodic instrument, and in many instances (if no other instruments were available) dances were accompanied only by a single fiddler, who often also acted as dance caller. The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member A caller is a person who calls Dance figures in such dances as Line dance, Square dance, and Contra dance.
By the early 19th century, the banjo (an instrument of West African origin originally played only by people of African descent, both enslaved and free) had become an essential partner to the fiddle, particularly in the southern United States. The banjo is a Stringed instrument developed by enslaved Africans in the United States, adapted from several African instruments The banjo, originally a fretless instrument and frequently made from a gourd, played the same melody as the fiddle (though in a lower register), while simultaneously providing a rhythmic accompaniment incorporating a high drone provided by the instrument's short "drone string. " The banjo used in old-time music is typically a 5-string model with an open back (i. e. , without the resonator found on most bluegrass banjos).
Today old-time banjo players most commonly utilize the clawhammer style, but there were originally several other styles, most of which are still in use, loosely grouped by region. Clawhammer and frailing describe a class of Fingerpicking techniques used by Banjo and rarely Guitar players The major styles were clawhammer (which also went by a number of regional names), two-finger index lead (also called "North Carolina picking"), two-finger thumb lead (Kentucky), and a three-finger "fiddle style" that seems to have been influenced in part by late-19th century urban classical style. Generally, a young player would learn whatever style a parent or older sibling favored. This style of having a fiddle play the lead melody and a banjo play a rhythmic accompaniment is the most basic form of Appalachian old-time music, and is the instrumentation most Appalachian old-time musicians consider to be "classic. "
Because playing with more fingers meant being able to put in more notes, three-finger styles intrigued many players. Individualistic three-finger styles were developed independently by such important figures as Uncle Dave Macon, Dock Boggs, and Snuffy Jenkins. Uncle Dave Macon ( October 7 1870 - March 22 1952)—also known as "The Dixie Dewdrop"—was an Moran Lee "Dock" Boggs ( February 7, 1898 &ndash February 7, 1971) was an influential old-time singer songwriter and Snuffy Jenkins (born October 27, 1908, Harris North Carolina - died April 29, 1990) was an American old time Banjo Those early three-finger styles, especially the technique developed by Jenkins, led in the 1940s to the three-finger Scruggs style created by Earl Scruggs and which helped advance the split between old-time and the solo-centric style that would become known as bluegrass. Scruggs style is the most common style of playing the Banjo in Bluegrass music. Earl Eugene Scruggs (born January 6, 1924) is a musician noted for perfecting and popularizing a 3-finger style (now called Scruggs style) on the 5-string Jenkins developed a three-finger "roll" that, while obviously part of the old-time tradition, inspired Scruggs to develop his smoother, faster, more complex rolls that are now standard fare in bluegrass music.
During the 19th and early 20th centuries, other stringed instruments began to be added to the fiddle-banjo duo; these included the guitar, mandolin, and double bass (or washtub bass), which provided chordal and bass line accompaniment (or occasionally melody also). The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles A mandolin is a musical instrument in the Lute family (plucked or strummed The double bass is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed String instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra. WashtubBassjpg|180px|thumb|A four-string washtub bass with a wooden bridge and fingerboard]]The washtub bass, or "gutbucket" is a stringed instrument used in American This, along with a dobro, or resonator guitar, is also considered to be 'standard' bluegrass instrumentation, but old-time music tends to focus on sparer instrumentation and arrangements than bluegrass. Such an assemblage, of whatever instrumentation, became known simply as a "string band. This article is about the style of old-time American music The term string band also referred to the ensembles now known as Scratch bands part of the Music of the " Occasionally the cello, piano, hammered dulcimer, Appalachian dulcimer, tenor banjo, tenor guitar, mouth bow, or other instruments were used, as well as such non-string instruments as the jug, harmonica, Jew's harp, concertina, accordion, washboard, spoons, or bones. The violoncello (abbreviated to cello, or 'cello, plural cellos or celli —the c is tʃ The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers The hammered dulcimer is a stringed Musical instrument with the strings stretched over a Trapezoidal sounding board The Appalachian dulcimer is a Fretted String instrument of the Zither family typically with three or four strings The banjo is a Stringed instrument developed by enslaved Africans in the United States, adapted from several African instruments The tenor guitar is a slightly smaller four-string version of the steel-string acoustic guitar or Electric guitar. The