28cobaltnickelcopper
-

Ni

Pd
General
Name, symbol, numbernickel, Ni, 28
Chemical seriestransition metals
Group, period, block104, d
Appearancelustrous, metallic and
silvery with a gold tinge
Standard atomic weight58.6934(2)g·mol−1
Electron configuration[Ar] 4s2 3d8
Electrons per shell2, 8, 16, 2
Physical properties
Phasesolid
Density (near r.t.)8. Cobalt (ˈkoʊbɒlt is a hard lustrous silver-grey Metal, a Chemical element with symbol Co. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Palladium (pronounced \pəˈleɪdiəm\ is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal that was discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston, who named it palladium after the This is a typical display of the periodic table of the elements and contains the symbol and Atomic number of each element Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of Chemical elements, sorted by name Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of chemical elements by symbol, including the A table of Chemical elements ordered by Atomic number and color coded according to type of element In Chemistry a group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the Periodic table of the Chemical elements There are 18 groups in In Chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings It commonly refers to any element in In Chemistry a group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the Periodic table of the Chemical elements There are 18 groups in In the Periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table A block of the Periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups The respective highest-energy electrons in each element in a block belong to the same Atomic Properties Group ten metals are white to light grey in color and possess a high Luster, a resistance to tarnish( Oxidation) at STP, are highly A period 4 element is one of the Chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. The d-block of the periodic table of the elements consists of those Periodic table groups that contain elements in which in the atomic ground state the highest-energy The atomic mass (ma is the Mass of an atom most often expressed in unified atomic mass units The atomic mass may be considered to be the total mass To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various Mass levels between 10&minus36&thinsp kg and 1053&thinspkg Molar mass, symbol M, is the Mass of one mole of a substance ( Chemical element or Chemical compound) In Atomic physics and Quantum chemistry, electron configuration is the arrangement of Electrons in an Atom, Molecule, or other This article pertains to the chemical element For other uses see Argon (disambiguation. The electron is a fundamental Subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by J An electron shell may be crudely thought of as an Orbit followed by Electrons around an Atom nucleus. In the Physical sciences a phase is a Set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties A solid' object is in the States of matter characterized by resistance to Deformation and changes of Volume. The density of a material is defined as its Mass per unit Volume: \rho = \frac{m}{V} Different materials usually have different Room temperature (also referred to as ambient temperature) is a common term to denote a certain Temperature within enclosed space at which humans are accustomed 908 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p.7. Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of Density and is represented as kg/m³ where kg stands for Kilogram and m³ stands for Cubic metre The density of a material is defined as its Mass per unit Volume: \rho = \frac{m}{V} Different materials usually have different The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to Liquid. 81 g·cm−3
Melting point1728 K
(1455 °C, 2651 °F)
Boiling point3186 K
(2913 °C, 5275 °F)
Heat of fusion17. The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to Liquid. The kelvin (symbol K) is a unit increment of Temperature and is one of the seven SI base units The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the Vapor pressure of the liquid equals the environmental pressure surrounding the liquid The kelvin (symbol K) is a unit increment of Temperature and is one of the seven SI base units The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The standard Enthalpy of fusion (symbol \Delta{}H_{fus} also known as the heat of fusion or specific melting heat, is the amount of 48 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization377. The joule per mole (symbol J·mol-1 is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol \Delta{}_{v}H also known as the heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the Energy required 5 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity(25 °C) 26. The joule per mole (symbol J·mol-1 is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat, is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the Temperature of a unit quantity 07 J·mol−1·K−1
 P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k at T/K 1783 1950 2154 2410 2741 3184
Atomic properties
Crystal structureface centered cubic
0. Vapor pressure (also known as equilibrium vapor pressure or saturation vapor pressure) is the Pressure of a Vapor in equilibrium In Mineralogy and Crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of Atoms in a Crystal. 3520 nm
Oxidation states4 [1], 3, 2, 1 [2]
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity1. The oxidation number of a central atom in a coordination compound is the charge that it would have if all the Ligands were removed along with the Electron pairs In Chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of as an aqueous substance that can accept Protons This refers to the Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and " Electronegativity " is the opposite of " Electropositivity," which describes an element's ability to donate electrons 91 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 737. The ionization potential, ionization energy or EI of an Atom or Molecule is the Energy required to remove an Electron These tables list the Ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove one mole of Electrons from one mole of neutral gaseous Atoms (first energy respectively 1 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1753. The joule per mole (symbol J·mol-1 is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material 0 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3395 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius (calc. Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined Physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances A picometre ( American spelling: picometer, symbol pm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one trillionth )149 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic orderingferromagnetic
Electrical resistivity(20 °C) 69. The covalent radius, r cov is a measure of the size of Atom which forms part of a Covalent bond. Van der Waals Volume The van der Waals volume, V, also called the atomic volume or molecular volume, is the atomic property most directly In Physics, magnetism is one of the Phenomena by which Materials exert attractive or repulsive Forces on other Materials. Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as Iron) form Permanent magnets and/or exhibit strong interactions with Magnets it Electrical resistivity (also known as specific electrical resistance) is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of Electric current. 3 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity(300 K) 90. In Physics, thermal conductivity, k is the property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct Heat. 9 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion(25 °C) 13. When the Temperature of a substance changes the energy that is stored in the Intermolecular bonds between atoms changes 4 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod)(r.t.) 4900 m·s−1
Young's modulus200 GPa
Shear modulus76 GPa
Bulk modulus180 GPa
Poisson ratio0. Sound is a vibration that travels through an elastic medium as a Wave. Room temperature (also referred to as ambient temperature) is a common term to denote a certain Temperature within enclosed space at which humans are accustomed In Solid mechanics, Young's modulus (E is a measure of the Stiffness of an isotropic elastic material In Materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of Shear Poisson's ratio ( ν) named after Simeon Poisson, is the ratio of the relative contraction strain, or transverse strain (normal to 31
Mohs hardness4. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various Minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material 0
Vickers hardness638 MPa
Brinell hardness700 MPa
CAS registry number7440-02-0
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of nickel
isoNAhalf-lifeDMDE (MeV)DP
56Nisyn6.075 dε-56Co
58Ni68. 077%58Ni is stable with 30 neutrons
59Nisyn76000 yε-59Co
61Ni1. Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not Radioactive (to current knowledge This article is a discussion of neutrons in general For the specific case of a neutron found outside the nucleus see Free neutron. 14%61Ni is stable with 33 neutrons
62Ni3. Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not Radioactive (to current knowledge This article is a discussion of neutrons in general For the specific case of a neutron found outside the nucleus see Free neutron. 634%62Ni is stable with 34 neutrons
64Ni0. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 926%64Ni is stable with 36 neutrons
References
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Nickel (pronounced /ˈnɪkəl/) is a metallic chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not Radioactive (to current knowledge This article is a discussion of neutrons in general For the specific case of a neutron found outside the nucleus see Free neutron. Recommended values for many properties of the elements together with various references are collected on these data pages A chemical element is a type of Atom that is distinguished by its Atomic number; that is by the number of Protons in its nucleus. See also List of elements by atomic number In Chemistry and Physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton

