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The Objectivist movement is a movement to study and advance Ayn Rand’s philosophy, Objectivism. Objectivism is a Philosophy developed by Ayn Rand in the 20th century that encompasses positions on Metaphysics, Epistemology, All of Objectivism rests on Objectivist metaphysics and Objectivist epistemology: the study of the fundamental nature of reality and of the nature Objectivism's Epistemology, like the other branches of Objectivism was present in some form ever since the publication of Atlas Shrugged. The Objectivist ethics is a subset of the Objectivist philosophy formulated by Ayn Rand. Objectivism's Politics, like the other branches of Objectivism was present in some form ever since the publication of Atlas Shrugged. Romantic Realism is an aesthetic term that usually refers to Art that deals with the themes of volition and value while also acknowledging Ayn Rand (ˈaɪn ˈrænd &ndash March 6 1982 born Alisa Zinov'yevna Rosenbaum (Алиса Зиновьевна Розенбаум was a Russian born American Ayn Rand was a Russian American Novelist and Philosopher whose relationship with the History of philosophy is Ayn Rand and Objectivism have become the subjects of an extensive body of literature both in favor of Objectivist ideals and critical Many individuals found their support of Libertarianism upon ideological elements derived from the philosophy of novelist Ayn Rand, which she called Objectivism. Objectivism is a Philosophy created by Ayn Rand, which some homosexuals have been interested in for its celebration of personal freedom and individuality Neo-Objectivism covers a large family of philosophical viewpoints and cultural values derived from but not necessarily in agreement with Objectivist philosophy. The Ayn Rand Institute The Center for the Advancement of Objectivism (ARI is a 501(c(3 nonprofit think tank in Irvine California that promotes Ayn The Atlas Society — of which The Objectivist Center (TOC is a part — is a research and advocacy organization promoting "a culture that affirms the core Objectivist values of reason Nathaniel Branden Institute (originally Nathaniel Branden Lectures was an organization founded by Nathaniel Branden in 1958 to promote Ayn Rand 's philosophy of The Collective was a group of men and women who were close confidants students and proponents of Ayn Rand and her philosophy of Objectivism during the 50's and 60's Ayn Rand (ˈaɪn ˈrænd &ndash March 6 1982 born Alisa Zinov'yevna Rosenbaum (Алиса Зиновьевна Розенбаум was a Russian born American Objectivism is a Philosophy developed by Ayn Rand in the 20th century that encompasses positions on Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ayn Rand was a novelist and philosopher who wrote the novels The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged. The Fountainhead is a 1943 Novel by Ayn Rand. It was Rand's first major literary success and its Royalties and movie rights Atlas Shrugged is a novel by Ayn Rand, first published in 1957 in the United States The movement began informally in the 1950s and consisted of students who were brought together by their mutual interest in Rand’s novel, The Fountainhead. The ironically named Ayn Rand Collective (ironic due to their advocacy of individualism) consisted, in part, of Nathaniel Branden and Barbara Branden, Alan Greenspan, and Leonard Peikoff. The Collective was a group of men and women who were close confidants students and proponents of Ayn Rand and her philosophy of Objectivism during the 50's and 60's Nathaniel Branden, né Nathan Blumenthal (born 9 April 1930 in Brampton, Ontario, Canada) is a psychotherapist Barbara Branden (born Barbara Weidman 14 May 1929, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada) is a Canadian writer Alan Greenspan (born March 6 1926 in New York City) is an American Economist and was from 1987 to 2006 the Chairman of the Federal Reserve of Leonard S Peikoff (born October 15, 1933) is an Objectivist philosopher Nathaniel Branden, a young Canadian student who had been greatly inspired by Rand's work, became a close confidant and encouraged Rand to expand her philosophy into a formal movement.
Since its informal beginnings in Rand’s living room to today's collection of think tanks, academic organizations, magazines, and journals, the Objectivist movement has seen its fair share of change and controversy.