musical bow is a simple string Musical instrument consisting of a string supported by a flexible string bearer usually made out of Wood. The jug as a musical instrument reached its height of popularity in the 1920s when Jug bands such as Cannon's Jug Stompers were popular A harmonica is a free reed Wind instrument which is played by blowing air into it or drawing air out by placing lips over individual holes (reed chambers or The Jew's harp, juice harp, jaw harp, mouth harp, Ozark harp, or marranzano pancake is thought to be one of the oldest Musical A concertina is a free-reed Musical instrument, like the various Accordions and the Harmonica. The accordion is a portable box-shaped Musical instrument of the hand-held Bellows -driven free-reed aerophone family sometimes referred to as a Squeezebox A washboard is a tool designed for hand washing clothing With mechanized cleaning of clothing becoming more common by the end of the 20th century the washboard has become better known A spoon is a Utensil consisting of a small shallow bowl at the end of a handle used primarily for serving and eating Liquid, or semi-liquid foods and solid foods The bones are a Musical instrument (more specifically a folk instrument which at the simplest consists of a pair of animal Bones or pieces of wood or
The fiddle is sometimes played by two people at the same time, with one player using the bow and fingers, while another player stands to the side and taps out a rhythm on the fiddle strings using small sticks called fiddlesticks (also spelled "fiddle sticks"). This technique (also sometimes called "beating the straws") is utilized in performance most notably by the duo of Al and Emily Cantrell. 
Because old-time fiddle-based string band music is often played for dances, it is often characterized as dance music. However, there are also long-standing traditions of solo listening pieces as well as fiddle songs, such as those that have been documented in West Virginia by Erynn Marshall in Music in the Air Somewhere: The Shifting Borders of West Virginia's Fiddle and Song Traditions (WVU Press, 2006). In dance music as played by old-time string bands, emphasis is placed on providing a strong beat, and instrumental solos, or breaks are rarely taken. This contrasts with bluegrass music which was developed in the 1940s as a form of concert music. Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music, and is a sub-genre of Country music. Bluegrass music, however, developed from old-time music, and shares many of the same songs and instruments, but is more oriented toward solo performance than is old-time music.
While in the British Isles reels and jigs both remain popular, the reel is by far the predominant metric structure preferred by old-time musicians in the United States (though a few hornpipes are also still performed). The reel is a Folk dance type as well as the accompanying dance tune type. The jig (port is a Folk dance type as well as the accompanying dance tune type popular in Ireland. The term hornpipe refers to any of several dance forms played and danced in Britain and elsewhere from the late 17th century until the present day Canadian musicians, particularly in the Maritime provinces where the Scottish influence is strong, perform both reels and jigs (as well as other types of tunes such as marches and strathspeys). The Maritime provinces, called the Maritimes in local English (or the Canadian Maritimes by non-Canadians is a region of Eastern Canada A march, as a Musical genre, is a piece of music with a strong regular rhythm which in origin was expressly written for marching to and most frequently performed by a Military A strathspey is a type of Dance tune in 4/4 time It is similar to a Hornpipe but slower and more stately and contains many dot-cut 'snaps'
Each regional old-time tradition accompanies different dance styles. Some of these include clogging and flatfoot dancing (Appalachia), contradancing (New England), square dancing (Southern states) and step dancing (Nova Scotia, particularly Cape Breton Island), though there is some overlap between regions. Clogging is a type of Folk dance rooted in traditional European dancing from the British Isles, in which the dancer's footwear is used musically by striking the heel Contra dance (also contradance, contra-dance and other variant spellings refers to several Folk dance styles in which couples dance in two facing lines History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the Square dance is a Folk dance with four couples (eight dancers arranged in a square with one couple on each side beginning with Couple 1 facing away from the music and going Step dance is the generic term for dance styles where the footwork is the most important part of the dance Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's Cape Breton Island ( French: île du Cap-Breton - formerly île Royale, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn,
Players traditionally learn old-time music by ear; even musicians who can read music. A broad selection of written music does exist, although many believe that the style of old-time music cannot be practically notated by written music. This is in part because there are many regional and local variations to old-time tunes, and because some of the most noted players often improvised and wouldn't play a tune exactly the same way every time.
