Crest of the Ojibwa people
|Regions with significant populations|
|United States, Canada|
|Catholicism, Methodism, Midewiwin|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Ottawa, Potawatomi and other Algonquian peoples|
The Ojibwa or Chippewa (also Ojibwe, Ojibway, Chippeway) is the largest group of Native Americans-First Nations north of Mexico, including Métis. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations The Midewiwin (also spelled Midewin and Medewiwin) or the Grand Medicine Society is a secretive religion of the aboriginal groups of the Maritimes The Potawatomi (also spelled Pottawatomie and Pottawatomi, among many variations) are a Native American people of the upper Mississippi The Algonquian (also Algonkian, and pronounced both and) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States First Nations is a term of Ethnicity that refers to the Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The Métis are descendants of marriages of Cree, Ojibway Algonquin, Saulteaux, and Menominee aboriginals to Europeans, They are the third largest in the United States, surpassed only by Cherokee and Navajo. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ a-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who at the time of European contact The Navajo Nation ( Diné in the Navajo language) is a semi- autonomous Native American homeland covering about 26000 square miles (67339 square They are equally divided between the United States and Canada. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Because they were formerly located mainly around Sault Ste. Marie, at the outlet of Lake Superior, the French referred to them as Saulteurs. Sault Ste Marie (nicknamed "the Sault" or "the Soo" is a City on the St Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes of North America. Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( Ojibwa who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux. The Canadian Prairies is a region in western Canada, which may correspond to several different definitions natural or political The Saulteaux (also Salteaux and many other variants; ˈsoʊtoʊ are a First Nation in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan Ojibwa who were originally located about the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas. The Mississagi River is a River in central Ontario, Canada, which originates in Mississagi Lake and flows 270 km to empty into Lake Huron at Southern Ontario is the portion of the Canadian province of Ontario lying south of the French River and Algonquin Park. The Mississaugas are a subtribe of the Anishinaabe First Nations people located in southern Ontario, Canada, closely related to the Ojibwa
As a major component group of the Anishinaabe peoples—which includes the Algonquin, Nipissing, Oji-cree, Odawa and the Potawatomi—the Ojibwe peoples number over 100,000 in the U. Anishinaabe or more properly Anishinaabeg or Anishinabek (which is the plural form of the word is a self-description often used by the Odawa, Ojibwe The Algonquins (or Algonkins) are an aboriginal North American people speaking Algonquin, an Anishinaabe language. The Nipissing First Nation consists of first nation (ie aboriginal people of Ojibway and Algonquin descent who have lived in the area of Lake Nipissing The Oji-Cree, Anishinini (plural Anishininiwag) or less correctly Severn Ojibwe, are a First Nation in the Canadian provinces of The Potawatomi (also spelled Pottawatomie and Pottawatomi, among many variations) are a Native American people of the upper Mississippi S. , living in an area stretching across the north from Michigan to Montana. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Montana ( is a state in the Western United States. One-third of the state in the western part contains numerous mountain ranges (approximately 77 named of the northern Another 76,000, in 125 bands, live in Canada, stretching from western Québec to eastern British Columbia. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C They are known for their birch bark canoes, sacred birch bark scrolls, the use of cowrie shells, wild rice, copper points, and for their use of gun technology from the British to defeat and push back the Dakota nation of the Sioux (1745). Birch bark or birchbark is generally understood to be the Bark of the Paper Birch tree ( Betula papyrifera) or sometimes of related species such A canoe is a small narrow Boat, typically human-powered though it may also be powered by sails or small electric or gas motors Wiigwaasabak ( Ojibwe language plural wiigwaasabakoon) are Birch bark scrolls on which the Ojibwa ( Anishinaabe) Cowry, also sometimes spelled cowrie, plural always cowries, is the Common name for a group of small to large sea Snails marine Wild rice is any of the four species of plants that make up the genus Zizania (common names Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats For other meanings of the word including the United States states please see Dakota The Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications Sioux (pronounced SUE are a Native American and First Nations people The Ojibwe Nation was the first to set the agenda for signing more detailed treaties with Canada's leaders before many settlers were allowed too far west. The Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, history, songs, maps, memories, stories, geometry, and mathematics. The Midewiwin (also spelled Midewin and Medewiwin) or the Grand Medicine Society is a secretive religion of the aboriginal groups of the Maritimes 
The autonym for this group of Anishinaabeg is "Ojibwe" (plural: Ojibweg). An exonym (from Greek el ἔξω exo = out el ὄνομα onoma = name is a name for a place that is not used within that place by the local This name is commonly anglicized as "Ojibwa. " The name "Chippewa" is an anglicized corruption of "Ojibwa. " Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States and "Ojibwa" predominates in Canada, but both terms do exist in both countries. The exact meaning of the name "Ojibwe" is not known; however, three most common explanations on the name derivations are:
However, across many Ojibwa communities across Canada and the U. A pictogram ( also spelled pictogramme) or pictograph is a Symbol representing a Concept, object, activity place or event The Midewiwin (also spelled Midewin and Medewiwin) or the Grand Medicine Society is a secretive religion of the aboriginal groups of the Maritimes Not to be confused with the Creek. Cree is an Exonym applied to various people indigenous to North America namely the Nehiyaw Nehithaw Nehilaw S. , the more generalized name of "Anishinaabe(-g)" is becoming more common.
