Nazi Germany’s occupation of Denmark began with Operation Weserübung 9 April 1940, and lasted until German forces withdrew at the end of World War II following their surrender to the Allies on 5 May 1945. Copenhagen (ˌkəʊpənˈheɪgən ˌkəʊpənˈhɑːgən ˈkəʊpənˌheɪgən ˈkəʊpənˌhɑːgən kʰøb̥ənˈhɑʊ̯ˀn kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn is the capital and largest city Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Operation Weserübung was the codename for Nazi Germany 's assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. Events 553 - The Second Council of Constantinople begins 1215 - Rebel Barons renounce their allegiance to King John Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Contrary to the situation in other countries under German occupation, most Danish institutions continued to function relatively normally until 1943. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Both the Danish government and King remained in the country in an uneasy relationship between a democratic and a totalitarian system until German authorities dissolved the government following a wave of strikes and sabotage. The Politics of Denmark takes place in a framework of a parliamentary, Representative democratic, Constitutional monarchy, in which the Christian X (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm ( 26 September 1870 &ndash 20 April 1947) was King of Denmark Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy oppressor or employer through subversion obstruction disruption and/or destruction
The occupation of Denmark was initially not an important objective for the German government. Belligerent military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory passes to a hostile army. The decision to occupy its small northern neighbour was taken to facilitate a planned invasion of the strategically more important Norway, and as a precaution against the expected British response. This article describes Allied operations in Norway during World War II German military planners believed that a base in the northern part of Jutland, specifically the airfield of Aalborg, would be essential to operations in Norway, and they began planning the occupation of parts of Denmark. This article is about the region of Denmark. For the World War I naval battle see Battle of Jutland. Aalborg Air Base (Flyvestation Aalborg is a Military base for the Danish Air Force. However, as late as February 1940 no firm decision to occupy Denmark had been made.  The issue was finally settled when Adolf Hitler personally crossed out the words die Nordspitze Jütlands (the Northern tip of Jutland) and replaced them with Dä, a German abbreviation for Denmark. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately
Although the Danish territory of South Jutland was home to a significant German minority, and the province had been regained from Germany as a result of a plebiscite resulting from the Versailles Treaty, Germany was in no apparent hurry to reclaim it. South Jutland (Sønderjylland is the name for the region south of the Kongeå in Jutland. The Schleswig Plebiscites were two Plebiscites organized according to section XII articles 109 to 114 of the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. In a much more vague and longer-term way, some Nazis hoped to incorporate Denmark into a greater "Nordic Union" at some stage, but these plans never materialized. Officially Germany claimed to be protecting Denmark from a British invasion. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands 
At 4:15 on the morning of 9 April 1940, German forces crossed the border into neutral Denmark, in direct violation of a German-Danish treaty of non-aggression signed the previous year. Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties In a coordinated operation, German ships began disembarking troops at the docks in Copenhagen. Copenhagen (ˌkəʊpənˈheɪgən ˌkəʊpənˈhɑːgən ˈkəʊpənˌheɪgən ˈkəʊpənˌhɑːgən kʰøb̥ənˈhɑʊ̯ˀn kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn is the capital and largest city Although outnumbered and poorly equipped, soldiers in several parts of the country offered resistance; most notably the Royal Guard in Copenhagen and units in South Jutland. Den Kongelige Livgarde ( The Royal Life Guards) is an infantry regiment of the Royal Danish Army, formed in 1658 South Jutland (Sønderjylland is the name for the region south of the Kongeå in Jutland. At the same time as the border crossing, German planes dropped the notorious Oprop leaflets over Copenhagen calling for Danes to accept the German occupation peacefully, and claiming that Germany had occupied Denmark in order to protect it against Great Britain and France. Colonel Lunding from the Danish army's intelligence office later confirmed that Danish intelligence knew the attack would be coming on either April 8th or 9th and had warned the government accordingly. The Danish ambassador to Germany, Herluf Zahle, issued a similar warning which was also ignored. Herluf Zahle ( 14 march 1873 - 1941 was a Danish Barrister with the Supreme Court, a career Diplomat and the President
As a result of the rapid turn of events, the Danish government did not have enough time to officially declare war on Germany. Sixteen Danish soldiers died in the invasion, but after two hours the Danish government surrendered, believing that resistance was useless and hoping to work out an advantageous agreement with Germany. Surrender is when Soldiers, nations or other combatants stop fighting and become Prisoners of war, either as The flat territory of Jutland, immediately adjacent to Germany, was a perfect area for the German army to operate in, and the surprise attack on Copenhagen had made any attempt to defend Zealand impossible. This article is about the region of Denmark. For the World War I naval battle see Battle of Jutland. Zealand (also Sealand Danish: Sjælland;) is the largest Island (7031 km² of Denmark (excluding Greenland The Germans had also been quick to establish control over the bridge across the Little Belt, thus gaining access to the island of Funen. The Little Belt Bridge (Gamle Lillebæltsbro also known as The Old Little Belt Bridge, is a Truss Bridge over the Little Belt strait The Little Belt (Lillebælt is a Strait between the Danish island of Funen and the Jutland Peninsula. Funen ( Danish: Fyn; ˈfyːˀn with a size of 2984 km² (1152 sq Believing that further resistance would only result in the futile loss of still more Danish lives, the Danish cabinet ultimately decided to bow to the German pressure "under protest".  The German forces were technologically sophisticated and numerous; the Danish forces comparatively tiny and used obsolete equipment; partially a result of a pre-war policy of trying to avoid antagonizing Germany by upgrading the army with modern gear. Even stiff resistance from the Danes would not have lasted long.