Players usually learn old-time music by attending local jam sessions and by attending festivals scattered around the country. With the spread of broad-band Internet, more and more old-time recordings are available via small publishers, boutique Web sites, Internet streaming audio ("Web radio"), and small Web sites making the music more accessible.
Although it is one of the oldest and most prominent forms of traditional music in the United States and Canada, old-time music (with a few notable exceptions) is generally not taught in North American primary schools, secondary schools, or universities. Although square dancing is still occasionally taught in elementary schools (generally with recorded, rather than live music), old-time instruments and dances are not included in the educational system, and must be studied outside the school system.
There are, however a growing number of folk music schools in the United States, usually non-profit community based, that have taken up the mantle of providing instruction in old-time music. The Old Town School of Folk Music in Chicago, Illinois is perhaps the oldest of these, having begun in 1957. The Old Town School of Folk Music is a Chicago teaching and performing institution that launched the careers of many notable Folk music artists Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The Folk School of St. Louis, Missouri is one of the many newer schools having opened its doors in 2002 after the movie O Brother, Where Art Thou? caused an increase in people from urban areas wanting to learn old-time music. O Brother Where Art Thou? is a Comedy Film made by the Coen Brothers. These schools and the subsequent music communities that spring from them offer a positive trend in keeping old-time music alive.
There are a variety of programs, mostly in the summer, that offer week-long immersions in old-time music and dance. These camps are family friendly and allow beginners to enter into the tradition and more advanced players to hone their sound with instruction from some of the best in the music.
There are numerous regional styles of old-time music, each with its own repertoire and playing style. Nevertheless, some tunes (such as "Soldier's Joy") are found in nearly every regional style, though played somewhat differently in each.
This section applies primarily to the "Southern Appalachian" region of the United States (the Central Appalachians being in the northeastern U. S. and the Northern Appalachians stretching into Quebec, Canada). Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page
Appalachian folk music is a distinctive genre of folk music. Appalachia is a term used to describe a region in the eastern United States that stretches from southern New York state to northern Alabama, A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous
Appalachian music is believed to have developed from traditional Scottish, English and Irish music brought to the United States by immigrants from those countries, and in turn it influenced country music and old-time music. Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to Pop music Irish Music is the generic term for music that has been created in various genres on the entire island of Ireland, North and South of the border Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains.
Most roots of early Appalachian folk music can be traced to ballads sung in the British Isles brought over and preserved by immigrants who moved into these western regions due to land opportunities made possible by land grants. 
As a result the terrain of the region, the societies and cultures were fairly isolated from outside intervention. In 1916 Cecil Sharp arrived in Appalachia and began recording the folk songs on the Mountains. Cecil James Sharp (22 November 1859 – 23 June 1924 was the founding father of the folklore revival in England in the early twentieth century, and many Sharp, an authority on British ballads was able to identify 1,600 versions of 500 songs from 281 singers, almost all had their origins in the English/Scottish Child Ballads. The Child Ballads are a collection of 305 Ballads from England and Scotland, and their American variants collected by Francis James Child After his first study in Appalachia, he published, English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians.  Some examples of songs preserved in the Appalachian Mountains and recorded by Sharp include, “The Hangman Song”, “Barbara Allen”, etc. 