Many still speak the Ojibwe language known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin. The language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, and is descended from Proto-Algonquian. The Algonquian (also Algonkian, and pronounced both and) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic Proto-Algonquian (commonly abbreviated PA) is the name given to the posited Proto-language of the languages of the Algonquian family. Among its sister languages are Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Cree, Fox, Menominee, Potawatomi, and Shawnee. The Blackfoot Confederacy or Niitsítapi (meaning "original people" c Cheyenne are a Native American nation of the Great Plains. The Cheyenne Nation is composed of two united tribes, the Só'taa'e (more commonly Not to be confused with the Creek. Cree is an Exonym applied to various people indigenous to North America namely the Nehiyaw Nehithaw Nehilaw "Outagamie" redirects here For the Wisconsin county see Outagamie County Wisconsin. Some placenames use other spellings see also Menomonee and Menomonie. The Potawatomi (also spelled Pottawatomie and Pottawatomi, among many variations) are a Native American people of the upper Mississippi The Shawnee, or Shaawanwaki, Shaawanooki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki, are a people native to North America. Anishinaabemowin is frequently referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language; however, Central Algonquian is an areal grouping rather than a genetic one. Ojibwemowin is the fourth most spoken Native language in North America (after Navajo, Cree, and Inuktitut). Navajo or Navaho ( native name: Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock spoken in the southwest United States by Cree (also known as Cree-Montagnais Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117000 people across Inuktitut ( Inuktitut syllabics: iu-Cans ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ( fonts required literally "like the Inuit") is the name of the varieties of Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains. The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. The Great Plains are the broad expanse of Prairie and Steppe which lie east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada The Ojibwe presence was made highly visible among non-Native Americans and around the world by the popularity of Longfellow's 1855 epic poem, The Song of Hiawatha. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27 1807 &ndash March 24 1882 was an American educator and Poet whose works include " Paul Revere's Ride " An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation The Song of Hiawatha is an 1855 Epic poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow based on the legends of the Ojibway Indians. Many toponyms with an origin in Ojibwa words are found in this epic. Toponymy refers to the scientific study of place-names ( toponyms) their origins meanings use and Typology.
According to their tradition, and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, many Ojibwe came from the eastern areas of North America, or Turtle Island, and from along the east coast. Wiigwaasabak ( Ojibwe language plural wiigwaasabakoon) are Birch bark scrolls on which the Ojibwa ( Anishinaabe) Turtle Island is the English language translation of many Native American tribes' terms for the Continent of North America. They traded widely across the continent for thousands of years and knew of the canoe routes west and a land route to the west coast. According to the oral history, seven great miigis (radiant/iridescent) beings appeared to the peoples in the Waabanakiing (Land of the Dawn, i. The Abenaki ( or Abnaki) are a Tribe of Native American and First Nations people belonging to the Algonquian peoples e. Eastern Land) to teach the peoples of the mide way of life. The Midewiwin (also spelled Midewin and Medewiwin) or the Grand Medicine Society is a secretive religion of the aboriginal groups of the Maritimes However, one of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the peoples in the Waabanakiing when the people were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach while the one returned into the ocean. The six great miigis beings then established doodem (clans) for the peoples in the east. Of these doodem, the five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii (Bullhead), Baswenaazhi (Echo-maker, i. Anishinaabe or more properly Anishinaabeg or Anishinabek (which is the plural form of the word is a self-description often used by the Odawa, Ojibwe The brown bullhead, Ameiurus nebulosus, is a Fish of the Ictaluridae family that is widely distributed in North America e. , Crane), Aan'aawenh (Pintail Duck), Nooke (Tender, i. Cranes are large long-legged and long-necked Birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. The Pintail or Northern Pintail ( Anas acuta) is a widely-occurring Duck which breeds in the northern areas of Europe, Asia and e. , Bear) and Moozoonsii (Little Moose), then these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. The moose (North America or elk (Europe Alces alces, is the largest extant Species in the Deer family. If the seventh miigis being stayed, it would have established the Thunderbird doodem. The Thunderbird is a Legendary creature in North American indigenous peoples' history and culture
At a later time, one of these miigis beings appeared in a vision to relate a prophecy. The prophecy stated that if more of the Anishinaabeg did not move further west, they would not be able to keep their traditional ways alive because of the many new settlements and European immigrants that would arrive soon in the east. Their migration path would be symbolized by a series of smaller Turtle Islands, which was confirmed with miigis shells (i. e. , cowry shells). Cowry, also sometimes spelled cowrie, plural always cowries, is the Common name for a group of small to large sea Snails marine After receiving assurance from the their "Allied Brothers" (i. e. , Mi'kmaq) and "Father" (i. The Míkmaq or Mi'kmaq (miːgmax sometimes spelled Micmac in English and formerly Mìgmaq ( Mi'gmaq) in Míkmaw) are a e. , Abnaki) of their safety in having many more of the Anishinaabeg move inland, they advanced along the St. Lawrence River to the Ottawa River to Lake Nipissing, and then to the Great Lakes. The Abenaki ( or Abnaki) are a Tribe of Native American and First Nations people belonging to the Algonquian peoples Saint Lawrence River (in French: fleuve Saint-Laurent; Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora, Kaniatarowanenneh meaning big waterway This is about the river in Canada For other uses see Ottawa River (disambiguation. Lake Nipissing ( French: lac Nipissing) is a Lake in the Canadian province of Ontario. The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. First of these smaller Turtle Islands was Mooniyaa, which Mooniyaang (Montreal, Quebec) now stands. Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec The "second stopping place" was in the vicinity of the Wayaanag-gakaabikaa (Concave Waterfalls, i. e. Niagara Falls). The Niagara Falls are massive Waterfalls on the Niagara River, straddling the international border separating the Canadian province of Ontario At their "third stopping place" near the present-day city of Detroit, Michigan, the Anishinaabeg divided into six divisions, of which the Ojibwa was one of these six. The first significant new Ojibwa culture-centre was their "fourth stopping place" on Manidoo Minising (Manitoulin Island). Manitoulin Island is a Canadian island in Lake Huron, in the province of Ontario. Their first new political-centre was referred as their "fifth stopping place", in their present country at Baawiting (Sault Ste. Marie).