## Characteristics

Nickel

Nickel is a silvery-white metal that takes on a high polish. The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across It belongs to the transition metals, and is hard and ductile. Ductility is a mechanical property used to describe the extent to which materials can be deformed plastically or "stretched" into "wires" without It occurs most usually in combination with sulfur and iron in pentlandite, with sulfur in millerite, with arsenic in the mineral nickeline, and with arsenic and sulfur in nickel glance. Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Pentlandite is an Iron - Nickel sulfide ( Fe, Ni)9 S 8 Pentlandite usually has a NiFe ratio of close to 11 Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Millerite is a Nickel Sulfide Mineral, NiS It is brassy in colour and has an acicular habit often forming radiating masses and furry aggregates Arsenic (ˈɑrsənɪk is a Chemical element that has the symbol As and Atomic number of 33 Nickeline or niccolite is a Mineral consisting of Nickel Arsenide, NiAs containing 43 Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 [1][2][3]

Similar to the massive forms of chromium, aluminium and titanium, nickel is a very reactive element, but is slow to react in air at normal temperatures and pressures. Chromium (ˈkroʊmiəm is a Chemical element which has the symbol Cr and Atomic number 24 WikipediaNaming Titanium (taɪˈteɪniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Ti and Atomic number 22 Due to its permanence in air and its inertness to oxidation, it is used in coins, for plating iron, brass, etc. Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Brass is any Alloy of Copper and Zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties , for chemical apparatus, and in certain alloys, such as German silver. Nickel silver is a metal Alloy of Copper with Nickel and often but not always Zinc.