A Scottish fiddler named Neil Gow is usually credited with developing (during the 1740s) the short bow sawstroke technique that defines Appalachian fiddling. Niel Gow (1727-1807 was possibly the most famous Scottish Fiddler of the 18th century Events and trends Frederick II ascends the throne of Prussia, upon the death of his father " Frederick William I of Prussia " This technique was altered during the next century, with European waltzes and polkas being most influential. The waltz is a ballroom and folk Dance in time, performed primarily in Closed position. The polka is a fast lively Central European Dance and also a genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas
While in the year 2000 African Americans made up only eight percent of the Appalachian population, their numbers were greater in the 19th and early 20th centuries, due not only to the presence of slaves but also free blacks working in timber, coal mining, and other industries. Coal mining is the extraction or removal of Coal from the Earth by Mining. Their considerable influence on Appalachian music can be seen in instrumentation: the banjo was adopted from African Americans by white musicians following the Civil War. Even into the early 20th century, it was common for young white musicians to have learned the banjo or other instruments from older African American musicians living in their area. Their influence can also be felt in the ornamentation of old-time music which includes the third and seventh blue notes, and sliding tones. In Jazz and Blues, a blue note (also "worried" note is a Note sung or played at a slightly lower pitch than that of the " Glissando " (plural glissandi abbreviated gliss is a glide from one pitch to another Sliding tones are not found in British Isles folk music outside of certain styles of Irish music, whose influence on Appalachian music is considered minimal (this may be indicative of parallel evolution since the early Appalachian settlers were generally not of Irish extraction).
Appalachian folk became a major influence on styles like country music and bluegrass. Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music, and is a sub-genre of Country music. It is one of the few regional styles of old-time music that, since World War II, has been learned and widely practiced in all areas of the United States (as well as in Canada, Europe, Australia, and elsewhere). In some cases (as in the Midwest and Northeast), its popularity has eclipsed the indigenous old-time traditions of these regions. There is a particularly high concentration of performers playing Appalachian folk music on the East and West Coasts (especially in New York City, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and the Pacific Northwest). A number of American classical composers, in particular Henry Cowell and Aaron Copland, have composed works that merge the idioms of Appalachian folk music with the Old World–based classical tradition. Henry Cowell ( March 11, 1897 – December 10, 1965) was an American Composer, musical theorist, Pianist Aaron Copland (November 14 1900 &ndash December 2 1990 was an American Composer of concert and film music as well as an accomplished Pianist.
Appalachian old-time music is itself made up of regional traditions. Some of the most prominent traditions include those of Mount Airy, North Carolina (specifically the Round Peak style of Tommy Jarrell) and Grayson County/Galax, Virginia (Wade Ward and Albert Hash), West Virginia (the Hammons Family), East Kentucky (J. Mount Airy is a city in Surry County, North Carolina, United States. North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States Round Peak is a small unincorporated community in Surry County, North Carolina, United States, near Mount Airy North Carolina with an elevation Tommy Jarrell (born Thomas Jefferson Jarrell, March 1, 1901 Surry County North Carolina, died January 28, 1985) was an Grayson County is a county located in the southwestern part of the Commonwealth of Virginia of the United States. Galax (ˈgeɪlæks is an Independent city located in the southwestern part of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by P. Fraley and Lee Sexton), and East Tennessee (Roan Mountain Hilltoppers). East Tennessee is a name given to approximately the eastern third of the state of Tennessee, one of
The banjo player and fiddler Bascom Lamar Lunsford, a native of the North Carolina mountains, collected much traditional music during his lifetime, also founding the old-time music festival in Asheville, North Carolina. Bascom Lamar Lunsford ( March 21, 1882 - September 4, 1973) was a lawyer folklorist and performer of traditional ( folk and Asheville is a City in and the County seat of Buncombe County, North Carolina, United Notable North Carolina traditional banjo players and makers include Frank Proffitt, Frank Proffitt, Jr. and Stanley Hicks, who all learned to make and play fretless mountain banjos from a family tradition. These players, among others, learned their art primarily from family and show fewer traces of influence from commercial hillbilly recordings. The Proffitts and Hicks were heirs to a centuries-old folk tradition, and through the middle to late 20th century and they continued to perform in a style older than the stringbands often associated with old time music. Their style has been recently emulated by contemporary musician Tim Eriksen.