Continuing their westward expansion, the Ojibwa divided into the "northern branch" following the north shore of Lake Superior, and "southern branch" following the south shore of the same lake. Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes of North America. In their expansion westward, the "northern branch" divided into a "westerly group" and a "southerly group". The "southern branch" and the "southerly group" of the "northern branch" came together at their "sixth stopping place" on Spirit Island ( ) located in the St. Louis River estuary of Duluth/Superior region where the people were directed by the miigis being in a vision to go to the "place where there is food (i. The St Louis River is a river in the US State of Minnesota that flows into Lake Superior. Duluth is a Port City in the US state of Minnesota and the County seat of St The city of Superior sits at the junction of US Highway 2 and U e. wild rice) upon the waters. Wild rice is any of the four species of plants that make up the genus Zizania (common names Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats " Their second major settlement, referred as their "seventh stopping place", was at Shaugawaumikong (or Zhaagawaamikong, French, Chequamegon) on the southern shore of Lake Superior, near the present La Pointe near Bayfield, Wisconsin. Chequamegon Bay (ʃəˈwɑːməɡæn or approximately "sha-wahma-gann" is an inlet of Lake Superior, NE-SW and 2- wide in Ashland and Bayfield Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes of North America. La Pointe is a town in Ashland County in the US state of Wisconsin. Bayfield is a city in Bayfield County, Wisconsin, United States. The "westerly group" of the "northern branch" continued their westward expansion along the Rainy River, Red River of the North, and across the northern Great Plains until reaching the Pacific Northwest. Rainy River can refer to The Rainy River (Minnesota-Ontario that forms part of the United States-Canada border between Minnesota and Ontario The Red River (rivière Rouge is a North American river Formed by the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers in the United States The Great Plains are the broad expanse of Prairie and Steppe which lie east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada The Pacific Northwest is a region in the northwest of North America (the term refers to the land not the ocean Along their migration to the west they came across many miigis, or cowry shells, as told in the prophecy.
The first historical mention of the Ojibwe occurs in the Jesuit Relation of 1640. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Through their friendship with the French traders they were able to obtain guns and thus successfully end their hereditary wars with the Sioux and Fox on their west and south, with the result that the Sioux were driven out from the Upper Mississippi region, and the Fox were forced down from northern Wisconsin and compelled to ally with the Sauk. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States By the end of the eighteenth century the Ojibwa were the nearly unchallenged owners of almost all of present-day Michigan, northern Wisconsin, and Minnesota, including most of the Red River area, together with the entire northern shores of Lakes Huron and Superior on the Canadian side and extending westward to the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota, where they became known as the Plains Ojibwa or Saulteaux. The Red River (rivière Rouge is a North American river Formed by the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers in the United States Lake Huron, bounded on the west by the US state of Michigan, and on the east by the province of Ontario, Canada, is one of the five Great Turtle Mountain, or the Turtle Mountains, is an area in the north-central portion of the U North Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern and Western regions of the United States of America.
The Ojibwa were part of a long term alliance with the Ottawa and Potawatomi First Nations, called the Council of Three Fires and which fought with the Iroquois Confederacy and the Sioux. The Potawatomi (also spelled Pottawatomie and Pottawatomi, among many variations) are a Native American people of the upper Mississippi First Nations is a term of Ethnicity that refers to the Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people The Council of Three Fires, also known as the People of the Three Fires, the Three Fires Confederacy, the United Nations of Chippewa Ottawa and Potawatomi The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse The Ojibwa expanded eastward, taking over the lands alongside the eastern shores of Lake Huron and Georgian Bay. Georgian Bay (French baie Georgienne) is a large bay of Lake Huron, located in Ontario, Canada. The Ojibwa allied themselves with the French in the French and Indian War, and with the British in the War of 1812. The French and Indian War (1754&ndash1763 was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies
In the U. S. , the government attempted to remove all the Ojibwa to Minnesota west of Mississippi River, culminating in the Sandy Lake Tragedy and several hundred deaths. Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to ethnically cleanse Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi The Sandy Lake Tragedy was the death of several hundred Ojibwe during the US Government's attempt at removal of the tribe in 1850 Through the efforts of Chief Buffalo and popular opinion against Ojibwa removal, the bands east of the Mississippi were allowed to return to permanent reservations on ceded territory. Chief Buffalo ( Ojibwe: Ke-che-waish-ke / Gichi-weshkiinh – "Great-renewer" or Peezhickee / Bizhiki – "Buffalo" A few families were removed to Kansas as part of the Potawatomi removal. Kansas ( is a Midwestern state in the central region of the United States of America, an area often referred to as the American "
In British North America, the cession of land by treaty or purchase was governed by the Royal Proclamation of 1763, and subsequently most of the land in Upper Canada was ceded to Great Britain. A Treaty is an agreement under International law entered into by actors in international law namely States and International organizations. The Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 by King George III following Great Britain 's acquisition of French territory The Province of Upper Canada (French Province du Haut-Canada) was a British colony located in what is now the southern portion of the Province of Ontario The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Even with the Jay Treaty signed between the Great Britain and the United States, the newly formed United States did not fully uphold the treaty, causing illegal immigration into Ojibwa and other Native American lands, which culminated in the Northwest Indian War. The Jay Treaty, also known as the Treaty of London of 1794, between the United States and Great Britain averted war solved many issues left over from The Northwest Indian War (1785&ndash1795 also known as Little Turtle's War and by various other names was a war fought between the United States and Subsequently, much of the lands in Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, parts of Illinois and Wisconsin, and northern Minnesota and North Dakota were ceded to the United States. Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. However, provisions were made in many of the land cession treaties to allow for continued hunting, fishing and gathering of natural resources by the Ojibwe even after the land sales. In northwestern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, the numbered treaties were signed. Manitoba (English ˌmænɨˈtoʊbə French /manitoba/ is a province of Canada, spanning 647797 square kilometres (250116  sq mi of North America Saskatchewan (səˈskætʃəwən) is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588276 Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 British Columbia had no signed treaties until the late twentieth century, and most areas have no treaties yet. British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C There are ongoing treaty land entitlements to settle and negotiate. The treaties are constantly being reinterpreted by the courts because many of them are vague and difficult to apply in modern times. However, the numbered treaties were some of the most detailed treaties signed for their time. The Ojibwa Nation set the agenda and negotiated the first numbered treaties before they would allow safe passage of many more settlers to the prairies.