The occupation was so quickly accomplished that most Danes got out of bed without realizing that their country had already been occupied. To the rest of the world these events seemed perplexing, almost as if Denmark's Social Democratic government had sided with Germany. Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left However, the Danes were generally pro-British and possessed a historical antagonism towards Germany, making the German incursion widely unpopular. The Danish people, however, were divided about what the best policy toward Germany might be.
After the occupation of Denmark, British forces made a pre-emptive invasion of the Faroe Islands - then still a Danish amt (county) - to prevent their occupation by German troops. The British occupation of the Faroe Islands in World War II, also known as "Operation Valentine" was implemented immediately following the German invasion of Denmark The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Faroe Islands or Faeroe Islands or simply Faroe(s or Faeroes (Føroyar meaning " Sheep Islands" Færøerne Old Norse " Amt " is a type of Administrative division of some Northern European countries
From 1918 until 1944 Iceland was self-governing, but the Danish King was Head of State of both Denmark and Iceland. The state of Iceland during World War II was that of a sovereign Kingdom in Personal union with Denmark, with King Christian X as Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( As with the Faroe Islands, the United Kingdom occupied Iceland (to pre-empt a German occupation) but later turned it over to the United States, before that country entered the war in 1941. The Faroe Islands or Faeroe Islands or simply Faroe(s or Faeroes (Føroyar meaning " Sheep Islands" Færøerne Old Norse The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Iceland became a fully independent republic in 1944 and has remained so thereafter.
Regarding Greenland, on April 9, 1941, the Danish envoy (ambassador) to the United States, Henrik Kauffmann, signed a treaty with the U. The history of Greenland, the world's largest island is the history of life under extreme Arctic conditions an Ice cap covers about 95 percent of the island The History of Greenland during World War II reflected the fate of the Danish motherland Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Henrik Kauffmann ( August 26 1888 - June 5 1963) was the Danish Ambassador to the United States during World S. , authorising it to defend Greenland and construct military stations there. Kauffmann was supported in this decision by the Danish diplomats in the United States and the local authorities in Greenland. Signing this treaty "in the name of the King" was a clear violation of his diplomatic powers, but Kauffmann argued that he would not receive orders from an occupied Copenhagen.
As a result of the cooperative attitude of the Danish authorities, German officials claimed that they would "respect Danish sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as neutrality. " The German authorities were inclined towards lenient terms with Denmark for several reasons:
These factors combined to allow Denmark a very favourable relationship with Nazi Germany. The government remained intact and the parliament continued to function more or less as it had before. TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those They were able to maintain much of their former control over domestic policy.  The police and judicial system remained in Danish hands and unlike most occupied countries, King Christian X remained in the country as Danish Head of State. Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State Christian X (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm ( 26 September 1870 &ndash 20 April 1947) was King of Denmark The German Reich was formally represented by a Reichsbevollmächtigter ('Reich Plenipotentiary'), i. (ˈraɪk German ˈʁaɪç is a German Loanword cognate with the English Reign, Region, and Rich, but used most to designate The word plenipotentiary (from the Latin, plenus + potens, full + power has two meanings e. a diplomat accredited to the Sovereign, a post awarded to Cecil von Renthe-Fink, the German ambassador, and then in November 1942 to the lawyer and SS-general Werner Best. Cecil von Renthe-Fink (1885-1964 was a German Diplomat. He was plenipotentiary of Denmark from April 9 1940 until 1942 Werner Best ( July 10, 1903 &ndash June 23, 1989) was a German Jurist, police chief and Nazi leader from
Danish public opinion generally backed the new government, particularly after the fall of France in June 1940.  There was a general feeling that the unpleasant reality of German occupation must be confronted in the most realistic way possible, given the international situation. Politicians realized that they would have to try hard to maintain Denmark's privileged position by presenting a united front to the German authorities, so all of the mainstream democratic parties formed a new government together. Parliament and the government agreed to work closely together.  Though the effect of this was close to the creation of a one party state, it remained a representative government. A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party