Nickel is magnetic, and is very often accompanied by cobalt, both being found in meteoric iron. Cobalt (ˈkoʊbɒlt is a hard lustrous silver-grey Metal, a Chemical element with symbol Co. It is chiefly valuable for the alloys it forms, especially many superalloys, and particularly stainless steel. An alloy is a Solid solution or Homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a Metal, which itself has A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an Alloy that exhibits excellent mechanical strength and creep resistance at high temperatures good surface In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11 Nickel is also a naturally magnetostrictive material, meaning that in the presence of a magnetic field, the material undergoes a small change in length. In Physics, a magnetic field is a Vector field that permeates space and which can exert a magnetic force on moving Electric charges [4] In the case of Nickel, this change in length is negative (contraction of the material), which is known as negative magnetostriction. Magnetostriction is a property of Ferromagnetic materials that causes them to change their shape when subjected to a Magnetic field.

The most common oxidation state of nickel is +2, though 0, +1, +3 and +4 Ni complexes are observed. In Chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of Oxidation of an Atom in a Chemical compound. It is also thought that a +6 oxidation state may exist, however, results are inconclusive.

The unit cell of nickel is a face centered cube with a lattice parameter of 0. 352 nm giving a radius of the atom of 0. 125 nm. [5]

Nickel-62 is the most stable nuclide of all the existing elements; it is more stable even than Iron-56. Nickel-62 is an Isotope of Nickel with 28 Protons and 34 Neutrons It is a Stable isotope, and in fact has the highest Nuclear Iron-56 is the most common Isotope of Iron. About 91754% of all iron is iron-56

## History

The use of nickel is ancient, and can be traced back as far as 20 BC. Bronzes from what is now Syria had a nickel content of up to 100%. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Further, there are Chinese manuscripts suggesting that "white copper" (i. Cupronickel or Coppernickel is an Alloy of Copper, Nickel and strengthening impurities such as Iron and Manganese. e. baitung) was used in the Orient between 1700 and 1400 BC. However, because the ores of nickel were easily mistaken for ores of silver, any understanding of this metal and its use dates to more contemporary times. Nickel is used today as common household utensils, such as silverware.

Minerals containing nickel (e. g. kupfernickel, meaning ("Nick"), or false copper) were of value for colouring glass green. In 1751, Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt was attempting to extract copper from kupfernickel (now called niccolite), and obtained instead a white metal that he called nickel. Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1722 – 1765 was a Swedish Chemist who discovered Nickel in 1751 he was a mining expert with the Bureau of Mines

In the United States, the term "nickel" or "nick" was originally applied to the copper-nickel Indian cent coin introduced in 1859. Later, the name designated the three-cent coin introduced in 1865, and the following year the five-cent shield nickel appropriated the designation, which has remained ever since. The United States five- cent Coin, commonly called a nickel, is a unit of Currency equaling one-twentieth or five hundredths of a Coins of pure nickel were first used in 1881 in Switzerland. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation [3]

## Occurrence

The bulk of the nickel mined comes from two types of ore deposits. An ore is a volume of rock containing components or Minerals in a mode of occurrence that renders it valuable for mining The first are laterites where the principal ore minerals are nickeliferous limonite: (Fe, Ni)O(OH) and garnierite (a hydrous nickel silicate): (Ni, Mg)3Si2O5(OH). Laterite (from the Latin word "later" meaning brick or tile is a surface formation in hot and wet tropical areas which is enriched in Iron and Aluminium Limonite is an ore consisting in a mixture of hydrated Iron(III oxide-hydroxide of varying composition Garnierite is the name for a green nickel ore which is found in pockets and fissures of weathered ultramafic rocks ( Serpentinite, Dunite, Peridotite The second are magmatic sulfide deposits where the principal ore mineral is pentlandite: (Ni, Fe)9S8. Pentlandite is an Iron - Nickel sulfide ( Fe, Ni)9 S 8 Pentlandite usually has a NiFe ratio of close to 11

Based on geophysical evidence, most of the nickel on Earth is postulated to be concentrated in the Earth's core. Geophysics, a major discipline of Earth sciences, is the study of the Earth by quantitative physical methods especially by seismic, electromagnetic The inner core of the Earth, its innermost layer as detected by seismological studies, is a primarily solid Sphere about in radius only about 70%

## Applications

Nickel is used in many industrial and consumer products, including stainless steel, magnets, coinage, and special alloys. It is also used for plating and as a green tint in glass. Nickel is pre-eminently an alloy metal, and its chief use is in the nickel steels and nickel cast irons, of which there are innumerable varieties. It is also widely used for many other alloys, such as nickel brasses and bronzes, and alloys with copper, chromium, aluminium, lead, cobalt, silver, and gold.

