Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint consisting of small pigment particles suspended in a drying oil. Paint is any Liquid, liquifiable or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque Solid For the drug referred to as "pigment" see Black tar heroin. A drying oil is an Oil which hardens to a tough solid film after a period of exposure to air Oil paints have been used in England as early as the 13th century for simple decoration, but were not widely adopted for artistic purposes until the 15th century. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The most common modern application of oil paint is domestic, where its hard-wearing properties and luminous colors make it desirable for both interior and exterior use. Its slow-drying properties have recently been used in paint-on-glass animation. Paint-on-glass animation is a technique for making animated films by manipulating slow-drying Oil paints on sheets of Glass.
The slow-drying properties of organic oils were commonly known to early painters. An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is However, the difficulty in acquiring and working the materials meant that they were rarely used. As public preference for realism increased, however, the quick-drying tempera paints became insufficient. Tempera (also known as egg tempera) is a type of artist's Paint and associated art techniques that were known from the classical world where it appears Flemish artists combined tempera and oil painting during the 1400s, but by the 1600s easel painting in pure oils was common, using much the same techniques and materials found today. Flemish painting flourished from the early 15th century until the 17th century
The oldest known extant oil paintings date from 650 A. D. , found in 2008 in caves in Afghanistan's Bamiyan Valley, "using perhaps walnut and poppy seed drying oils. Bamyan Province ( is one of the thirty-four Provinces of Afghanistan. " Though the ancient Mediterranean civilizations of Greece, Rome, and Egypt were familiar with vegetable oils, there is little evidence to indicate their use as media in painting. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now In the Arts media (plural of Medium) are the materials and techniques used by an Artist to produce a work Indeed, linseed oil was long rejected as a medium because of its tendency to dry slowly, darken, and crack, unlike mastic and wax. Linseed oil, also known as flax seed oil or simply flax oil, is a clear to yellowish Drying oil derived from the dried ripe seeds of the Flax Mastic ( Greek:μαστίχα( Pistacia lentiscus) is an Evergreen Shrub or small Tree of the Pistacio family growing Wax has traditionally referred to a substance that is secreted by Bees ( Beeswax) and used by them in constructing their
Greek writers such as Aetius Amidenus recorded recipes involving the use of oils for drying, such as walnut, poppy, hempseed, pine nut, castor, and linseed. Aëtius Amidenus or Aëtius of Amida ( Gr) was a Byzantine physician and medical writer particularly distinguished by the extent A drying oil is an Oil which hardens to a tough solid film after a period of exposure to air Walnut oil is oil extracted from Walnuts Culinary use Walnut oil is not used as extensively as other oils in Food preparation due to cost Poppyseed oil (also poppy seed oil or poppy oil) is oil extracted from the seeds of the Opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum Hemp oil can be extracted from the seed of the Hemp plant which contains between 30-35% oil by weight which is high in Essential fatty acids The plant can also Pine nut oil, also called pine seed oil or cedar nut oil, is a pressed Vegetable oil, extracted from the edible seeds of several species of Castor oil is a Vegetable oil obtained from the Castor bean (technically castor seed as the castor plant Ricinus communis, is not a member of When thickened, the oils became resinous and could be used as varnish to seal and protect paintings from water. Varnish is a transparent, hard protective finish or film primarily used in Wood finishing but also for other materials Additionally, when yellow pigment was added to oil, it could be spread over tin foil as a less expensive alternative to gold leaf. For the drug referred to as "pigment" see Black tar heroin. Tinfoil or tin foil is a thin leaf made of Tin. Actual tin foil has been superseded by cheaper and more durable Aluminium foil, which is Metal leaf is a thin foil used for decoration It is also called composition leaf or schlagmetal. Early Christian monks maintained these records and used the techniques in their own artworks. MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective Theophilus Presbyter, a 12th century German monk, recommended linseed oil from the Baltic Sea area, but advocated against the use of olive oil due to its excessively long drying time. Theophilus Presbyter (approx 1070 - 1125) was a Benedictine monk and author of a Latin text containing detailed descriptions of various medieval The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive ( Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with Lilacs Jasmine and ash trees
As early as the 13th century, oil was used to add details to tempera paintings. In the 14th century, Cennino Cennini presented a painting technique utilizing tempera painting covered by light layers of oil. Cennino d'Andrea Cennini (c 1370 &ndash c 1440 Tempera (also known as egg tempera) is a type of artist's Paint and associated art techniques that were known from the classical world where it appears
The modern technique of oil painting was created circa 1410 by Jan van Eyck. Jan van Eyck or Johannes de Eyck (jɑn vɑn ɛik (before c 1395 &ndash before July 9, 1441) was an Early Netherlandish painter active Though van Eyck was not the first artist to use oil paint, he was the first who is known to have produced a stable siccative oil mixture which could be used to bind mineral pigments. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific Van Eyck’s mixture probably consisted of piled glass, calcined bones, and mineral pigments boiled in linseed oil until reaching a viscous state. Calcination (also referred to as calcining) is a thermal treatment process applied to ores and other solid materials in order to bring about a Thermal decomposition Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a Fluid which is being deformed by either Shear stress or Extensional stress.
