In fluid dynamics, the no-slip condition for viscous fluid states that at a solid boundary, the fluid will have zero velocity relative to the boundary. Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of Fluid mechanics dealing with fluid flow: Fluids ( Liquids and Gases in motion
The fluid velocity at all liquid–solid boundaries is equal to that of the solid boundary. Conceptually, one can think of the outermost molecules of fluid stick to the surfaces past which it flows.
Particles close to a surface do not move along with a flow when adhesion is stronger than cohesion. Adhesion is the tendency of certain dissimilar molecules to cling together due to Attractive forces.
As with most engineering approximations, the no-slip condition does not always hold in reality. For example, at very low pressure (e. g. , at high altitude), even when the continuum approximation still holds there may be so few molecules near the surface that they "bounce along" down the surface. Continuum mechanics is a branch of Mechanics that deals with the analysis of the Kinematics and mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuum e A common approximation for fluid slip is:
where n is the coordinate normal to the wall and β is called the slip length. For an ideal gas, the slip length is often approximated as , where is the mean free path. In Physics the mean free path of a particle is the average distance covered by a particle ( Photon, Atom or Molecule) between subsequent impacts
While the no-slip condition is used almost universally in modeling of viscous flows, it is sometimes neglected in favor of the 'no-penetration condition' (where the fluid velocity normal to the wall is set to the wall velocity in this direction, but the fluid velocity parallel to the wall is unrestricted) in elementary analyses of inviscid flow, where the effect of boundary layers is neglected. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a Fluid which is being deformed by either Shear stress or Extensional stress. In Fluid dynamics there are problems that are easily solved by using the simplifying assumption of an ideal Fluid that has no Viscosity. In Physics and Fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is that layer of Fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface
The no-slip condition poses a problem in viscous flow theory at contact lines: places where an interface between two fluids meets a solid boundary. In Fluid mechanics and Mathematics, a capillary surface is a Surface that represents the interface between two different Fluids As a consequence Here, the no-slip boundary condition implies that the position of the contact line does not move, which is not observed in reality. Analysis of a moving contact line with the no slip condition results in infinite stresses that can't be integrated over. The rate of movement of the contact line is believed to be dependent on the angle the contact line makes with the solid boundary, but the mechanism behind this is not yet fully understood. The contact angle is the Angle at which a Liquid / Vapor interface meets the solid surface