Nickel consumption can be summarized as: nickel steels (60%), nickel-copper alloys and nickel silver (14%), malleable nickel, nickel clad, Inconel and other Superalloys (9%), plating (6%), nickel cast irons (3%), heat and electric resistance alloys, such as Nichrome (3%), nickel brasses and bronzes (2%), others (3%). Nickel silver is a metal Alloy of Copper with Nickel and often but not always Zinc. A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an Alloy that exhibits excellent mechanical strength and creep resistance at high temperatures good surface Nichrome is a brand name for a nickel-chromium resistance wire a non-magnetic Alloy of Nickel and Chromium.

In the laboratory, nickel is frequently used as a catalyst for hydrogenation, most often using Raney nickel, a finely divided form of the metal. Hydrogenation is the Chemical reaction that results in addition of Hydrogen (H2 Raney nickel (ˈreɪniː ˈnɪkəl is a solid Catalyst composed of fine grains of a Nickel - Aluminium Alloy, used in many industrial processes

Nickel has also been often used in coins, or occasionally as a substitute for decorative silver. Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen The American 'nickel' five-cent coin is 75% copper. The United States five- cent Coin, commonly called a nickel, is a unit of Currency equaling one-twentieth or five hundredths of a Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 The Canadian nickel minted at various periods between 1922-81 was 99. The Canadian five-cent coin, commonly called a Nickel, is a coin worth five cents or one-twentieth of a Canadian dollar. 9% nickel, and was magnetic.

## Extraction and purification

Nickel output in 2005

Nickel is recovered by extractive metallurgy. Extractive Metallurgy is the practice of extracting Metal from Ore, purifying it and recycling it Most sulfide ores have traditionally been processed using pyrometallurgical techniques to produce a matte for further refining. Pyrometallurgy is a branch of Extractive metallurgy. It consists of the thermal treatment of minerals and metallurgical ores and concentrates to bring about physical and chemical Matte is a term used in the field of Pyrometallurgy given to the molten metal Sulfide phases typically formed during Smelting of Copper, Recent advances in hydrometallurgy have resulted in recent nickel processing operations being developed using these processes. Hydrometallurgy is part of the field of Extractive metallurgy involving the use of Aqueous chemistry for the recovery of metals from ores concentrates and recycled Most sulfide deposits have traditionally been processed by concentration through a froth flotation process followed by pyrometallurgical extraction. Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating Minerals from Gangue by taking advantage of differences in their Hydrophobicity. Pyrometallurgy is a branch of Extractive metallurgy. It consists of the thermal treatment of minerals and metallurgical ores and concentrates to bring about physical and chemical Recent advances in hydrometallurgical processing of sulfides has led to some recent projects being built around this technology.

Nickel is extracted from its ores by conventional roasting and reduction processes which yield a metal of >75% purity. Final purification of nickel oxides is performed via the Mond process, which upgrades the nickel concentrate to >99. The Mond Process, sometimes known as the Carbonyl Process is a technique created by Ludwig Mond in 1899 to extract and purify Nickel. 99% purity. This process was patented by L. Mond and was used in South Wales in the 20th century. Nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide at around 50 °C to form volatile nickel carbonyl. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. In Organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a Functional group composed of a Carbon Atom double-bonded to an Oxygen Any impurities remain solid. The nickel carbonyl gas is passed into a large chamber at high temperatures in which tens of thousands of nickel spheres are maintained in constant motion. The nickel carbonyl decomposes depositing pure nickel onto the nickel spheres (known as pellets). Nickel carbonyl ( IUPAC name tetracarbonylnickel) is a colorless Organometallic complex that is a versatile reagent first described in Alternatively, the nickel carbonyl may be decomposed in a smaller chamber at 230 degrees Celsius to create fine powders. The resultant carbon monoxide is re-circulated through the process. The highly pure nickel produced by this process is known as carbonyl nickel. A second common form of refining involves the leaching of the metal matte followed by the electro-winning of the nickel from solution by plating it onto a cathode. In many stainless steel applications, the nickel can be taken directly in the 75% purity form, depending on the presence of any impurities. In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11