Antonello da Messina later introduced another improvement to oil paint: he added litharge, or lead (II) oxide, to the mixture. Antonello da Messina, properly Antonello di Giovanni di Antonio (c Litharge is one of the natural mineral forms of Lead(II oxide, PbO The new mixture had a honey-like consistency and increased siccative properties. This medium was known as oglio cotto—"cooked oil. "
Leonardo da Vinci improved the technique even further by cooking the mixture at a low temperature and adding 5 to 10% beeswax, which prevented dramatic darkening of the finished paint. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer For the rock song by Nirvana see Beeswax (song. Beeswax is a natural Wax produced in the bee hive of Honey bees of the genus Giorgione, Titian, and Tintoretto each slightly altered this recipe for their own purposes. Giorgione (c 1477 &ndash 1510 is the familiar name of Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco, an Italian painter a seminal artist of the High Renaissance Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c 1485 &ndash August 27 1576 better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin; September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and
During his stay in Italy, Rubens studied the Italian oil paint mixture. He later made his own improvement, using walnut oil warmed with litharge and adding mastic dissolved in turpentine. Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine oil of turpentine wood turpentine gum turpentine is a fluid obtained by the Distillation of Resin obtained from trees
Since that time, experiments to improve paint and coatings have been conducted with other oils. Today, oils from bladderpod, sandmat, ironweed, and calendula plants are used to increase resistance or to decrease drying time. Bladderpod oil is a seed oil extracted from the seeds of the Lesquerella fendleri and other species of genus Lesquerella, Native to the plains Euphorbia is a Genus of Plants belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. Vernonia is a genus of about 1000 Species of Forbs and Shrubs in the family Asteraceae. Calendula ( Ca-lén-du-la, pot marigold) is a genus of about 12-20 species of annual or perennial Herbaceous
The paint tube was invented in 1841 and artists were liberated from the studio. Artists no longer needed to grind each pigment by hand and carefully mix the binding oil in the proper proportions. Paints were made in bulk and sold in tin tubes with a cap. The cap could be replaced and the paints preserved for future use. The manufactured paints had a balanced consistency that the artist could thin with turpentine if he chose. Artists were no longer bound to the studio. They could work outside in direct sunlight, misty fog, at dawn or twilight. Paint in tubes also changed the way artists applied paint to the canvas. Painting became much more spontaneous. Artists were no longer obliged to paint in careful layers of thinned pigments and varnish, although they could use that time-tested method if they chose. With paint in tubes, a greater variety of techniques could be employed, such as blending the paint on the canvas and painting directly on the raw, ungessoed surface. The effect of paint in tubes was so important that it contributed to the rise of the impressionist style. The artist Renoir said, “Without tubes of paint, there would have been no impressionism. ” Thanks to the mobility that paint in tubes provided, artists could capture the light of a fleeting moment of the day, and the impressions that it provided.