Often, earlier treaties were known as "Peace and Friendship Treaties" to establish community bonds between the Ojibwa and the European settlers. These earlier treaties established the groundwork for cooperative resource sharing between the Ojibwa and the settlers. However, later treaties involving land cessions were seen as territorial advantages for both the United States and Canada, but the land cession terms were often not fully understood by the Ojibwa because of the cultural differences in understanding of the land. For the governments of the United States and the Canada, land was considered a commodity of value that could be freely bought, owned and sold. For the Ojibwa, land was considered a fully-shared resource, along with air, water and sunlight; concept of land sales or exclusive ownership of land was a foreign concept not known to the Ojibwa at the time of the treaty councils. Consequently, today in both Canada and the United States, legal arguments in treaty-rights and treaty interpretations often bring to light the differences in cultural understanding of these treaty terms in order to come to legal understanding of the treaty obligations. .
During Indian Removal, U. Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to ethnically cleanse Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi S. government attempted to relocate tribes from to west of the Mississippi River as the white pioneers colonized the areas. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to After a period of time the goal of the government changed. In the late 19th century, the government instead moved the tribes onto reservations. An Indian reservation is an area of land managed by a Native American Tribe under the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau The government attempted to do this to the Anishinabe in the Keweenaw Peninsula in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Keweenaw Peninsula (ˈkiːwənɔː roughly KEY-win-awe is the most northern part of Michigan 's Upper Peninsula. The Upper Peninsula of Michigan is the northern of the two major land masses that comprise the U
The Ojibwa live in groups (otherwise known as "bands"). Eastman Johnson ( July 29, 1824 - April 5, 1906) was an American painter and Co-Founder of the Metropolitan Museum Most Ojibwa, except for the Plains bands, lived a sedentary lifestyle, engaging in fishing, hunting, the farming of maize and squash, and the harvesting of Manoomin (wild rice). For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Squashes generally refer to four species of the genus Cucurbita native to the Mexico and Central America, also called marrows depending Wild rice is any of the four species of plants that make up the genus Zizania (common names Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats Their typical dwelling was the wiigiwaam (wigwam), built either as a waaginogaan (domed-lodge) or as a nasawa'ogaan (pointed-lodge), made of birch bark, juniper bark and willow saplings. WigWam is a duo comprising Alex James, the Bassist from Blur and vocalist Betty Boo. Birch bark or birchbark is generally understood to be the Bark of the Paper Birch tree ( Betula papyrifera) or sometimes of related species such Junipers are Coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Willows, sallows and osiers form the Genus Salix, around 400 species of Deciduous Trees and Shrubs found primarily They also developed a form of pictorial writing used in religious rites of the Midewiwin and recorded on birch bark scrolls and possibly on rock. The Midewiwin (also spelled Midewin and Medewiwin) or the Grand Medicine Society is a secretive religion of the aboriginal groups of the Maritimes The sacred scrolls are complicated with a lot of historical, geometrical, and mathematical knowledge communicated through the many complex pictures. The miigis shell (cowry shell) was also used in ceremonies, and this shell can only be found from far away coastal areas, indicating a vast trade network at some time across the continent. The use and trade of copper across the continent is also proof of a very large area of trading that took place thousands of years ago, as far back as the Hopewell culture. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 The Hopewell tradition (also incorrectly called the "Hopewell culture" is the term used to describe common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along Certain types of rock used for spear and arrow heads were also traded over large distances. The use of petroforms, petroglyphs, and pictographs was common throughout their traditional territories. Petroforms, also known as boulder outlines or boulder mosaics are human-made shapes and patterns of rocks on the open ground Petroglyphs are Images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising pecking carving and abrading A pictogram ( also spelled pictogramme) or pictograph is a Symbol representing a Concept, object, activity place or event Petroforms and medicine wheels were a way to teach the important concepts of four directions, astronomical observations about the seasons, and as a memorizing tool for certain stories and beliefs. Medicine wheels, or sacred hoops were constructed by laying stones in a particular pattern on the ground
During the summer months, the people attend jiingotamog for the spiritual and niimi'idimaa for a social gathering (pow-wows or "pau waus") at various reservations in the Anishinaabe-Aki (Anishinaabe Country). Many people still follow the traditional ways of harvesting wild rice, picking berries, hunting, making medicines, and making maple sugar. Maple sugar is what remains after the sap of the Sugar maple is boiled for longer than is needed to create Maple syrup or Maple taffy. Many of the Ojibwa take part in sun dance ceremonies across the continent. The Sun Dance is a Ceremony practiced by a number of Native Americans The sacred scrolls are kept hidden away until those that are worthy and respect them are given permission to see them and then to interpret them properly.
