|Language extinction:||developed into Recent Latin by the 20th century|
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. According to some definitions an extinct language is a Language which no longer has any speakers, whereas a dead language is a language which is no longer spoken List of language familiesA language family is a group of Languages related by descent from a common ancestor called the Proto-language of that family The Italic subfamily is a member of the Indo-European language family's Centum branch The Latino-Faliscan languages are a group of languages that belong to the Italic language family of the Indo-European languages. ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages ISO 639 -3 (ISO 639-32007 is an international standard for Language codes The standard describes three‐letter codes for identifying languages In Computing, Unicode is an Industry standard allowing Computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world's |
New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, used approximately in the period 1600–1900. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
Classicists use the term "Neo-Latin" to describe the use of the Latin language for any purpose, scientific or literary, after the Renaissance (for which purpose they often use the date 1600), although, for example, the editors of I Tatti Renaissance Library call their Renaissance Latin language texts Neo-Latin as well. "Classical literature" redirects here For literature in Classical languages outside the Graeco-Roman sphere see Ancient literature. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere The I Tatti Renaissance Library is a book series published by the Harvard University Press, which aims to present important works Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to fifteenth centuries particularly The end of the New Latin period is unspecified, but Latin as a regular vehicle of communicating ideas became rare after the first few decades of the 19th century, and by 1900 it survived primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. International Scientific Vocabulary (or ISV) is a form of vocabulary comprising scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain but which Cladistics is the hierarchical classification of Species based on evolutionary ancestry Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of Life on the planet Earth both past and present and the relationships among living things through time The term "New Latin" came into widespread use towards the end of the 1890s among linguists and scientists. The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the " Mauve Decade" because William Henry Perkin 's aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields A scientist, in the broadest sense refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire Knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices
At the beginning of the period, Latin was a universal school subject, and indeed, the pre-eminent subject for elementary education in Western Europe and those places which shared its culture. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Primary education is the first stage of Compulsory education. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' All universities required Latin proficiency (obtained in local grammar schools) to obtain admittance as a student. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects
New Latin was, at least in its early days, an international language used throughout Catholic and Protestant Europe, as well as in the colonies of the major European powers. As an auxiliary language to the local vernaculars, it appeared in a wide variety of documents, ecclesiastical, legal, diplomatic, academic, and scientific. While a text written in English, French, or Spanish at this time might be understood by a significant cross section of the learned, only a Latin text could be certain of finding someone to interpret it anywhere between Lisbon and Helsinki.
Notable scientific works in New Latin since 1600
- 1600. De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus et de Magno Magnete Tellure by William Gilbert. De Magnete Magneticisque Corporibus et de Magno Magnete Tellure ( On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies and on That Great Magnet the Earth) is a scientific William Gilbert, also known as Gilbard ( Colchester, England, May 24, 1544 &ndash London, England, November 30
- 1609. Astronomia nova by Johannes Kepler. Johannes Kepler 's Astronomia nova, published in 1609 contains the results of the astronomer's ten-year long investigation of the motion of Mars Johannes Kepler (ˈkɛplɚ ( December 27 1571 &ndash November 15 1630) was a German Mathematician, Astronomer
- 1610. Sidereus Nuncius by Galileo Galilei. Sidereus Nuncius (usually translated into English as Sidereal Messenger, although Starry Messenger and Sidereal Message are Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher
- 1620. Novum Organum by Francis Bacon. The Novum Organum is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon published in 1620. Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban KC QC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626 was an English Philosopher, Statesman, and author 
- 1628. Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus by William Harvey. Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, (An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Living Beings is the best-known work of the physician William Harvey ( April 1, 1578 – June 3, 1657) was an English Physician who is credited with being the first in 
- 1659. Systema Saturnium by Christiaan Huygens. Christiaan Huygens (ˈhaɪgənz in English ˈhœyɣəns in Dutch) ( April 14, 1629 &ndash July 8, 1695) was a Dutch
- 1673. Horologium Oscillatorium by Christiaan Huygens. Christiaan Huygens (ˈhaɪgənz in English ˈhœyɣəns in Dutch) ( April 14, 1629 &ndash July 8, 1695) was a Dutch Also at Gallica.