The Danish government was dominated by Social Democrats, including the pre-war prime minister Thorvald Stauning, who had been strongly opposed to the Nazi party. Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left Thorvald August Marinus Stauning ( 26 October 1873 – 3 May 1942) was the first Social Democrat Prime Minister of Denmark Stauning himself was deeply depressed by the prospects for Europe under Nazism. Nonetheless, his party pursued a strategy of cooperation, hoping to maintain democracy and Danish control in Denmark for as long as possible. There were many issues that they had to work out with Germany in the months after the occupation. In an effort to keep the Germans happy they compromised Danish democracy and society in several fundamental ways:
Stauning remained prime minister until his death in 1942, as head of a coalition cabinet encompassing all major political parties (the exceptions being the tiny Nazi party, and the Communist Party. This is a list over the heads of government in Denmark since 1848 A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a Cabinet of a parliamentary Government in which several parties cooperate The latter party was outlawed in 1941 following Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union). Vilhelm Buhl replaced him briefly, only to be replaced by foreign minister Erik Scavenius who had been the main link to the Nazi authorities throughout the war. Vilhelm Buhl ( October 16, 1881 - December 18, 1954) was Prime Minister of Denmark from 4 May 1942 Erik Julius Christian Scavenius ( July 13, 1877 – November 29, 1962) was the Danish foreign minister 1909–1910 1913–1920 Scavenius was a diplomat, not an elected politician, and had an elitist approach to government. Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states Elitism is the belief or attitude that those individuals who are considered members of the Elite &mdash a select group of people with outstanding personal abilities intellect  He was very afraid that emotional public opinion would destabilize his attempts to build a compromise between Danish sovereignty and the realities of German occupation. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself Scavenius felt strongly that he was Denmark's most ardent defender. After the war there was much recrimination of his stance, particularly from members of the active resistance who felt that he had hindered the cause of resistance and threatened Denmark's national honour. He felt that these people were vain, seeking to build their own reputations or political careers through emotionalism.
The Danish authorities were able to use their more cooperative stance to win important concessions for the country. They continually refused to enter a customs and currency union with Germany. A customs union is a Free trade area with a Common external tariff. In economics a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency (also known as a unitary or common currency Danes were concerned both about the negative economic effects of the German proposals, as well as the political ones. German officials did not want to risk their special relationship with Denmark by forcing an agreement on them as they had in other countries. The Danish government was also able to stall negotiations over the return of South Jutland to Germany, ban "closed rank uniformed marches" that would have made nationalist German or Danish Nazi agitation more possible, keep National Socialists out of the government, and hold a relatively free election with decidedly anti-Nazi results in the middle of the war. Short description of South Jutland South Jutland county is also known as Northern Schleswig ( Danish: Nordslesvig, German: Nordschleswig Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The Danish Folketing election of 1943 was held on 23 March 1943, except on the Faroe Islands where the election was held on 3 May.  Danish military officials also had access to sensitive German information which they delivered to the Allies under government cover.  The economic consequences of the occupation were also mitigated by German-Danish cooperation. Inflation rose sharply in the first year of the war, as the German Army spent a large amount of German military currency in Denmark, most importantly on military installations and troop deployments. Due to the Occupation, the National Bank of Denmark was compelled to exchange German currency for Danish notes, effectively granting the Germans a gigantic unsecured loan with only vague promises that the money would eventually be paid, something which never happened. The Danish government was later able to renegotiate the Germans' arbitrary exchange rate between the German military currency and the Danish Krone to reduce this problem. The krone ( sign: kr; code: DKK) is the Currency of Denmark, including the autonomous provinces of Greenland 
The success most often alluded to in regard to the Danish policy toward Germany is the protection of the Jewish minority in Denmark. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Throughout the years of its hold on power, the government consistently refused to accept German demands regarding the Jews.  The authorities would not enact special laws concerning Jews, and their civil rights remained equal with those of the rest of the population. German authorities became increasingly exasperated with this position but concluded that any attempt to remove or mistreat Jews would be "politically unacceptable. " Even the Gestapo officer Dr. The ( contraction of ge heime Sta ats' po' lizei: "Secret State Police" was the official Secret police of Nazi Germany Werner Best, plenipotentiary in Denmark from November 1942, believed that any attempt to remove the Jews would be enormously disruptive to the relationship between the two governments and recommended against any action concerning the Jews of Denmark. Werner Best ( July 10, 1903 &ndash June 23, 1989) was a German Jurist, police chief and Nazi leader from Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