The first formal presentation of Objectivism began with the Nathaniel Branden Lectures (NBL), shortly after the publication of Rand’s final novel, Atlas Shrugged. Nathaniel Branden was the first member of The Collective, as well as Rand’s star student and intellectual heir.  Later, Branden and Rand became romantically involved.  After the publication of Atlas Shrugged, Rand was inundated with requests for more information about her philosophy. Not wanting to be a teacher or leader of an organized movement, she allowed Branden to lecture on her behalf. 
|Timeline of the Objectivist Movement|
The success of NBL prompted Branden to expand his lecture organization into the Nathaniel Branden Institute (NBI). Nathaniel Branden Institute (originally Nathaniel Branden Lectures was an organization founded by Nathaniel Branden in 1958 to promote Ayn Rand 's philosophy of Rand, with Branden, co-founded the first publication devoted to the study and application of Objectivism. The Objectivist Newsletter began publication in 1961 and was later expanded into The Objectivist. The Objectivist Newsletter was an 4-page Objectivist magazine published monthly from January 1962 to December 1965 when it was replaced by The Objectivist. The Objectivist was a monthly Objectivist magazine published from January 1966 to September 1971 as the successor to The Objectivist Newsletter. 
The 1960s saw a rapid expansion of the Objectivist movement. Nathaniel Branden Institute (originally Nathaniel Branden Lectures was an organization founded by Nathaniel Branden in 1958 to promote Ayn Rand 's philosophy of Rand was a frequent lecturer at universities across the country. With John Hospers, Rand hosted a radio program on Objectivism at Columbia University. John Hospers (born 9 June 1918) is Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Southern California. NBI hosted lectures on Objectivism, the history of philosophy, art, and psychology in cities across the country (see the Nathaniel Branden Institute). Nathaniel Branden Institute (originally Nathaniel Branden Lectures was an organization founded by Nathaniel Branden in 1958 to promote Ayn Rand 's philosophy of Campus clubs devoted to studying Rand’s philosophy formed throughout the country, though operated independently of NBI. Rand was a frequent guest on radio and television, as well as a semi-annual lecturer at the Ford Hall Forum.  At the peak of its popularity, NBI was delivering taped lectures in over 80 cities.  By 1968 NBI had arranged for the lease of an entire floor in the Empire State Building (which would have been shared with Barbara Branden's book club and The Objectivist). 
In 1968, Rand publicly broke with Nathaniel and Barbara Branden, accusing them of systematic deception and financial exploitation.  In a letter sent to the mailing list of The Objectivist, the Brandens countered that the break was linked not to deception and exploitation, but to Nathaniel’s desire to end his ongoing romantic relationship with Rand.  In 2005, Rand’s contemporaneous notes on the subject were published in James S. Valliant's book, The Passion of Ayn Rand's Critics. James S Valliant (born September 29 1963 is a lawyer a television commentator a former television program host the author of The Passion of Ayn Rand 's Critics Valliant interprets this new evidence as vindicating Rand and damning the Brandens.  This interpretation is strongly contested by the Brandens. 
Though The Objectivist continued publishing without the Brandens until September 1971, the NBI was closed.  The Brandens continued to sell several NBI lectures through their company, Academic Associates, though neither was involved with the Objectivist movement again until 1996. Peikoff later described the Brandens' expulsion as the first "of the many schisms that have plagued the Objectivist movement. "
The 1970s saw a reduction in the size and activity of the Objectivist movement. The Objectivist was replaced by The Ayn Rand Letter in 1971. The Ayn Rand Letter was an Objectivist magazine published from October 1971 to February 1976 as successor to the previous The Objectivist.  The Ayn Rand Letter published writing only by Rand (and occasionally Leonard Peikoff), while The Objectivist had published articles by many Objectivists. Though Peikoff gave lectures on Objectivism, and Rand gave four workshops for a dozen professionals in philosophy and a few in math and physics, on her book, Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology, there was no organized movement. Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology, published in 1979, was Ayn Rand 's attempt to summarize Objectivist epistemology and the Objectivist In the late 1970s, The Objectivist Calendar, a publication that listed upcoming events within the Objectivist movement, closed due to inactivity. 