Nickel sulfide ores undergo flotation (differential flotation if Ni/Fe ratio is too low) and then get smelted. Smelting a nickel sulfide flotation concentrate requires a MgO level of <6% otherwise the temperature at which the smelting will be run at will be too high and lead to higher operating costs. After producing the nickel matte, further processing is done via the Sherrit-Gowden process. First copper is removed by adding hydrogen sulfide, leaving a concentrate of only cobalt and nickel. Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the Chemical compound with the formula H 2 S. Solvent extration then efficiently separates the cobalt and nickel, with the final nickel concentrate >99%.

In 2005, Russia was the largest producer of nickel with about one-fifth world share closely followed by Canada, Australia and Indonesia, as reported by the British Geological Survey. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The British Geological Survey (BGS is a partly publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its Continental

## Compounds

• Kamacite is a naturally occurring alloy of iron and nickel, usually in the proportion of 90:10 to 95:5 although impurities such as cobalt or carbon may be present. Kamacite is a Mineral. It is an Alloy of Iron and Nickel, usually in the proportions of 9010 to 955 although impurities such as Cobalt An alloy is a Solid solution or Homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a Metal, which itself has Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Cobalt (ˈkoʊbɒlt is a hard lustrous silver-grey Metal, a Chemical element with symbol Co. Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Kamacite occurs in nickel-iron meteorites.

## Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of nickel

Naturally occurring nickel is composed of 5 stable isotopes; 58Ni, 60Ni, 61Ni, 62Ni and 64Ni with 58Ni being the most abundant (68. Naturally occurring Nickel ( Ni) is composed of 5 stable Isotopes 58Ni 60Ni 61Ni 62Ni and 64Ni Isotopes (Greek isos = "equal" tópos = "site place" are any of the different types of atoms ( Nuclides 077% natural abundance). In Chemistry, natural abundance (NA refers to the abundance Isotopes of a Chemical element as naturally found on a planet 18 radioisotopes have been characterised with the most stable being 59Ni with a half-life of 76,000 years, 63Ni with a half-life of 100. A radionuclide is an Atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created Half-Life (computer-game page here It's already listed in the disambiguation page 1 years, and 56Ni with a half-life of 6. 077 days. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 60 hours and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 30 seconds. Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. This element also has 1 meta state. A nuclear isomer is a Metastable state of an Atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its Nucleons A nuclear isomer occupies

Nickel-56 is produced in large quantities in type Ia supernovae and the shape of the light curve of these supernovae corresponds to the decay via beta radiation of nickel-56 to cobalt-56 and then to iron-56. A supernova (plural supernovae or supernovas) is a stellar Explosion. In Astronomy, a light curve is a graph of light intensity of a Celestial object or region as a function of time Beta particles are high-energy high-speed Electrons or Positrons emitted by certain types of Radioactive nuclei such as Potassium -40 Cobalt (ˈkoʊbɒlt is a hard lustrous silver-grey Metal, a Chemical element with symbol Co. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26

Nickel-59 is a long-lived cosmogenic radionuclide with a half-life of 76,000 years. Environmental Radioactivity is the study of radioactive materials in the Human environment. A radionuclide is an Atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created 59Ni has found many applications in isotope geology. Isotope geochemistry is an aspect of Geology based upon study of the relative and absolute concentrations of the elements and their Isotopes in the 59Ni has been used to date the terrestrial age of meteorites and to determine abundances of extraterrestrial dust in ice and sediment. A meteorite is a natural object originating in Outer space that survives an impact with the Earth 's surface Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of

Nickel-60 is the daughter product of the extinct radionuclide 60Fe (half-life = 1. 5 Myr). Because the extinct radionuclide 60Fe had such a long half-life, its persistence in materials in the solar system at high enough concentrations may have generated observable variations in the isotopic composition of 60Ni. The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity. Therefore, the abundance of 60Ni present in extraterrestrial material may provide insight into the origin of the solar system and its early history.