King Christian X remained in Denmark throughout the war, a symbol of courage much appreciated by his subjects, though the story claiming that he would wear the star of David if Jews were forced to is apocryphal. Christian X (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm ( 26 September 1870 &ndash 20 April 1947) was King of Denmark 
On the 29th of June, 1941, days after the invasion of the USSR, Frikorps Danmark (Free Corps Denmark) was founded as a corps of Danish volunteers to fight against the Soviet Union. Operation Barbarossa ( Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the Codename for Nazi Germany 's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II Frikorps Danmark ( Free Corps Denmark) was a Danish volunteer army Corps created by the Danish Nazi Party in cooperation with Germany to fight the Frikorps Danmark was set up at the initiative of the SS and DNSAP who approached Lieutenant-Colonel C.P. Kryssing of the Danish army shortly after the invasion of the USSR had begun. The ( German for "Protective Squadron" abbreviated SS - or ( Runic)- was a major Nazi organization under Adolf Hitler and the Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Arbejderparti (National Socialist Workers’ Party of Denmark or DNSAP, was the largest Danish Nazi party before and during Christian Peder Kryssing ( July 7, 1891 – July 7, 1976) commonly known as C The Nazi paper Fædrelandet proclaimed the creation of the corps on 29 June 1941. 
According to Danish law, it was not illegal to join a foreign army, but active recruiting on Danish soil was illegal. The SS disregarded this law and began recruiting efforts - predominantly recruiting Danish Nazis and members of the German-speaking minority.  The Danish government discovered this and decided to concentrate on persuading the Germans not to recruit underage boys. General Prior wanted to sack Kryssing and his designated second-in-command but decided to consult the cabinet. It agreed that Kryssing should be sacked in its meeting on 2 July 1941, but this decision was later withdrawn when Erik Scavenius--who had not attended the original meeting--returned from negotiations and announced that he had reached an agreement with Renthe-Fink that soldiers wishing to join this corps could be given leave until further notice. The government issued an announcement stating that "Lieut. Colonel C. P. Kryssing, Chief of the 5th Artillery reg. , Holbæk, has with the consent of the Royal Danish Government assumed command over 'Frikorps Danmark'". The Danish text only explicitly said that the government recognized that Kryssing had been given a new command, it did not sanction the creation of the corps, which had already happened without its creators asking the government's consent. . In July 1941 Heinrich Himmler complained that Denmark was unofficially trying to stop recruitment, since the word ran in the army that anyone joining would be committing treason. Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945 was a Nazi German politician and head of the Schutzstaffel (SS. The government later instructed the army and navy not to obstruct applications from soldiers wishing to leave active duty and join the corps.
A 1998 study showed that the average recruit to Frikorps Danmark was a Nazi, a member of the German minority in Denmark, or both and that recruitment was very broad socially.  Historian Bo Lidegaard notes: "The relationship between the population and the corps was freezing cold, and legionnaires on leave time and again came into fights, with civilians meeting the corps' volunteers with massive contempt. " Lidegaard gives the following figures for 1941: 6,000 Danish citizens had signed up to German army duty (1,500 of these belonged to the German minority in Denmark). 
On 20 November 1941, 5 months after the invasion of the USSR, the Danish government received a German "invitation" to join the Anti-Comintern pact. The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan (later to be joined by other countries on November 25, 1936 Finland accepted reluctantly on 25 November and stated that it presumed that Denmark would also attend the ceremony (effectively conditioning its own attendance). Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Erik Scavenius argued that Denmark should sign the pact but the Cabinet ministers refused, stating that this would violate the policy of neutrality.  Scavenius reported this decision to Renthe-Fink. Fink replied on 21 November that "Germany would be unable to comprehend" a Danish rejection and demanded this decision be reversed before the end of the day. He assured Scavenius that the pact contained neither "political or other obligations" (i. e. , going to war with the USSR). At a cabinet meeting the same day, it was suggested to seek a written confirmation of this promise in an addendum to the protocol. Stauning agreed on these terms, since it would effectively make the signing meaningless. The Danish foreign office drew up a list of four terms that stated that Denmark only committed itself to "police action" in Denmark and that the nation remained neutral. The German foreign ministry agreed to the terms, provided that the protocol was not made public, which was the intent of the Danish foreign ministry.