The Ojibwa would bury their dead in a burial mound; many erect a jiibegamig or a "spirit-house" over each mound. A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a Mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves Instead of a headstone with the deceased's name inscribed upon it, a traditional burial mound would typically have a wooden marker, inscribed with the deceased's doodem. Because of the distinct features of these burials, Ojibwa graves have been often looted by grave robbers. In the United States, many Ojibwa communities safe-guard their burial mounds through the enforcement of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act ( NAGPRA),, is a United States federal law passed on 16 November 1990 requiring
The Ojibwa viewed the world in two genders: animate and inanimate, rather than male and female. On the animate gender spectrum, a person could serve the society as a male-role or a female-role. John Tanner and anthropologist Hermann Baumann have documented Ojibwa peoples not falling into the European ideas of gender and its gender-roles, called egwakwe (or Anglicised to "agokwa"). John Tanner ( c 1780 &ndash D in or after 1846 was the son of the Rev Though these egwakweg may contribute to their community in whatever fashion that bring out their best character, sometimes these documented male-to-female transsexual Midew among the Ojibwa were more readily noticed by the non-Anishinaabe documenters. Transsexualism is a condition in which a person identifies with a physical Sex different from the one with which they were born The Midewiwin (also spelled Midewin and Medewiwin) or the Grand Medicine Society is a secretive religion of the aboriginal groups of the Maritimes  A well-known egwakwe warrior and guide in Minnesota history was Ozaawindib. There are several Anishinaabe peoples with the name " Yellow Head "
Several Ojibwa bands in the United States cooperate in the Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission, which manages their treaty hunting and fishing rights in the Lake Superior-Lake Michigan areas. Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. The commission follows the directives of U. S. agencies to run several wilderness areas. List of Wilderness areas designated by US state and tribal governments Some Minnesota Ojibwa tribal councils cooperate in the 1854 Authority, which manages their treaty hunting and fishing rights in the Arrowhead Region. The Arrowhead Region is located in the northeastern part of the U In Michigan, the 1836 Chippewa-Ottawa Resource Authority manages the hunting, fishing and gathering rights about Sault Ste. Marie, and the waters of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. In Canada, the Grand Council of Treaty #3 manages the Treaty 3 hunting and fishing rights around Lake of the Woods. Treaty 3 was an agreement entered into on October 3, 1873, by the Ojibway Nation and Queen Victoria. Lake of the Woods (lac des Bois is a Lake occupying parts of the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba and the U
Ojibwa understanding of kinship is complex, taking into account not only the immediate family but also the extended family. The Anishinaabe, like most Algonquian -speaking groups in North America base their system of kinship on Patrilineal Clans or totems It is considered a modified Bifurcate merging kinship system. Iroquois kinship (also known as bifurcate merging) is a kinship system used to define Family. Kinship is a relationship between any entities that share a genealogical origin through either biological cultural or historical descent Siblings generally share the same term with parallel-cousins as with any Bifurcate merging kinship system since they all part of the same clan, but the modified system allows for younger siblings to share the same kinship term with younger cross-cousins. Parallel cousin is an anthropological term denoting consanguinial Kin who are in the same Descent group as the subject and are from the parent's In addition the complexity wanes as one goes away from the speaker's immediate generation, with some degree of complexity retained with female relatives (for example, ninooshenh is "my mother's sister" or "my father's sister-in-law"—i. e. , my parallel-aunt—but also "my parent's female cross-cousin"). In both with the great-grandparents and older generations and with the great-grandchildren and younger generations, the Ojibwa collectively calls them aanikoobijigan. This sign of kinship/clans speaks of the very nature of the Anishinaabe's entire philosophy/lifestyle, that is of interconnectedness and balance between all living generations and all generations of the past and of the future.
The Ojibwe people were divided into a number of odoodeman (clans; singular: odoodem) named primarily for animal totems (or doodem, as an Ojibwe person would say this word in English). A totem is any supposed entity that watches over or assists a group of people such as a family Clan or tribe ( Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary and Webster's The Anishinaabe, like most Algonquian -speaking groups in North America base their system of kinship on Patrilineal Clans or totems The five original totems were Wawaazisii (Bullhead), Baswenaazhi (Echo-maker, i. The brown bullhead, Ameiurus nebulosus, is a Fish of the Ictaluridae family that is widely distributed in North America e. , Crane), Aan'aawenh (Pintail Duck), Nooke (Tender, i. Cranes are large long-legged and long-necked Birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. The Pintail or Northern Pintail ( Anas acuta) is a widely-occurring Duck which breeds in the northern areas of Europe, Asia and e. , Bear) and Moozwaanowe ("Little" Moose-tail). The moose (North America or elk (Europe Alces alces, is the largest extant Species in the Deer family. The Crane totem was the most vocal among the Ojibwa, and the Bear was the largest — so large, in fact, that it was sub-divided into body parts such as the head, the ribs and the feet.