Nickel-62 has the highest binding energy per nucleon of any isotope for any element (8. Nickel-62 is an Isotope of Nickel with 28 Protons and 34 Neutrons It is a Stable isotope, and in fact has the highest Nuclear Binding energy is the Mechanical energy required to disassemble a whole into separate parts 7946 Mev/nucleon). [6] Isotopes heavier than 62Ni cannot be formed by nuclear fusion without losing energy. In Physics and Nuclear chemistry, nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple- like charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus

Nickel-48, discovered in 1999, is the most proton-rich heavy element isotope known . With 28 protons and 20 neutrons 48Ni is "doubly magic" (like 208Pb) and therefore unusually stable [7]. The proton ( Greek πρῶτον / proton "first" is a Subatomic particle with an Electric charge of one positive This article is a discussion of neutrons in general For the specific case of a neutron found outside the nucleus see Free neutron. In Nuclear physics, a magic number is a number of Nucleons (either Protons or Neutrons such that they are arranged into complete shells Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly

The isotopes of nickel range in atomic weight from 48 u (48-Ni) to 78 u (78-Ni). The atomic mass (ma is the Mass of an atom most often expressed in unified atomic mass units The atomic mass may be considered to be the total mass The unified atomic mass unit ( u) or Dalton ( Da) or sometimes universal mass unit, is an unit of Mass used to express Nickel-78's half-life was recently measured to be 110 milliseconds and is believed to be an important isotope involved in supernova nucleosynthesis of elements heavier than iron. Supernova nucleosynthesis is the production of new Chemical elements inside Supernovae It occurs primarily due to explosive Nucleosynthesis during explosive [4]

## Biological role

Nickel plays numerous roles in the biology of microorganisms and plants, though they were not recognized until the 1970s. In fact urease (an enzyme which assists in the hydrolysis of urea) contains nickel. Urease ( is an Enzyme that catalyzes the Hydrolysis of Urea into Carbon dioxide and Ammonia. Urea is an Organic compound with the Chemical formula ( N[[hydrogen H]]22 C[[oxygen O]] The NiFe-hydrogenases contain nickel in addition to iron-sulfur clusters. A hydrogenase is an Enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular Hydrogen (H2 For biological Fe-S clusters see Iron-sulfur proteins Iron-sulfur clusters are ensembles of Iron and Sulfide centres Such [NiFe]-hydrogenases characteristically oxidise H2. A nickel-tetrapyrrole coenzyme, F430, is present in the methyl coenzyme M reductase which powers methanogenic archaea. F430 is the Prosthetic group of the Enzyme Methyl Coenzyme M is a Coenzyme required for methyl-transfer reactions in the Metabolism of Methanogens The coenzyme is an Anion with the formula HSCH2CH2SO3- Methanogens are Archaea that produce Methane as a Metabolic byproduct in Anoxic conditions One of the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase enzymes consists of an Fe-Ni-S cluster. [8] Other nickel-containing enzymes include a class of superoxide dismutase[9] and a glyoxalase. The enzyme superoxide dismutase ( SOD,) catalyzes the Dismutation of Superoxide into Oxygen and Hydrogen peroxide. The glyoxalase system is a set of enzymes that carry out the Detoxification of Methylglyoxal and the other reactive Aldehydes that are produced as a normal [10]

## Precautions

Exposure to nickel metal and soluble compounds should not exceed 0. 05 mg/cm³ in nickel equivalents per 40-hour work week. Nickel sulfide fume and dust is believed to be carcinogenic, and various other nickel compounds may be as well. The term carcinogen refers to any substance Radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of Cancer or in the fatation of its propagation [11][12] Nickel carbonyl, [Ni(CO)4], is an extremely toxic gas. Nickel carbonyl ( IUPAC name tetracarbonylnickel) is a colorless Organometallic complex that is a versatile reagent first described in The toxicity of metal carbonyls is a function of both the toxicity of a metal as well as the carbonyl's ability to give off highly toxic carbon monoxide gas, and this one is no exception. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. It is explosive in air.