As Berlin grew tired of waiting, Joachim von Ribbentrop called Copenhagen on 23 November threatening to "cancel the peaceful occupation" unless Denmark complied. Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946 was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945 On 23 November, the Wehrmacht in Denmark was put on alert and Renthe-Fink met Stauning and Foreign Minister Munch at 10 AM stating that there would be no room for "parliamentary excuses". Cecil von Renthe-Fink (1885-1964 was a German Diplomat. He was plenipotentiary of Denmark from April 9 1940 until 1942 Thorvald August Marinus Stauning ( 26 October 1873 – 3 May 1942) was the first Social Democrat Prime Minister of Denmark Peter Rochegune Munch (in Danish usually referred to as P Munch) (1870 – 1948 was a leading Danish Historian and Politician. If the German demands were not met Germany "would no longer be committed by the promises given on 9 April 1940" (the threat of a state of war, a Nazi government, and territorial dismemberment). In a Cabinet meeting at 2 PM that day, Stauning, Scavenius, Munch, Gunnar Larsen and one additional minister advocated accession; seven ministers opposed. Erik Julius Christian Scavenius ( July 13, 1877 – November 29, 1962) was the Danish foreign minister 1909–1910 1913–1920 Gunnar Otterbech Larsen (born in Oslo, 1900 died in 1958 was a Norwegian journalist writer and translator In a meeting the same day in the Nine Man committee, three more ministers caved in, most notably Vilhelm Buhl, stating "Cooperation is the last shred of our defence". Prime Minister Stauning's notes from the day stated: The objective is a political positioning. But this was established by the occupation. The danger of saying no--I would not like to see a Terboven here. Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven ( May 23, 1898 - May 8, 1945) was a Nazi leader best known as the Reichskommissar (commissioner Sign with addendum--that modifies the pact. 
Scavenius boarded a train and headed for Berlin, where he arrived on Monday 24 November. The next crisis came when he was met by Renthe-Fink, who informed him that Ribbentrop had informed Fink that there had been a "misunderstanding" regarding the four clauses and that clause 2 would be deleted. This had specified that Denmark only had police-like obligations. Scavenius had a strict mandate not to change a sentence and stated that he would be unable to return to Copenhagen with a different content from the one agreed upon, but that he was willing to reopen negotiations to clarify the matter further. This reply enraged Ribbentrop (and rumours claim that he was considering ordering the SS to arrest Scavenius). The task fell to German diplomat von Weizsäcker to patch up a compromise. He watered down the wording but left the content pretty intact. Nonetheless, for Scavenius it was a strong setback that the four clauses would now only get the status of a unilateral Danish declaration (Aktennotitz) with a comment on it by Fink that its content "no doubt" was in compliance with the pact. Furthermore he was instructed to give a public speech while abstaining from mentioning the four clauses but only making general statements about Denmark's status as a neutral nation. Scavenius signed the pact. At the following reception, the Italian ambassador described Scavenius as "a fish dragged on land . . . a small old gentleman in a suit asking himself how on earth he got to this place". Lidegaard comments that the old man remained defiant: during a conversation with Ribbentrop in which the latter complained about the "barbarous cannibalism" of Russian POWs, Scavenius rhetorically asked if that statement meant that Germany didn't feed her prisoners. 
When news of the signing reached Denmark, it left the population outraged, and rumours immediately spread about what Denmark had now committed itself to. The cabinet sent a car to pick up Scavenius at the ferry, to avoid his riding the train alone to Copenhagen. At the same time a large demonstration gathered outside of Parliament, which led the Minister of Justice, Eigil Thune Jacobsen, to remark that he didn't like to see Danish police beating up students singing patriotic songs. Christiansborg Palace on Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, is the house of Denmark 's three supreme powers the executive power, the When Scavenius had returned to Copenhagen, he asked the cabinet to debate once and for all where the red lines existed in Danish relations with Germany. This debate concluded that three red lines existed: 1) No legislation discriminating against Jews, 2) Denmark should never join the Axis Pact between Germany, Italy, and Japan, 3) No unit of the Danish army should ever fight against foreign forces. The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries To the surprise of many, Scavenius accepted these instructions without hesitation. 
In 1942, Adolf Hitler transmitted a long birthday telegram to King Christian. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately The King replied with a simple Spreche Meinen besten Dank aus. Chr. Rex (English: Giving my best thanks. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States King Christian) sending the Führer into a state of rage and seriously damaging Danish relations with Germany. Hitler immediately recalled his ambassador and expelled the Danish ambassador from Germany. The plenipotentiary, Rente-Fink was replaced by Werner Best and orders to crack down in Denmark were issued. Hitler also demanded that Erik Scavenius become prime minister, and all remaining Danish troops were ordered out of Jutland. 