Many artists today consider oil paint to be one of the fundamental art media; something that a student should learn to appreciate, because of its properties and use in previous, very popular artwork. Typical qualities of oil paint include a long "open time," which means that the paint does not dry quickly. Oil paints will not dry for up to several weeks, allowing the artist to work on a painting for several sessions. Oil paint also has a propensity to blend into surrounding paint allowing very subtle blending of colors. This medium also produced vivid color with a natural sheen and distinct contrast. Oil paints have a surface translucency similar to human skin, making it an ideal medium for portraits,
Traditional oil paints require an oil that will gradually harden, forming a stable, impermeable film. Such oils are called siccative, or drying, oils, and are characterized by high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. A drying oil is an Oil which hardens to a tough solid film after a period of exposure to air In nutrition polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated Fatty acid. In Chemistry, especially Biochemistry, a fatty acid is a Carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched Aliphatic tail ( chain) which One common measure of the siccative property of oils is iodine number, the number of grams of iodine one hundred grams of oil can absorb. The iodine value (or "iodine adsorption value" or "iodine number" or "iodine index" in Chemistry is the mass of Iodine in grams that Iodine (ˈaɪədaɪn ˈaɪədɪn or /ˈaɪədiːn/ from ιώδης iodes "violet" is a Chemical element that has the symbol I and Atomic Oils with an iodine number greater than 130 are considered drying, those with an iodine number of 115-130 are semi-drying, and those with an iodine number of less than 115 are non-drying. Linseed oil, the most prevalent vehicle for artists' oil paints, is a drying oil.
When exposed to air, oils do not undergo the same evaporative process that water does. Evaporation is the process by which Molecules in a Liquid state (e Instead, they oxidize into a dry solid. Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state Depending upon the source, this process can be very slow, resulting in paints with an extended drying time.
This earliest and still most commonly used vehicle is linseed oil, pressed from the seed of the flax plant. Linseed oil, also known as flax seed oil or simply flax oil, is a clear to yellowish Drying oil derived from the dried ripe seeds of the Flax A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum Modern processes use heat or steam in order to produce refined varieties of oil, which contain fewer impurities, but cold-pressed oils are still the favorite of many artists.  Other vegetable oils such as Hemp, poppy seed, walnut, sunflower, safflower, and soybean oils may be used as alternatives to linseed oil for a variety of reasons. Hemp oil can be extracted from the seed of the Hemp plant which contains between 30-35% oil by weight which is high in Essential fatty acids The plant can also Poppyseed oil (also poppy seed oil or poppy oil) is oil extracted from the seeds of the Opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum Walnut oil is oil extracted from Walnuts Culinary use Walnut oil is not used as extensively as other oils in Food preparation due to cost Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) seeds Safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L) is a highly branched Herbaceous, Thistle -like annual usually with many long sharp spines on the leaves For example, safflower and poppy oils are paler than linseed oil and allow for more vibrant whites.
Once the oil is extracted additives are sometimes used to improve its chemical properties. In this way the paint can be made to dry more quickly if that is desired, or to have varying levels of gloss. This article is about the literary term For other uses see Gloss (disambiguation. Modern oils paints can, therefore, have complex chemical structures; for example, affecting resistance to UV or giving a suede like appearance. Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays Suede is a type of Leather with a napped finish However it can also refer to a similar napped or brushed finish on many kinds of fabrics
New carriers for paint were developed out of organic polymer technology in the twentieth century. A polymer is a large Molecule ( Macromolecule) composed of repeating Structural units typically connected by Covalent Chemical bonds In many cases, such as acrylic paint, a different binder is substituted for oil. Acrylic paint is fast-drying Paint containing pigment suspended in an acrylic polymer Emulsion. A binder is an ingredient used to bind together two or more other materials in mixtures These new binders have different properties than oil paint, such as faster drying times and increased mechanical strength of the paint film. They require different (though overlapping) techniques and provide new possibilities that are not available to oil painters, such as the building of heavy texture and impasto, the use of collage, and the sculpting of the paint surface. In English the borrowed Italian word impasto most commonly refers to a technique used in Painting, where Paint is laid on an area of the surface (or the entire A collage (From the coller to glue is a work of formal art primarily in the Visual arts, made from an assemblage of different forms thus creating a new whole Contemporary thinking therefore recognizes the new materials as separate mediums.