Old-time music has also been adopted by a few Native American musicians; the eminent Walker Calhoun of Big Cove, in the Qualla Boundary (home to the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, just outside the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in western North Carolina) plays three-finger-style banjo, to which he sings in the Cherokee language. The Eastern Cherokee Indian Reservation (officially known as the Qualla Boundary) is located in western North Carolina just south of Great Smoky Mountains National Park The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians are a Federally recognized Native American tribe in the United States of America Great Smoky Mountains National Park is a United States National Park that straddles the ridgeline of the Great Smoky Mountains, part of the Blue Ridge Mountains North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ Tsalagi) is an Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people which uses a unique syllabary writing system
The New England states, being among the first to be settled by Europeans, have one of the oldest traditions of old-time music. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the Although the Puritans (the first Europeans to settle in the region), frowned upon instrumental music, dance music flourished in both urban and rural areas beginning in the 17th century. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, Primary instruments include the fiddle, piano, and guitar, with the wooden flute sometimes also used. As with Appalachian folk, a number of classical composers have turned to New England folk music for melodic and harmonic ideas, most famously Charles Ives, as well as Aaron Copland, William Schuman, and John Cage, among others. Charles Edward Ives (October 20 1874 – May 19 1954 was an American Composer of modernist Classical music. Aaron Copland (November 14 1900 &ndash December 2 1990 was an American Composer of concert and film music as well as an accomplished Pianist. William Howard Schuman ( August 4, 1910 – February 15, 1992) was an American WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> John Milton Cage Jr
Beginning in the early 19th century, when the Midwestern states were first settled by immigrants from the eastern United States and Europe, the Midwest developed its own regional styles of old-time music. Among these, the Missouri style is of particular interest for its energetic bowing style. Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee 
In the Upper Midwest, especially Minnesota, old-time music most typically refers to a mixture of Scandinavian styles, especially Norwegian and Swedish. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers Music based on traditional Norwegian form usually includes minor or modal scales (sometimes mixed with major scales making a sober and haunting sound 
The Southern states (particularly coastal states such as Virginia and North Carolina) also have one of the oldest traditions of old-time music in the United States. North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States
It is in this region that the music of Africa mixed most strongly with that of the British Isles. Records show that many African slaves (some of whom had been musicians in Africa or the Caribbean, where they had lived prior to the United States) were talented musicians, playing, as early as the 18th century, instruments such as the fiddle, banjo, and piano. Slave documents and advertisements of the time often listed musical abilities of individual African slaves as a selling point, as slaves were frequently asked to perform for their masters. 
The banjo, an essential instrument for Southern and Appalachian old-time music, is believed to have derived from a West African skin-covered lute; such instruments (generally with four strings) are still played today in Senegal, Gambia, Mali, and Guinea, where they are called ngoni, xalam, or various other names. Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali is a Landlocked nation in Western Africa. Guinea, officially Republic of Guinea (pronounced /ˈgɪni/ République de Guinée is a country in West Africa, formerly known as French Guinea Xalam, also spelled khalam, is the Wolof name for a traditional stringed musical instrument from West Africa.
States of the Deep South such as Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Louisiana also have their own regional old-time music traditions and repertoires. The Deep South is a descriptive category of cultural and geographic subregions in the American South. Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America Premier old time banjoist Bob Carlin has authored String Bands in the North Carolina Piedmont with a focus on non-Appalachian styles in that state. While the music of the Louisiana Cajuns has much in common with other North American old-time traditions it is generally treated as a tradition unto itself and not referred to as a form of old-time music. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Cajuns ('keʒən les Cadiens are an Ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other