Traditionally, each band had a self-regulating council consisting of leaders of the communities' clans or odoodeman, with the band often identified by the principle doodem. In meeting others, the traditional greeting among the Ojibwe peoples is "What is your doodem?" ("Aaniin odoodemaayan?") in order to establish a social conduct between the two meeting parties as family, friends or enemies. Today, the greeting has been shortened to "Aaniin. "
The Ojibwa have a number of spiritual beliefs passed down by oral tradition under the Midewiwin teachings. Wabun directs here For the language spoken in Japan during the Heian period, see Late Old Japanese. Oral tradition, oral culture and oral lore is a way for a society to transmit history, literature, law and other Knowledges The Midewiwin (also spelled Midewin and Medewiwin) or the Grand Medicine Society is a secretive religion of the aboriginal groups of the Maritimes These include a creation myth and a recounting of the origins of ceremonies and rituals. A creation myth is a supernatural mytho-[[religion religious]] story or explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, Earth, life, and Spiritual beliefs and rituals were very important to the Ojibwa because spirits guided them through life. Birch bark scrolls and petroforms were used to pass along knowledge and information, as well as used for ceremonies. Pictographs were also used for ceremonies. The sweatlodge is still used during important ceremonies about the four directions and to pass along the oral history of the people. The sweat lodge (also called sweat house, medicine lodge, or medicine house) is a ceremonial Sauna and an important ritual used by Teaching lodges are still common today to teach the next generations about the language and ancient ways of the past. These old ways, ideas, and teachings are still preserved today with these living ceremonies.
The legend of the Ojibwa "Wendigo", in which tribesmen identify with a cannibalistic monster and prey on their families, is a story with many meanings, one of them points to the consequences of greed and the destruction that results from it. The Wendigo (also Windigo, Weendigo, Windago, Windiga, Witiko, Wihtikow, and numerous other variants is a mythical creature It is mentioned in the fiction of Thomas Pynchon. Thomas Ruggles Pynchon Jr (born May 8 1937 is an American writer based in New York City, noted for his dense and complex works of Fiction. In his story Of Father's and Sons, Ernest Hemingway uses two Ojibway as secondary characters. Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21 1899 — July 2 1961 was an American novelist short-story writer, and Journalist.
Novelist Louise Erdrich is Anishinabe and has written about characters from her culture in Tracks, Love Medicine, and The Bingo Queen. Karen Louise Erdrich (born June 7, 1954) is a Native American author of Novels Poetry, and children's books. Medicine woman Keewaydinoquay Peschel has written books on ethnobotany and books for children. Keewaydinoquay Pakawakuk Peschel was a scholar Ethnobotanist, Herbalist, Medicine woman, teacher and author Winona LaDuke is a popular political and intellectual voice for the Anishinabe people. Winona LaDuke (born 1959 is a Native American Activist, Environmentalist, Economist, and Writer.
Literary theorist and writer Gerald Vizenor has drawn extensively on Anishinabe philosophies of language. Gerald Robert Vizenor (born 1934) is a Native American ( Anishinaabe) writer and an enrolled member of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe
Warren, in his History of the Ojibway People, records 10 major divisions of the Ojibwa in the United States, omitting the Ojibwa located in Michigan, western Minnesota and westward, and all of Canada; if major historical bands located in Michigan and Ontario are added, the count becomes 14:
|English Name||Ojibwa Name|
(in Double-vowel spelling)
|Saulteaux||Baawitigowininiwag||about Sault Ste. Marie|
|Lake Superior Band||Gichi-gamiwininiwag||south shore of Lake Superior|
|Mississippi River Band||Gichi-ziibiwininiwag||upper Mississippi River in Minnesota|
|Rainy Lake Band||Goojijiwininiwag||Rainy Lake and River, about the northern boundary of Minnesota|
|Ricing-Rails||Manoominikeshiinyag||along headwaters of St. Croix River in Wisconsin and Minnesota|
|Pillagers||Mekamaadwewininiwag||Leech Lake, Minnesota|
|Mississaugas||Misi-zaagiwininiwag||north of Lake Erie|
|Algonquins (Nipissing )||Odishkwaagamiig||Quebec-Ontario border, about Lake Nipissing|
|Doki's Band||N/A||Along French River region in Ontario, near Lake Nipissing|
|Ottawa Lake (Lac Courte Oreilles) Band||Odaawaa-zaaga'iganiwininiwag||Lac Courte Oreilles, Wisconsin|
|Bois Forte Band||Zagaakwaandagowininiwag||north of Lake Superior|
|Torch (Flambeau) Band||Waaswaaganiwininiwag||head of Wisconsin River|
|Muskrat Portage Band||Wazhashk-Onigamininiwag||northwest side of Lake Superior at the Canadian border|