During this period of time, Rand began working even more closely with Peikoff, helping edit his book, The Ominous Parallels, for which she wrote the introduction.  By her death in 1982, Peikoff had been designated as heir to her estate, and controls the copyrights to her books and writing barring the public domain Anthem. The term anthem means either a specific form of Anglican church music (in Music theory and religious contexts or more generally a song (or composition of
Ironically, Ayn Rand’s 1982 death coincides with what might be called the birth of the modern Objectivist movement. 1980 saw the foundation of The Objectivist Forum, a journal endorsed by Rand, but edited and published by Harry Binswanger. The Objectivist Forum was an Objectivist bimonthly journal published from February 1980 through December 1987 Harry Binswanger (born in Richmond Virginia, in 1944 is an American Philosopher and writer  Shortly after Rand’s death, Peikoff’s first book, The Ominous Parallels, was published. In 1983 Peikoff gave a series of lectures titled Understanding Objectivism, which is almost universally considered by Rand scholars the most important lecture series on Objectivism ever given. 
In 1985, Leonard Peikoff and Ed Snider founded the Ayn Rand Institute (ARI), the first organization devoted to the study and advocacy of Objectivism since the closure of NBI in 1968. The Ayn Rand Institute The Center for the Advancement of Objectivism (ARI is a 501(c(3 nonprofit think tank in Irvine California that promotes Ayn Leonard S Peikoff (born October 15, 1933) is an Objectivist philosopher Edward M Snider (born January 6, 1933, Washington DC) is the Chairman of Comcast-Spectacor, a Philadelphia -based sports The Ayn Rand Institute The Center for the Advancement of Objectivism (ARI is a 501(c(3 nonprofit think tank in Irvine California that promotes Ayn  The institute began by sponsoring essay contests on Rand’s novels and distributing op-eds analyzing world events from an Objectivist perspective.  In 1987 the institute began teaching aspiring Objectivist intellectuals. 
In 1989 there was another split within the Objectivist movement, this time explicitly philosophical. David Kelley, a philosopher and lecturer then affiliated with the ARI, was criticized by Objectivist Peter Schwartz for lecturing under the auspices of Laissez-Faire Books (LFB), a libertarian book store. David Kelley (born 1949 in Cleveland Ohio) is an American Philosopher and Author. Peter Schwartz is a writer and journalist who follows the Objectivist philosophy of Ayn Rand.  Schwartz argued that Kelley had violated the Objectivist moral principle of sanction, both because LFB was an explicitly libertarian organization and because it promoted books which Schwartz interpreted as unjustly hostile and defamatory towards Ayn Rand and Objectivism.  Kelley responded, in a paper titled "A Question of Sanction", by disputing Schwartz’s interpretation of the sanction principle in particular and moral principles in general. Subsequently, Peikoff wrote a response to Kelley’s paper, titled "Fact and Value", endorsing Schwartz’s view and arguing that Kelley’s position amounted to a rejection of fundamental principles of Objectivism. Peikoff announced that he would no longer allow ARI (which he controls by charter) or the Estate of Ayn Rand to co-operate with Kelley. 
Kelley responded to the Peikoff-Schwartz critique in his monograph, Truth and Toleration, later The Contested Legacy of Ayn Rand.  He responded to his ostracism by founding the Institute for Objectivist Studies (IOS) (later The Objectivist Center (TOC), currently The Atlas Society (TAS)) with the help of Ed Snider. The Atlas Society — of which The Objectivist Center (TOC is a part — is a research and advocacy organization promoting "a culture that affirms the core Objectivist values of reason Kelley was joined by Objectivists George Walsh and Jim Lennox, as well as one-time Rand friends, Joan and Allan Blumenthal. 
In its modern form, the Objectivist movement contains two think tanks, two journals and two magazines, several scholarly organizations, several hundred campus and community groups, and a number of Internet-based forums and social networking sites.