- 1687. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton. The Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ( Latin: "mathematical principles of natural philosophy" often Principia Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements 
- 1703. Hortus Malabaricus by Hendrik van Rheede. Hortus Malabaricus (meaning Garden of Malabar) is a comprehensive treatise that deals with the medicinal properties of the flora in the Indian Hendrik Adriaan van Rheede tot Draakenstein (1636 Utrecht - Dec 15 1691, off the coast of Bombay) was a Dutch traveller and naturalist
- 1735. Systema Naturae by Carolus Linnaeus. The book Systema Naturae was one of the major works of the Swedish doctor of medicine Carolus Linnaeus. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for
- 1737. Mechanica sive motus scientia analytice exposita by Leonhard Euler.
- 1738. Hydrodynamica, sive de viribus et motibus fluidorum commentarii by Daniel Bernoulli. Daniel Bernoulli ( Groningen, 29 January 1700 &ndash 27 July 1782 was a Dutch - Swiss Mathematician, who is particularly remembered for his applications
- 1748. Introductio in analysin infinitorum by Leonhard Euler
- 1753. Species Plantarum by Carolus Linnaeus. Species Plantarum ("The Species of Plants" was first published in 1753, as a two-volume work by Carl Linnaeus. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for
- 1758. Systema Naturae (10th ed. The book Systema Naturae was one of the major works of the Swedish doctor of medicine Carolus Linnaeus. ) by Carolus Linnaeus.
- 1801. Disquisitiones Arithmeticae by Carl Gauss. The Disquisitiones Arithmeticae is a textbook of Number theory written by German Mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1798 Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (ˈɡaʊs, Gauß Carolus Fridericus Gauss ( 30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German
- 1810. Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen by Robert Brown. Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen (Prodromus of the Flora of New Holland and Van Diemen's Land) is an 1810 Flora of Robert Brown FRS ( 21 December, 1773 &ndash 10 June, 1858) was a Scottish scientist who is acknowledged as the leading botanist 
- 1840. Flora Brasiliensis by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius. Flora Brasiliensis is a book published between 1840 and 1906 by the editors Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, August Wilhelm Eichler, Ignatz Urban Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius ( April 17, 1794 &ndash December 13, 1868 Munich) was a German Botanist and 
Other notable works in Neo-Latin include:
- 1602. Cenodoxus, a play by Jacob Bidermann. Jacob Bidermann (1578-1627 was born in the village of Ehingen, about 30 miles southwest of Ulm.
- 1608. Parthenica, two books of poetry by Elizabeth Jane Weston. Elizabeth Jane Weston (1581 – 1612 also known as Westonia was born to Jane Cooper in Chipping Norton Oxfordshire, England
- 1621. Argenis, a novel by John Barclay
- 1625. John Barclay ( January 28, 1582 &mdash August 15, 1621) was a Scottish Satirist and Neo-Latin Poet De Jure Belli ac Pacis by Hugo Grotius. Hugo Grotius or Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; ( Delft, 10 April 1583 Rostock, 28 August 1645 (Posner Collection facsimile; Gallica facsimile)
- 1641. Meditationes de prima philosophia by René Descartes. (The Latin, French and English by John Veitch.)
- 1642-1658. Elementa Philosophica by Thomas Hobbes. Thomas Hobbes (born 5 April 1588died 4 December 1679 was an English philosopher, whose famous 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation
- 1670. Tractatus Theologico-Politicus by Baruch Spinoza. Written by the philosopher and Pantheist Baruch Spinoza, the Theologico-Political Treatise or Tractatus Theologico-Politicus Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (ברוך שפינוזה Bento de Espinosa Benedictus de Spinoza ( November 24, 1632 – February 21,
- 1725. Gradus ad Parnassum by Johann Joseph Fux. Johann Joseph Fux ( pronounced) (1660 &ndash 13 February 1741 was an Austrian composer music theorist and pedagogue of the late Baroque era An influential treatise on musical counterpoint.