Sensitized individuals may show an allergy to nickel affecting their skin, also known as dermatitis. Sensitization is an example of non-associative Learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus (Bell Allergy is a disorder of the Immune system often also referred to as Atopy. Dermatitis is a Blanket term meaning any " Inflammation of the skin" (e Nickel is an important cause of contact allergy, partly due to its use in jewelry intended for pierced ears. Earrings are jewelry attached to the ear through a piercing in the Earlobe or some other external part of the ear (except in the case of clip earrings [13] Nickel allergies affecting pierced ears are often marked by itchy, red skin. Earrings are jewelry attached to the ear through a piercing in the Earlobe or some other external part of the ear (except in the case of clip earrings Many earrings are now made nickel-free due to this problem. The amount of nickel which is allowed in products which come into contact with human skin is regulated by the European Union. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in In 2002 researchers found amounts of nickel being emitted by 1 and 2 Euro coins far in excess of those standards. Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e This is believed to be due to a galvanic reaction. [14]

## Metal Value

As of April 5, 2007 nickel was trading at $52,300 US/mt ($52. Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton. 30 US/kg, $23. 51 US/lb or$1. 47 US/oz), [5] [6]. Interestingly, the US nickel coin contains 0. The United States five- cent Coin, commonly called a nickel, is a unit of Currency equaling one-twentieth or five hundredths of a 04 oz (1. 25 g) of nickel, which at this new price is worth 6. 5 cents, along with 3. 75 grams of copper worth about 3 cents, making the metal value over 9 cents. Since a nickel is worth 5 cents, this made it an attractive target for melting by people wanting to sell the metals at a profit. However, the United States Mint, in anticipation of this practice, implemented new interim rules on December 14, 2006, subject to public comment for 30 days, which criminalize the melting and export of cents and nickels. The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its Trade and Commerce. Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. [7] Violators can be punished with a fine of up to US\$10,000 and/or imprisoned for a maximum of five years.

At current use rates, the supply of nickel is predicted to run out in 90 years. [15]

## References

1. ^ Los Alamos National Laboratory – Nickel
2. ^ National Pollutant Inventory - Nickel and compounds Fact Sheet
3. ^ High nickel release from 1- and 2-euro coins (Nature Abstract)
4. ^ UCLA - Magnetostrictive Materials Overview
5. ^ Callister, William D. Nature is a prominent Scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869 An abstract is a brief summary of a research article Thesis, review conference proceeding or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject or discipline (2007). Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 7th edition, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-73696-7.
6. ^ The Most Tightly Bound Nuclei
7. ^ W. , P. (October 23, 1999). Twice-magic metal makes its debut - isotope of nickel. Science News. Science News is an American bi-weekly Magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments typically gleaned from recent scientific Retrieved on 2006-09-29. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire.
8. ^ Jaouen, G. , Ed. Bioorganometallics: Biomolecules, Labeling, Medicine; Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, 2006
9. ^ Szilagyi, R. K. Bryngelson, P. A. ; Maroney, M. J. ; Hedman, B. ; Hodgson, K. O. ; Solomon, E. I. "S K-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic Investigation of the Ni-Containing Superoxide Dismutase Active Site: New Structural Insight into the Mechanism" Journal of the American Chemical Society 2004, volume 126, 3018-3019.
10. ^ Thornalley, P. J. , "Glyoxalase I--structure, function and a critical role in the enzymatic defence against glycation", Biochemical Society Transactions, 2003, 31, 1343-8.
11. ^ KS Kasprzak, FW Sunderman Jr, K Salnikow. Nickel carcinogenesis. Mutation Research. 2003 Dec 10;533(1-2):67-97. PubMed
12. ^ JK Dunnick, MR Elwell, AE Radovsky, JM Benson, FF Hahn, KJ Nikula, EB Barr, CH Hobbs. Comparative Carcinogenic Effects of Nickel Subsulfide, Nickel Oxide, or Nickel Sulfate Hexahydrate Chronic Exposures in the Lung. Cancer Research. 1995 Nov 15;55(22):5251-6. PubMed
13. ^ Thyssen JP, Linneberg A, Menné T, Johansen JD (2007). "The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population—prevalence and main findings". Contact Dermatitis 57 (5): 287–99. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.2007.01220.x. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. PMID 17937743.
14. ^ O Nestle, H Speidel, MO Speidel. High nickel release from 1- and 2-euro coins. Nature. 419, 132 (12 September 2002). free abstract
15. ^ "How Long Will it Last?" (May 26, 2007). Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. New Scientist 194 (2605): 38-39. ISSN 0262-4079. An International Standard Serial Number ( ISSN) is a unique eight-digit number used to identify a print or electronic Periodical publication.