Kelley’s Institute for Objectivist Studies (IOS) was founded in 1991, when it began to publish material on Objectivism and host conferences for Rand scholars. In the early 1990s they held a symposium on Chris Sciabarra's book, Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical. Chris Matthew Sciabarra (born February 17, 1960) is a scholar and writer living in Brooklyn, New York.  In the mid 1990s, IOS invited Nathaniel and Barbara Branden to participate in the institute’s activities, effectively bringing them back into the Objectivist movement. Jim Lennox and the Blumenthals disassociated from the organization in protest. The Brandens have continued to participate in TAS events since that time.
In 1994, the Ayn Rand Institute (ARI) expanded its educational programs into the Objectivist Graduate Center (OGC), which held classes led by Leonard Peikoff and Harry Binswanger. The OGC expanded into the Objectivist Academic Center (OAC) in 2000, offering undergraduate and graduate courses on Objectivism, writing, history, the history of philosophy, and the history of science. Several OAC classes are now accredited.  In 1991, Peikoff's book Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand was published. Objectivism The Philosophy of Ayn Rand (ISBN 0-452-01101-9 is a book by Dr It was the first systematic presentation of Rand's philosophy to appear in print. ARI increased its notoriety by staging a protest against President Clinton’s volunteerism initiative in 1996. 1996 also saw a series of lectures on Objectivism by ARI intellectuals at Harvard.  ARI gathered more attention for its activism on behalf of the family of Elian Gonzalez. 1998 saw the release of Academy Award nominated documentary, Ayn Rand: A Sense of Life. In 1999 the United States Postal Service released an Ayn Rand stamp. 
In 2000, Yaron Brook replaced Michael Berliner as head of the ARI. Yaron Brook (ירון ברוק born 1961 is the current president and Executive director of the Ayn Rand Institute, an educational Non-profit organization  The 2000s have seen the most rapid growth of the Objectivist movement since its birth in the late 1950s. Op-eds put out by ARI are published by hundreds of newspapers annually, and ARI intellectuals are frequent guests on radio networks such as Air America and TV networks such as Fox News and CNBC. Air America Radio (commonly abbreviated to AAR) CNBC (an abbreviation for the " C onsumer N ews and B usiness C hannel" its official name until 1991 is a cable and ARI speakers give scores of lectures on college campuses each year, which are sponsored by the hundreds of Objectivist campus clubs around the country.  There are many community groups dedicated to the study of Objectivism, as well as several on-line forums and social networks for fans of Rand's novels and philosophy (see links).
As of 2007, ARI has distributed over 700,000 free copies of Ayn Rand’s novels to high schools around the country.  In 2005 ARI opened a branch in Canada, which distributes free books to Canadian schools. Independently of ARI's free books program, Rand's books sell over 500,000 copies per year. Total sales of her books since publication is over 24 million copies. 
ARI intellectuals are frequently interiewed for their controversial positions, particularly on Islam and the war on terror. In 2006, ARI sponsored a conference on the war on terror. In addition to Objectivist speakers, mid-east scholars Daniel Pipes, Robert Spencer, and Flemming Rose gave lectures. Daniel Pipes (born September 9 1949 is a American historian and political commentator who particularly focuses on the Middle East and Islam. Robert Bruce Spencer (born 1962 is an American author who writes articles and books relating to Islam and Islamic terrorism. Flemming Rose (born March 11 1958) is a Danish journalist author and the current cultural editor at the Danish newspaper The event was capped by Yaron Brook’s Ford Hall Forum lecture (Brook is only the third Objectivist to be invited to the Ford Hall Forum, after Ayn Rand and Leonard Peikoff). The Ford Hall Forum is the oldest free public lecture series in the United States. 