These 10 major divisions and other major groups that Warren did not record developed into these Ojibwa Bands and First Nations of today. The Saulteaux (also Salteaux and many other variants; ˈsoʊtoʊ are a First Nation in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan Sault Sainte Marie (ˈsuː seɪnt məˈriː "Soo Saint Marie" is the name of two cities on the Saint Marys River, which forms part of the boundary between the United The St Croix Chippewa Indians (or the St Croix Band for short are located along the St Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States The Lake Superior Chippewa ( Anishinaabe: Gichigamiwininiwag) were a historical band of Ojibwe Indians living around Lake Superior in what is Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes of North America. Mississippi River Band of Chippewa Indians ( Anishinaabe: Gichi-ziibiwininiwag) or simply the Mississippi Chippewa, are a historical Ojibwa Band The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers The Couchiching First Nation is a Saulteaux First Nation in the Canadian province of Ontario, who live on the Couchiching 16A and Rainy Lake (French lac à la Pluie is a relatively large lake (345 sq mi or 894 km² that straddles the border between the United States and Canada. Rainy River can refer to The Rainy River (Minnesota-Ontario that forms part of the United States-Canada border between Minnesota and Ontario Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers The St Croix Chippewa Indians (or the St Croix Band for short are located along the St The St Croix River is a Tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 164 miles (264 km long in the U Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers Pillager Band of Chippewa Indians (or simply the Pillagers; Mekamaadwewininiwag in the Ojibwe language) are a historical band of Chippewa Leech Lake is a Lake located in north central Minnesota, United States. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers The Mississaugas are a subtribe of the Anishinaabe First Nations people located in southern Ontario, Canada, closely related to the Ojibwa Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally The Algonquins (or Algonkins) are an aboriginal North American people speaking Algonquin, an Anishinaabe language. The Nipissing First Nation consists of first nation (ie aboriginal people of Ojibway and Algonquin descent who have lived in the area of Lake Nipissing Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Lake Nipissing ( French: lac Nipissing) is a Lake in the Canadian province of Ontario. The French River (or Rivière des Français) is a river in central Ontario, Canada. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Lake Nipissing ( French: lac Nipissing) is a Lake in the Canadian province of Ontario. The Lac Courte Oreilles are one of seven Wisconsin bands of Ojibwa. Lac Courte Oreilles (ləˈkuːdəreɪ is a Lake in Sawyer County Wisconsin, near the town of Hayward. Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States Bois Forte Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation formed for the Bois Forte Band of Chippewa (or Zagaakwaandagowininiwag (Men of the Thick Woods in Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes of North America. The Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa are an Ojibwa Native American tribe with an Indian reservation lying mostly in the Town of Lac The Wisconsin River is a Tributary of the Mississippi River in the U Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes of North America. Bands are listed under their respective tribes where possible.
|Arkansas||Aakaanzhish||Damn little Kansas||Quapaw|
|Assiniboine||Asiniibwaan||Stoney 'Asp' (i. The White Earth Band of Ojibwe, also known as the White Earth Nation or Gaa-waakabiganikaag Anishinaabeg, is a Native American tribe located Mississippi River Band of Chippewa Indians ( Anishinaabe: Gichi-ziibiwininiwag) or simply the Mississippi Chippewa, are a historical Ojibwa Band Mississippi River Band of Chippewa Indians ( Anishinaabe: Gichi-ziibiwininiwag) or simply the Mississippi Chippewa, are a historical Ojibwa Band The Mille Lacs Indians are a Band of Indians formed from the unification of the Mille Lacs Band of Mississippi Chippewa (Ojibwe with the Mille Lacs Band of Mdewakanton Sandy Lake Band redirects to here This article is about an indigenous tribe located in central Minnesota. Ojibways of the Pic River First Nation (or "Pic River" for short is an Ojibwa ( Anishinaabe) First Nation band on the north shore of Lake Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians are a historical band of Chippewa (Ojibwe, originally living along the Red River of the North and its tributaries Pikangikum is an Ojibwe reserve in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in the Kenora District approximately 100 Kilometres The Red Lake Indian Reservation covers 325981 km² (125862 sq mi in parts of nine counties in northern Minnesota, USA. Saginaw Chippewa Tribal Nation is a band of Chippewa Indians (or Ojibwe located in central Michigan in the United States. The Sagkeeng First Nation is an Anishinaabe First Nation which holds territory east of Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba, Canada. The Sault Tribe of Chippewa Indians was formally recognized by the United States Federal government on September 27, 1975. The Bloodvein First Nation is located on the east side of Lake Winnipeg, along the Bloodvein River in Manitoba, Canada. 