As the war dragged on, the Danish population became increasingly hostile to the Germans. Soldiers stationed in Denmark had found most of the population cold and distant from the beginning of the occupation, but their willingness to cooperate had made the relationship workable. The government had attempted to discourage sabotage and violent resistance to the occupation, but by the autumn of 1942 the numbers of violent acts of resistance were increasing steadily to the point that Germany declared Denmark "enemy territory" for the first time. Autumn (also known as fall in North American English) is one of the four Temperate Seasons Autumn marks the transition from Summer Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  After the battles of Stalingrad and El-Alamein the incidents of resistance, violent and symbolic, increased rapidly. The Battle of Stalingrad is a commonly used name in English sources for several large operations by Germany and its allies and Soviet forces conducted with the The Second Battle of El Alamein marked a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign of World War II.
In March 1943 the Germans allowed a general election to be held. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Danish Folketing election of 1943 was held on 23 March 1943, except on the Faroe Islands where the election was held on 3 May. The voter turnout was 89. 5 %, the highest in any Danish parliamentary election, and 94 % cast their ballots for one of the democratic parties behind the cooperation policy while 2. 2 % voted for the anti-cooperation Dansk Samling.  2. 1 % voted for the Nazi party, almost corresponding to the 1. Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Arbejderparti (National Socialist Workers’ Party of Denmark or DNSAP, was the largest Danish Nazi party before and during 8 % the party had received in the 1939 elections. The Danish Folketing election of 1939 was held on 3 April 1939, except on the Faroe Islands where the election was held on 19 April The election, discontent, and a growing feeling of optimism that Germany would be defeated led to wide-spread strikes and civil disturbances in the summer of 1943. Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work. Civil disorder, also known as civil unrest, is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe one or more forms of disturbance caused by a group of people Summer is one of the four Temperate Seasons Summer marks the warmest time of year with the longest days The Danish government refused to deal with the situation in a way that would satisfy the Germans, who presented an ultimatum to the government, including the following demands, on August 28, 1943: A ban on people assembling in public, outlawing strikes, the introduction of a curfew, censorship should be conducted with German assistance, special (German military) courts should be introduced, and the death penalty should be introduced in cases of sabotage. Events 475 - The Roman General Orestes forces western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos to flee his Capital Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In addition, the city of Odense was ordered to pay a fine of 1 million kroner for the death of a German soldier killed in that city and hostages were to be held as security. The city of Odense (Danish ˈoð̞ˀn̩sə) is the fourth largest city in Denmark. 
The Danish government refused, so on 29 August 1943 the Germans officially dissolved the Danish government and instituted martial law. Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice The Danish cabinet handed in its resignation, although since King Christian never officially accepted it, the government remained functioning de jure until the end of the war, but this is a technicality. In reality all day-to-day business had been handed over to the Permanent Secretaries, each effectively running his own ministry. The Germans ran the rest of the country, and the Danish Parliament didn't convene for the remainder of the occupation. The Rigsdag was the name of the Parliament of Denmark from 1849 to 1953
Anticipating a German attack on the Copenhagen Docks, the Danish navy had instructed its captains to resist any German attempts to assume control over their vessels. The Royal Danish Navy ( RDN) (officially Kongelige Danske Marine in Danish but commonly Søværnet (literally 'Sea Defence' is the sea-based The navy managed to scuttle 32 of its larger ships, while Germany succeeded in seizing 14 of the larger and 50 of the smaller vessels. The Germans later succeeded in raising and refitting 15 of the sunken ships. During the scuttling of the Danish fleet, a number of vessels were ordered to attempt an escape to Swedish waters, and 13 vessels succeeded in this attempt, four of which were larger ships.  By the autumn of 1944, these ships officially formed a Danish naval flotilla in exile In 1943, Swedish authorities allowed 500 Danish soldiers in Sweden to train themselves as "police troops". A flotilla (from Spanish meaning a flota of small ships and this from French flotte) or naval flotilla, is a formation of small By the autumn of 1944, Sweden raised this number to 4,800 and recognized the entire unit as a Danish military brigade in exile. A brigade is a Military unit Echelon: is  Danish collaboration continued on an administrative level, with the Danish bureaucracy functioning under German command.