The 2000s also saw a change for the Atlas Society (TAS). David Kelley stepped down as executive director and was replaced by ex-CATO scholar Ed Hudgins. The Cato Institute is a Libertarian Think tank headquartered in Washington D The institute relocated to Washington D. C. and launched a new magazine, The New Individualist. TAS has recently attracted media attention following its participation in the 2007 Conservative Political Action Conference - CPAC. Conservative Political Action Conference is an annual political conference attended by some 6000+ conservatives, activists and elected officials from across the United
While the 2000s have seen much expansion of the Objectivist movement, they have not been without controversy. In 2004 and 2005, several well known students and employees left The Atlas Society, in part because of the material in Jim Valliant’s book, The Passion of Ayn Rand’s Critics. 
Despite the fact that several members of The Collective were philosophy graduate students at NYU (Peikoff’s PhD advisor was Sidney Hook), Objectivism did not begin to make serious inroads into academic philosophy until the 1980s, and did not gather much attention until the 2000s. Sidney Hook ( December 20 1902 &ndash July 12 1989) was a prominent New York intellectual and Philosopher who championed 
Rand herself had much disdain for modern academia, citing the poor state of American universities, particularly the humanities, as the source of much of the country's problems. The humanities are academic disciplines which study the Human condition, using methods that are primarily Analytic, Critical, or Speculative  Until recently, Objectivism has grown independently of academia, supplying free books to high schools and universities, sponsoring essay contests for students and support programs for teachers and professors interested in studying and teaching Rand's ideas. 
In 1987, noted Aristotle scholar and Rand student Allan Gotthelf founded the Ayn Rand Society, which is affiliated with the American Philosophical Association. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Allan Gotthelf (born Brooklyn NY 1942 is Emeritus professor of Philosophy at The College of New Jersey and visiting professor of history and The American Philosophical Association is the main professional organization for Philosophers in the United States. Non-Objectivist participants have included Jaegwon Kim and Susan Haack. Jaegwon Kim (born 1934 in Daegu, Korea (now in South Korea) is a Korean born American Philosopher currently working at Susan Haack (born 1945 England) is an English professor of Philosophy and Law at the University of Miami in the United 
In 1999 the academic journal The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies (JARS) was founded to help facilitate the study of Rand’s thought within academia.  The journal is boycotted by scholars affiliated with the ARI. 
In the early 2000s, Objectivist John McCaskey founded the Anthem Foundation for Objectivist Scholarship, which sponsors the work of established Objectivist professors.  As of 2007 there are 13 fellowships for the study of Objectivism in universities in the U. S. , including at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Texas, Austin.  In 2006, the Anthem Foundation in conjunction with the University of Pittsburgh hosted a conference on the philosophy of science called "Concepts and Objectivity: Knowledge, Science, and Values. " Participants included Objectivists Onkar Ghate, Allan Gotthelf, James G. Lennox, Harry Binswanger, and Tara Smith, as well as noted analytic philosophers David Sosa, A. Tara Smith (born 1961 is a professor of Philosophy and holder of the BB&T Chair for the Study of Objectivism and holder of the Anthem P. Martinich, and Peter Railton. 