Some manufacturers, in an attempt to produce a medium that is oil-based but avoids toxic cleaners and thinners, have managed to produce water miscible oil paints. Water miscible oil paint (also called "water soluble" or "water-mixable" is a modern variety of Oil paint which is engineered to be thinned and cleaned up The vehicle for such paints is an oil with a surfactant molecule chemically bonded to it which allows oil to mix with water in much the same way dish soap does, but with greater sophistication. Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the Surface tension of a liquid allowing easier spreading and lower the Interfacial tension between two liquids
Unlike water-based paints, oils do not dry by evaporation. The drying of oils is the result of an oxidative reaction, chemically equivalent to slow, flameless combustion. Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of In this process, a form of autoxidation, oxygen attacks the hydrocarbon chain, touching off a series of addition reactions. Autoxidation is any Oxidation that occurs in open air or in presence of Oxygen and/or UV radiation and forms Peroxides and Hydroperoxides In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. An addition reaction, in Chemistry, is in its simplest terms an Organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form a larger one As a result, the oil polymerizes, forming long, chain-like molecules. An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is A polymer is a large Molecule ( Macromolecule) composed of repeating Structural units typically connected by Covalent Chemical bonds In Chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two Atoms in a definite arrangement held together by Following the autoxidation stage, the oil polymers cross-link: bonds form between neighboring molecules, resulting in a vast polymer network. Over time, this network may undergo further change. Certain functional groups in the networks become ionized, and the network transitions from a system held together by nonpolar covalent bonds to one governed by the ionic forces between these functional groups and the metal ions present in the pigment. In Organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of Atoms within Molecules that are responsible for the characteristic Chemical reactions Ionization is the physical process of converting an Atom or Molecule into an Ion by adding or removing charged particles such as Electrons "Polar molecule" and "Non-polar" redirect here The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across An ion is an Atom or Molecule which has lost or gained one or more Valence electrons giving it a positive or negative electrical charge
Vegetable oils consist of glycerol esters of fatty acids, long hydrocarbon chains with a terminal carboxyl group. Esters are a class of Chemical compounds and Functional groups Esters consist of an inorganic or organic Acid in which at least Carboxyl group or CO2H is a Functional group present in Amino acids and Carboxylic acids Its structure is composed of one carbon atom attached In oil autoxidation, oxygen attacks a hydrocarbon chain, often at the site of an allylic hydrogen (a hydrogen on a carbon atom adjacent to a double bond). An allyl group is an Alkene Hydrocarbon group with the formula H2C=CH-CH2- This produces a free radical, a substance with an unpaired electron which makes it highly reactive. In Chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atoms molecules or ions with Unpaired electrons on an otherwise Open shell The electron is a fundamental Subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by J A series of addition reactions ensues. Each step produces additional free radicals, which then engage in further polymerization. The process finally terminates when free radicals collide, combining their unpaired electrons to form a new bond. The polymerization stage occurs over a period of days to weeks, and renders the film dry to the touch. However, chemical changes in the paint film continue.
As time passes, the polymer chains begin to cross-link. Adjacent molecules form covalent bonds, forming a molecular network that extends throughout the painting. In this network, known as the stationary phase, molecules are no longer free to slide past each other, or to move apart. The result is a stable film which, while somewhat elastic, does not flow or deform under the pull of gravity. A material is said to be elastic if it deforms under stress (e
During the drying process, a number of compounds are produced that do not contribute to the polymer network. These include unstable hydroperoxides (ROOH), the major by-product of the reaction of oxygen with unsaturated fatty acids. Organic peroxides are Organic compounds containing the Peroxide Functional group (ROOR' The hydroperoxides quickly decompose, forming carbon dioxide and water, as well as a variety of aldehydes, acids, and hydrocarbons. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. An aldehyde is an organic compound containing a terminal Carbonyl group. In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. Many of these compounds are volatile, and in an unpigmented oil, they would be quickly lost to the environment. For the drug referred to as "pigment" see Black tar heroin. However, in paints, such volatiles may react with lead, zinc, copper or iron compounds in the pigment, and remain in the paint film as coordination complexes or salts. A large number of free fatty acids are also produced during autoxidation, as most of the original ester bonds in the triglycerides undergo hydrolysis. Some portion of the free fatty acids react with metals in the pigment, producing metal carboxylates. Together, the various non-cross-linking substances associated with the polymer network constitute the mobile phases. Unlike the molecules that are part of the network itself, they are capable of moving and diffusing within the film, and can be removed using heat or a solvent. The mobile phase may play a role in plasticizing the paint film, preventing it from becoming too brittle.