After the fall of the government, Denmark was exposed to the full extent of Nazi power. In October the Germans decided to remove all Jews from Denmark, but thanks to an information leak from German diplomat Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz and swift action by Danish civilians, the vast majority of the Danish Jews were transported to safety in neutral Sweden by means of fishing boats and motorboats. Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz ( September 29, 1904, in Bremen - February 16, 1973) was a German attache who warned the Danish The rescue of the Danish Jews occurred during Nazi Germany 's Occupation of Denmark during World War II. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The entire evacuation lasted two months and one man helped ferry more than 1,400 Jews to safety.  Sabotage, unencumbered by government opposition, grew greatly in frequency and severity, though it was rarely of very serious concern to the Germans. Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy oppressor or employer through subversion obstruction disruption and/or destruction Nonetheless, the Danish resistance movement had some successes, such as on D-Day when the train network in Denmark was disrupted for days, delaying the arrival of German reinforcements in Normandy. The Danish Resistance Movement (Modstandsbevægelsen was an underground insurgency movement to resist the German Occupation of Denmark during World War II. D-Day may also refer to Decimal Day in the United Kingdom. D-Day is a term often used in Military parlance to denote A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. An underground government was established, and the illegal press flourished. The phrase underground press is most often used to refer to the independently published and distributed underground papers associated with the Counterculture of the Allied governments, who had been skeptical about Denmark's commitment to fight Germany, began recognizing it as a full ally. 
The permanent secretary of the ministry of foreign affairs Nils Svenningsen in January 1944 suggested establishment of a Danish camp in order to avoid deportations to Germany.  Werner Best accepted this suggestion, but on condition that this camp was built close to the German border. Frøslev Prison Camp was set up in August 1944. Frøslev Prison Camp (Frøslevlejren Polizeigefangenenlager Frøslev was an Internment camp in German - occupied Denmark during World War
Gestapo had limited trust in the Danish police which had a total 10,000 members.  1,960 of these were arrested and deported to Germany on 19 September 1944. The Danish police April 1940–September 1944 Occupation of Denmark Nazi Germany occupied Denmark on 9 April 1940, and the Danish cabinet Events 335 - Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
In September 1943, a variety of resistance groups grouped together in the Danish Freedom Council, which coordinated resistance activities.
A high-profile resister was former government minister John Christmas Møller who fled to England in 1942 and became a widely popular commentator because of his broadcasts to the nation over the BBC. Guido Leo John Christmas Møller ( April 3, 1894 - April 13, 1948) was a Danish politician representing the Conservative People's Party
Denmark faced some serious economic problems during the war. The Danish economy was fundamentally hurt by the rising cost of raw material imports such as coal and oil. Denmark has a small open and flexible economy With very few natural resources the economy of Denmark relies almost entirely on human resources Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit The blockade against Germany affected Denmark too with unfortunate results. A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies Troops information or aid from reaching an opposing force Since the country has virtually no natural resources of its own it was very vulnerable to these price shocks and shortages. Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified ( natural) form The government had foreseen the possibility of coal and oil shortages and had stockpiled some before the war, which, combined with rationing, prevented some of the worst potential problems from coming to the country. Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services The disruptions to the European trading network were also damaging to the economy, but all things considered, Denmark did quite well compared to other countries during the war.
The country, at least certain sections of it, did so well that it has been open to the accusation of profiteering from the war. A war profiteer is any person or organization that improperly Profits from Warfare or by selling Weapons and other goods to parties at war After the war there was some effort to find and punish profiteers, but the consequences and scope of these trials were far less severe than in many other countries, largely a reflection of the general acceptance of the realistic need for cooperation with Germany. On the whole, though the country fared relatively well, this is only a relative measure. Phil Giltner has worked out that Germany had a "debt" of roughly 6. 9 billion Kroner to Denmark as a whole. The krone ( sign: kr; code: DKK) is the Currency of Denmark, including the autonomous provinces of Greenland  This means that they had taken far more out of the Danish economy than they had put in, aside from the negative side effects of the war on trade.
The Danish National Bank estimates that the occupation had resulted in the printing press increasing the currency supply from the pre-war figure of 400 million kroner to 1,600 million, much of which ended up in the hands of war profiteers. Danmarks Nationalbank (in Danish often simply Nationalbanken) is the Central bank of Denmark. The krone ( sign: kr; code: DKK) is the Currency of Denmark, including the autonomous provinces of Greenland A war profiteer is any person or organization that improperly Profits from Warfare or by selling Weapons and other goods to parties at war In July 1945, two months after the Liberation of Denmark, the Danish Parliament passed an emergency law initiating a currency reform, making all old banknotes void. The Rigsdag was the name of the Parliament of Denmark from 1849 to 1953 A small number of employees at the National Bank had clandestinely begun the production of new banknotes in late 1943. The production of new notes happened without the knowledge of the German forces located at the bank, and by the spring of 1945 the bank's stock of notes was sufficient to initiate the exchange.  The law required was passed hastily on Friday 20 July and published the same day; it also closed all shops for the weekend. By Monday 23 July, all old notes were officially outlawed as legal tender and any note not declared in a bank by 30 July would lose its value. This law allowed any Dane to exchange a total of 100 kroner to new notes, no questions asked. An amount up to 500 kroner would be exchanged, provided the owner signed a written statement explaining its origins. Any amount above this level would be deposited in an escrow account and only released or exchanged following scrutiny by tax officials examining the validity of the person's statement about the origins of this wealth. Escrow is a legal arrangement in which an asset (such as Cash, Real property or other tangible assets is deposited into safekeeping (e All existing bank accounts were also scrutinized. A bank account is a financial account with a Banking institution recording the financial transactions between the customer and the bank and the resulting financial position of Multiple exchanges of cash by the same person were avoided by the requirement that currency would only be exchanged to anybody also handing in a specified ration stamp, previously issued in a different context, which had not yet been authorized for use. Ration stamps or ration card is a card issued by a government allowing the holder to obtain certain Rations They are frequently seen in Wartime.  The exchange resulted in a significant drop in the currency supply, and around 20% of the 3,000 million kroner property declared had not previously been registered by the tax authorities.  Estimates vary for the amounts of currency simply destroyed by its owners. All banknotes issued since the changeover date remain valid indefinitely; earlier ones are not valid.