In 2006, Cambridge University Press published Tara Smith’s book, Ayn Rand’s Normative Ethics: The Virtuous Egoist.  This book, along with the previously mentioned "Concepts and Objectivity" conference, has been cited by some Objectivists as the biggest inroad into mainstream academic philosophy to date; 2006 also saw several seminars on Objectivism at Brown University given by Yaron Brook. Yaron Brook (ירון ברוק born 1961 is the current president and Executive director of the Ayn Rand Institute, an educational Non-profit organization 
Several people, including Murray Rothbard,; Jeff Walker and Michael Shermer have accused Rand of being a cult-like figure and the Objectivist movement of being a cult. Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2 1926 – January 7 1995 was an American economist of the Austrian School who helped define modern Libertarianism Michael Brand Shermer (born September 8, 1954 in Glendale California) is an American science writer historian of science founder of The Skeptics Walker compares it with Scientology as being a cult-like organization. Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices initially created by American Science fiction author L  Critics use the epithet 'Randroid' (a portmanteau of Rand and android) to evoke the image of an indoctrinated cultist, programmed to parrot Rand’s every word. An android is a Robot designed to resemble a human usually both in appearance and behavior
"If the glaring inner contradictions of the Leninist cults make them intriguing objects of study, still more so is the Ayn Rand cult. Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. . . [f]or not only was the Rand cult explicitly atheist, anti-religious, and an extoller of Reason; it also promoted slavish dependence on the guru in the name of independence; adoration and obedience to the leader in the name of every person's individuality; and blind emotion and faith in the guru in the name of Reason. "
In The Passion of Ayn Rand’s Critics, Valliant asserts that his one-time friend Rothbard "told me that his Sociology of the Ayn Rand cult was 'highly fictionalized'. For example no one was ever 'excommunicated' from Rand's circle for not liking the music of Rachmaninoff as Rand did. "
Jeff Walker compares Objectivism to the well known cult of Scientology. Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices initially created by American Science fiction author L Walker compares both Dianetics and Objectivism side by side. Dianetics is a set of ideas and practices regarding the relationship between the spirit mind and body that were developed by L Both, argues Walker, are totalist sets of beliefs that advocate "an ethics for the masses based on survival as a rational being. " Walker continues, "Dianetics used reasoning somewhate similar to Rand’s about the brain… both have a higher mind reprogramming the rest of the mind. " Walker further notes that both philosophies claim to be based on science and logic.
Rand scholar and founder of JARS Chris Sciabarra has criticised Walker’s objectivity and scholarship, and R. W. Bradford, founder of Liberty magazine, called it "merely annoying" for scholars. Chris Matthew Sciabarra (born February 17, 1960) is a scholar and writer living in Brooklyn, New York. Raymond William ('Bill' Bradford ( September 20 1947 – December 8 2005) was an American writer chiefly known for editing publishing Liberty is a leading Libertarian journal founded in 1987 by R 
Michael Shermer argued that the Objectivist movement displayed many of the characteristics of religious cults, including the veneration and inerrancy of the leader; hidden agendas; financial and/or sexual exploitation; and the beliefs that the movement provides absolute truth and absolute morality.  During a 2007 interview Shermer stated that he found the philosophy of Objectivism to be "perfectly sound", though not perfect, citing the problems of integrating the idea of objective truths with the moral realm and values. 
In response to an admirer who offered her cult-like allegiance, Rand wrote:
"My philosophy advocates reason, not faith; it requires men to think – to accept nothing without a full, rational, firsthand understanding and conviction – to claim nothing without factual evidence and logical proof. A blind follower is precisely what my philosophy condemns and what I reject. Objectivism is not a mystic cult. "
In the magazine The Laissez-Faire City Times, Jim Peron wrote an analysis of Objectivism that argues similarities to cults are superficial at best and charges of cultism directed at Objectivists are ad hominem attacks used to dismiss Objectivist ideas without considering them. An ad hominem argument, also known as argumentum ad hominem ( Latin: "argument to the man" "argument against the man" He specifically points out that Objectivism does not contain the layers of initiation which Scientology is known for, lacking a hierarchy, obligation, cost or physical coersion. Organized instruction in Objectivism is free for students through the partially accredited academic center of the ARI. Both ARI and TAS give grants and scholarships as non-profit organizations. Writes Peron:
“I cannot see how a disembodied philosophy can be a cult. I say Objectivism was disembodied because there was no Objectivist organization to join. The Nathaniel Branden Institute gave lectures but had no membership. You could subscribe to a newsletter but you couldn't join. Objectivism was, and is, structureless. And without a structure there cannot be cult. Cults spend a great deal of time recruiting members and persuading them to join a structure. A structure, or organization, is not optional. It is an essential trait of a cult. If the structure doesn't exist then there is no cult. . . Did Objectivism recruit members? It doesn't seem so. The obvious reason is that there was nothing to which members could be recruited. The vast majority of self-proclaimed Objectivists are people who read Rand's works and agreed with her. Most have never attended an Objectivist meeting nor subscribed to any Objectivist newsletter. All they did was buy Rand's books and like them. "