2007 03 08 053jpg|320px|right|thumb|Neginnan Harbour Authority]] Poplar River First Nation (or Azaadiwi-ziibi Nitam-Anishinaabe in the Anishinaabe language The Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians is a Native American tribe of Ojibwa and Metis peoples based on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation Wabigoon Lake Ojibway Nation, or commonly as Wabigoon First Nation, is a Saulteaux First Nation located in Rainy River District in northwestern The Wahnapitae First Nation is an Ojibwa First Nation in the Canadian province of Ontario, who primarily reside on the Wahnapitae (or Wanapitei Naotkamegwanning First Nation, formerly known as Whitefish Bay First Nation, is an Ojibwa or Ontario Saulteaux First Nation located in Kenora The Whitefish Lake First Nation ( Anishinaabe language: Adtkameksheng Anishinawbek, syncoped as ’Dikmegsheng Nishnaabeg Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve (usually known as Wikwemikong or Wiky) is an Indian reserve in the north-eastern section of Manitoulin Island Windigo First Nations Council is a non-political Chiefs Council in northwestern Ontario, Canada, serving its seven member- First Nations The council was The Whitefish Lake First Nation ( Anishinaabe language: Adtkameksheng Anishinawbek, syncoped as ’Dikmegsheng Nishnaabeg Yellow Quill First Nation (formerly Nut Lake Band of Saulteaux) is a Saulteaux First Nation located eight (8 Kilometers east of Rose Valley Saskatchewan The Quapaw people are a tribe of Native Americans who historically resided on the west side of the Mississippi River in what is now the state of Arkansas The Assiniboine, also known by the Ojibwe name Asiniibwaan "Stone Sioux" and the Cree as Asinîpwât are a Siouan e. the Sioux)||Nakota|
|Eskimo||Ashki-amaw||Eats It Raw||Inuit|
|Kansas||Aakaans||[Lives at the] Little Hell-hole||Kaw|
|Menominee||Omanoominii||Wild Rice People||Omāēqnomenew|
|Moingwena||Moowiingwenaa||Have a Filthy Face|
|Sauk/Sac||Ozaagii||[Lives at the] Outlet||Asakiwaki|
|Sioux||Naadawensiw||Little like the 'Adders' (i. The Blackfoot Confederacy or Niitsítapi (meaning "original people" c The Chipewyan ( Denésoliné or Dënesųłiné) are a Dene Aboriginal people in Canada, whose ancestors were the Taltheilei The Shawnee, or Shaawanwaki, Shaawanooki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki, are a people native to North America. Eskimos or Esquimaux are Indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the circumpolar region from eastern Siberia ( Russia) across The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation are the Bitterroot Salish, Kootenai and Pend d'Oreilles Tribes The Kaw (or Kanza) are an American Indians people of the central Midwestern United States. The Kaskaskia were one of the several Cognate tribes that made up the Illiniwek Confederation. The Kickapoos ( Kickapoo: Kiikaapoa or Kiikaapoi) are one of the Algonquian speaking Native American Tribes Some placenames use other spellings see also Menomonee and Menomonie. The Miami are a Native American tribe originally found in Indiana, southwest Michigan and Ohio, and now living also in Oklahoma The Míkmaq or Mi'kmaq (miːgmax sometimes spelled Micmac in English and formerly Mìgmaq ( Mi'gmaq) in Míkmaw) are a The Potawatomi (also spelled Pottawatomie and Pottawatomi, among many variations) are a Native American people of the upper Mississippi Sioux (pronounced SUE are a Native American and First Nations people e. the Iroquois)||Aioe-Dakota-Lakota-Nakota|
|Winnebago||Wiinibiigoo||[Lives at the] Murky Waters||Ho-čąk|
A-na-cam-e-gish-ca (Aanakamigishkaa/"[Traces of] Foot Prints [upon the Ground]"), Ojibwa chief, painted by Charles Bird King
Bust of Aysh-ke-bah-ke-ko-zhay (Eshkibagikoonzhe or "Flat Mouth"), a Leech Lake Ojibwa chief
Chief Beautifying Bird (Nenaa'angebi), by Benjamin Armstrong, 1891
Bust of Beshekee, war chief, modeled 1855, carved 1856
Caa-tou-see, an Ojibwa, painted by Charles Bird King
Hanging Cloud, a female Ojibwa warrior
Jack-O-Pa (Shák'pí/"Six"), an Ojibwa/Dakota chief, painted by Charles Bird King
Kay be sen day way We Win, by Eastman Johnson, 1857
Kei-a-gis-gis, a Plains Ojibwa woman, painted by George Catlin
Leech Lake Ojibwa delegation to Washington, 1899
Milwaukee Ojibwa woman and baby, courtesy of the Wisconsin Historical Society
Ne-bah-quah-om, Ojibwa chief
"One Called From A Distance" (Midwewinind) of the White Earth Band, 1894. The Treaty of Detroit was a Treaty between the United States and the Ottawa, Chippewa, Wyandot and Potawatomi By the Treaty of Old Crossing (1863 and the Treaty of Old Crossing (1864, the Pembina and Red Lake bands of the Ojibwe, then known as By the Treaty of Old Crossing (1863 and the Treaty of Old Crossing (1864, the Pembina and Red Lake bands of the Ojibwe, then known as Charles Bird King (1785–1862 is a United States artist who is best known for his portraiture Aysh-ke-bah-ke-ko-zhay (or Aish-Ke-Vo-Go-Zhe from Eshkibagikoonzhe, " having a leaf-green bill" in Ojibwe; also known as "Flat Mouth" ( Gueule Chief Beautifying Bird or Dressing Bird ( Nay-naw-ong-gay-be, Na-naw-ong-ga-be or Ne-na-nang-eb ( Nenaa'angebi in the Fiero orthography This article is about the Ojibwe chief from Leech Lake For the Ojibwe chief from La Pointe see Kechewaishke. Hanging Cloud (Ojibwa name Ah-shah-way-gee-she-go-qua ( Aazhawigiizhigokwe in the contemporary spelling meaning "Goes Across the Sky Woman" was an Shakopee (ˈʃɑːkəpi "SHOCK-a-pi" is a Suburb 17 miles (26 km southwest of downtown Minneapolis in the U Eastman Johnson ( July 29, 1824 - April 5, 1906) was an American painter and Co-Founder of the Metropolitan Museum George Catlin ( July 26, 1796 &ndash December 23, 1872) was an American painter, author and traveler who specialized in The White Earth Band of Ojibwe, also known as the White Earth Nation or Gaa-waakabiganikaag Anishinaabeg, is a Native American tribe located Year 1894 ( MDCCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Pee-Che-Kir, Ojibwa chief, painted by Thomas Loraine McKenney, 1843
Ojibwa chief Rocky Boy
Ojibwa woman and child, painted by Charles Bird King
Tshusick, an Ojibwa woman, painted by Charles Bird King