Texas developed a distinctive twin-fiddling tradition that was later popularized by Bob Wills as "Western swing" music. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. James Robert (Bob Wills ( March 6, 1905 &ndash May 13, 1975) was an American Western swing musician Songwriter This article is about the Musical genre. For the popular western swing Steel guitar tuning see E9 tuning. Fiddle music has also been popular since the 19th century in other Western states such as Oklahoma and Colorado. Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. The State of Colorado ( or chiefly by nonresidents) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. The National Oldtime Fiddlers' Contest has been held each year in Weiser, Idaho since 1953. Weiser is a city in the rural western part of the US state of Idaho and the seat of Washington County. The State of Idaho ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States of America. Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Oklahoma, with its high concentration of Native American inhabitants, has produced some Native American old-time string bands, most notably Big Chief Henry's Indian String Band (consisting of Henry Hall, fiddle; Clarence Hall, guitar; and Harold Hall, banjo and voice), which was recorded by H. C. Speir for the Victor company in 1929. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States Big Chief Henry's Indian String Band was a Choctaw Indian string band from Oklahoma H C Speir (born Henry C Speir in Prospect, Mississippi, October 6, 1895; d Victrola redirects here For other uses see Victrola (disambiguation The Victor Talking Machine Company ( 1901 – 1929 Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Among the prominent styles of old-time music in Canada are the Scottish-derived tradition of Nova Scotia (particularly Cape Breton Island), the French Canadian music of Quebec and Acadia, the old-time music of Ontario, and the prairie fiddling traditions of the central-western provinces. Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's Cape Breton Island ( French: île du Cap-Breton - formerly île Royale, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk The Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture ( ACADIA) is a Non-profit organization active in the area of Computer-aided architectural design Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Western Canada, commonly referred to as the West, is a region of Canada normally including all parts of Canada west of the province It is here (primarily in Manitoba and Saskatchewan) that the fiddle tradition of the Métis people is found. Manitoba (English ˌmænɨˈtoʊbə French /manitoba/ is a province of Canada, spanning 647797 square kilometres (250116  sq mi of North America Saskatchewan (səˈskætʃəwən) is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588276 The Métis are descendants of marriages of Cree, Ojibway Algonquin, Saulteaux, and Menominee aboriginals to Europeans, The traditional folk music of Newfoundland and Labrador, though similar in some ways to that of the rest of Atlantic Canada, has a distinct style of its own, and is generally considered a separate genre. Newfoundland and Labrador is an Atlantic Canadian province with a folk musical heritage based on the Irish, English and Scottish traditions that Newfoundland and Labrador (ˈnuːfɨn(dlənd ən(d ˈlæbrəˌdɔr (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador is a province of Canada, the tenth and latest to join the Confederation Atlantic Canada, also known as the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Canada comprising four provinces located on the Atlantic coast:
The current old-time music scene is alive and well, sparked since 2000 by the combined exposure resulting from several prominent films, more accessible depositories of source material, and the work of a few of touring bands, including the Foghorn Stringband, the The Wilders, Uncle Earl, The Forge Mountain Diggers, Old Crow Medicine Show, Suzanne and Jim and The Tennessee Mafia Jug Band. Uncle Earl is an American Old-time music group formed in 2000 by KC Groves and Jo Serrapere. Old Crow Medicine Show is an old-time String band based in Nashville Tennessee. Suzanne and Jim are a music duo
A handful of solo old-time musicians perform currently, including multi-instrumentalist Mike Seeger, fiddlers Brad Leftwich, Bruce Molsky, Rhys Jones, Dirk Powell, Rayna Gellert, banjo players Paul Brown and Riley Baugus, and guitar players/singers Alice Gerrard, Martha Scanlan, Carrie Fridley, Thomas Bailey, and Beverly Smith. Brad Leftwich is a prominent American old-time Fiddle and Banjo player and teacher Bruce C Molsky (b Manhattan, New York, 1955 is an American Fiddler Banjo player Guitarist and singer Rhys Jones may refer to Rhys Jones (archaeologist, Welsh-Australian archaeologist Rhys Jones, 11-year-old murder victim shot dead in Rayna Gellert (born December 15, 1976) is an American Fiddler and singer specializing in Old-time music. Paul Eugene Brown ( September 7, 1908 - August 5, 1991) was a coach in American football and a major figure in the development Alice Gerrard is an American bluegrass singer She performed in a duo with Hazel Dickens and as part of The Back Creek Buddies with Matokie Slaughter Thomas Bailey or Tom Bailey may refer to Thomas A Bailey (1902&ndash1983 historian and textbook author Thomas Bailey (Controversialist Beverly Smith (born December 16, 1946) in Cleveland Ohio is a Black feminist health advocate writer academic theorist and activist who is
Stephanie Coleman, Greg Burgular, Leela and Ellie Grace, and Matt Brown are in the vanguard of a new generation of talented old-time musicians currently performing.
Living elders of the music include Benton Flippen of Mount Airy, North Carolina and Clyde Davenport of Monticello, Kentucky. Mount Airy is a city in Surry County, North Carolina, United States. Monticello is a city in Wayne County, Kentucky, United States.
The Old Grey Mare