Most of Denmark was liberated from German rule in May 1945 by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery; the easternmost island of Bornholm was liberated by Soviet forces, who remained there for more than a year. Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC, (məntˈgʌmərɪ əv ˈæləmeɪn Bornholm (b̥ʌnˈhʌlˀm or [bɔʀnˈhɔlˀm]) ( Old Norse: Burgundarholm ' is a Danish Island in the Baltic Sea located
Although Denmark was spared many of the difficulties other areas of Europe suffered, its population still experienced hardships, particularly after the Germans took charge in 1943. Yet on the whole, Denmark can be said to have suffered the least of all the European combatants from the war.  Many were killed and imprisoned because of their work resisting the German authorities. There were small bombing raids on select targets in the country, but nothing comparable to that suffered by, for instance, neighbouring Norway or the Netherlands. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands One area that was badly damaged was the island of Bornholm, largely due to Soviet bombardment of the German garrison there. Bornholm (b̥ʌnˈhʌlˀm or [bɔʀnˈhɔlˀm]) ( Old Norse: Burgundarholm ' is a Danish Island in the Baltic Sea located The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
Just over 850 members of the resistance were killed during the war. The Danish Resistance Movement (Modstandsbevægelsen was an underground insurgency movement to resist the German Occupation of Denmark during World War II. Roughly 900 Danish civilians were killed in a variety of ways: either by being caught in air raids, killed during civil disturbances, or in reprisal killings, the so-called clearing-murders. 39 Danish soldiers were killed or injured during the invasion, and four were killed on 29 August 1943 when the Germans dissolved the Danish government. Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Some sources estimate that about 360 Danes died in concentration camps. The largest groups of fatalities were amongst Danish sailors, who continued to operate throughout the war, most falling victim to submarines. 1,850 sailors died. Just over 100 soldiers died as part of Allied forces.
Approximately 6,000 Danes were sent to concentration camps during WWII, of whom about 600 (10 %) died. In comparison with other countries this is a relatively low mortality rate in the concentration camps.
After the war, 40,000 people were arrested on suspicion of collaboration. Collaborationism, can describe the Treason of cooperating with enemy Forces occupying one's Country. Of these, 13,500 were punished in some way. 78 received death sentences, of which 46 were carried out. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Most received prison sentences of under four years. Many people criticized the process for victimizing "small" people disproportionately, while many politicians and businesses were left untouched. Another difficult issues was what to do with collaborators who were essentially "following orders" that their own government had given them, such as business executives who had been encouraged to work with the Germans.
Although some members of the resistance tried to organize new political parties after the war to reshape the political order in Denmark, they were unable to do so. The only party that appeared to receive a significant boost from resistance was the Communist Party. Widely credited with much of the resistance work, the Communists received about one-eighth of the popular vote in the October 1945 elections.
In the final weeks of the war, between February 11 and May 9, about 250,000 German refugees fled across the Baltic Sea, fleeing the advancing Soviet Army. For the most part, the refugees were from East Prussia, Pomerania, and the Baltic states. Many of the refugees were women, children, or elderly. A third of the refugees were younger than 15 years old.
The refugees were interned in hundreds of camps from Copenhagen to Jutland, placed behind barbed wire and guarded by military personnel. The largest camp, located in Oksbøl, on the west coast of Jutland, held 37,000 refugees. This article is about the region of Denmark. For the World War I naval battle see Battle of Jutland.
In the camps, food rations were meager and medical care was inadequate. In 1945 alone, more than 13,000 people died, among them some 7,000 children under the age of five.