One simple technique for monitoring the early stages of the drying process is to measure weight change in an oil film over time. Initially, the film becomes heavier, as it absorbs large amounts of oxygen. Then oxygen uptake ceases, and the weight of the film declines as volatile compounds are lost to the environment.
As the paint film ages, a further transition occurs. Carboxyl groups in the polymers of the stationary phase lose a hydrogen ion, becoming negatively charged, and form complexes with metal cations present in the pigment. An ion is an Atom or Molecule which has lost or gained one or more Valence electrons giving it a positive or negative electrical charge The original network, with its nonpolar, covalent bonds is replaced by an ionomeric structure, held together by ionic interactions. At present, the structure of these ionomeric networks is not well understood.
The color of oil paint derives from the small particles mixed with the carrier. Common pigment types include mineral salts such as white oxides: lead, now most often replaced by less toxic zinc and titanium, and the red to yellow cadmium pigments. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 Titanium (taɪˈteɪniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Ti and Atomic number 22 Cadmium (ˈkædmiəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Cd and Atomic number 48 Another class consists of earth types, e. Clay earth pigments are naturally occurring Minerals that have been used since prehistoric times as Pigments The primary types are Ochre g sienna or umber. For the Italian city see Siena. Sienna is a form of Limonite Clay most famous in the production of oil paint Umber is a natural brown Clay Pigment which contains Iron and Manganese Oxides The color becomes more intense when calcined (heated Synthetic pigments are also now available. In Chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of Chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products Natural pigments have the advantage of being well understood through centuries of use but synthetics have greatly increased the spectrum available, and many are tested well for their lightfastness.
Many of the historical pigments were dangerous. Many toxic pigments, such as emerald green (copper(II)-acetoarsenite) and orpiment (arsenic sulfide), to name only two, have fallen from use. Arsenic (ˈɑrsənɪk is a Chemical element that has the symbol As and Atomic number of 33 Some pigments still in use are toxic to some degree, however. Many of the reds and yellows are produced using cadmium, and vermilion red uses natural or synthetic mercuric sulfide or cinnabar. Cadmium (ˈkædmiəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Cd and Atomic number 48 Vermilion, sometimes spelled vermillion, when found naturally-occurring is an opaque orangish Red Pigment, used since antiquity originally derived Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red Mercury(II sulfide ( Hg[[sulfide S]] or native Vermilion, the common Flake white and Cremnitz white are made with basic lead carbonate. Lead carbonate, is the chemical compound PbCO3 It is prepared industrially from Lead(II acetate and Carbon dioxide. The cobalt colors, including cobalt blue and cerulean blue, are made with cobalt compounds. Cobalt blue is a cool slightly desaturated blue Color, historically made using Cobalt salts Cerulean may be applied to a range of colors from deep Blue, sky-blue bright blue or azure color through greenish blue colors Cobalt (ˈkoʊbɒlt is a hard lustrous silver-grey Metal, a Chemical element with symbol Co. Some varieties of cobalt violet are made with cobalt arsenate. Manufacturers advise that care should be taken when using paints with these pigments. They advise never to spray apply toxic paints. Read the health warnings on the label. Some artists choose to avoid toxic pigments entirely, while others find that the unique properties of the paints more than compensate for the small risks inherent in using them.
Zinc white and titanium white may carry a California health label for lead content. Those paints contain far less lead than the lead whites. Some manufacturers put the text "California only" above the warning.
Thinners such as turpentine and white spirit are flammable. Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine oil of turpentine wood turpentine gum turpentine is a fluid obtained by the Distillation of Resin obtained from trees White spirit, also known as Stoddard solvent, is a Paraffin -derived clear transparent liquid which is a common organic Solvent used in painting and Some of them, particularly the poor grades of turpentine, have a strong odor. Both turpentine and odorless mineral spirits can be harmful to the health if used inappropriately. Thinners made from D-limonene are thought by some to have some potential for risk. The EPA has not made that determination, however. 
Generally speaking, these risks are minor if the materials are used as intended. Solvents can be made safer by painting in a well-ventilated area, and paint is likely only dangerous in the hands of small children.
Chemistry of Oil Paint