- 1767. Apollo et Hyacinthus, intermezzo by Rufinus Widl (with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart). In Music, an intermezzo (pl intermezzi in the most general sense is a composition which fits between other musical or dramatic entities such as acts of a play or movements
Latin in this period came to be regarded as a medium for "serious" and learned expression; this view left little room for the use of Latin as a literary medium, for poetry, or for creative fiction (outside of translations made by ethnographers and folklorists). One of the last writers of any significant literary reputation to have written a large body of purely literary work in Latin was John Milton, better known for his English poetry. John Milton ( 9 December, 1608 – 8 November, 1674) was an English Poet, Prose Polemicist and However, some lighter pieces were produced in Neo-Latin, for instance Johannes Kepler's scientific fantasy Somnium (1634) and Ludvig Holberg's satire Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum (1741) . Johannes Kepler (ˈkɛplɚ ( December 27 1571 &ndash November 15 1630) was a German Mathematician, Astronomer Somnium ( Latin for The Dream) is a fantasy written between 1620 and 1630 by Johannes Kepler in which a student of Tycho Brahe is transported Ludvig Holberg Baron of Holberg ( December 3, 1684 – January 28, 1754) was a writer essayist philosopher historian and playwright born in
Other, later, authors, including Max Beerbohm and Arthur Rimbaud, have written Latin verse, but these texts have been either school exercises or occasional pieces. Sir Henry Maximilian Beerbohm ( August 24, 1872 &ndash May 20, 1956) was an English parodist and caricaturist. "Rimbaud" redirects here For other uses see Rimbaud (disambiguation Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (ræm'boʊ or in French aʁtyʁ
The reasons for the abandonment of Latin as the primary international intellectual language varied, and it is difficult to pinpoint a single cause, especially since there was no sharp cutoff, but rather a slow diminuendo occupying the greater part of the 18th and 19th centuries.
Although Latin was supreme as an international language in the 17th century, in the early decades of the 18th century its place as a language of international diplomacy came to be taken by French, due to the commanding presence in Europe of the France of Louis XIV. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent At the same time, some (like King Frederick William I of Prussia) were dismissing Latin as a useless accomplishment, unfit for a man of practical affairs. Frederick William I (Friedrich Wilhelm I ( August 14, 1688 &ndash May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King As the 18th century progressed, the extensive literature in Latin being produced at the beginning slowly contracted, until by 1800 it was only a trickle.
Nonetheless, Latin held a place of educational pre-eminence until the second half of the nineteenth century, when its value was increasingly questioned; in the twentieth century, educational philosophies such as that of John Dewey dismissed its relevance. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose process nature and ideals of Education. John Dewey (October 20 1859 &ndash June 1 1952 was an American Philosopher, Psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have Nevertheless, throughout this period Ecclesiastical Latin continued to maintain its position of pre-eminence in the Roman Catholic Church. Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) is the Latin dialect as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies
Among the possible causes of the final abandonment of Latin as the primary international intellectual language were:
- The growth of romantic nationalism in the aftermath of the French Revolution, and the consequent increase in emphasis on local traditions and languages. Romantic nationalism (also National Romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of Nationalism in which the state derives
- The greater prominence given to scientific over humanistic subjects, including Latin (despite the fact that many of the foundational scientific texts were written in Latin).
- The growth of a feeling that Latin was esoteric and irrelevant, and that international communication would be better served by learning foreign languages directly, than by using an auxiliary medium such as Latin. The later 19th century, however, felt the absence of Latin as an auxiliary language, and such languages as Volapük and Esperanto were invented to fill the gap. Volapük (volaˈpyk or ˈvɒləpʊk in English is a Constructed language, created in 1879-1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest is by far the most widely spoken constructed International auxiliary language in the world
- The increasing classical emphasis of Latin classes, whose texts, vocabulary, and grammar were (and are) drawn almost exclusively from the Roman period, and which placed little value on the ability to write about contemporary subjects in Latin.
With attempts to bring non-classical vocabulary into Latin condemned as barbarous, and the natural tendency of amateur Latin writers to approximate the syntax and style of their native tongue condemned as solecism, it was easier for writers to use their own languages and avoid condemnation for imperfect Latin. Disappointment with the levels of proficiency achieved in Latin by education was a frequently expressed theme. This perceived level of failure was in fact related to the exclusive teaching of classical Latin as an object of antiquarian study, and the use of classical norms rather than looser or contemporary usage as the standard to which written and spoken Latin should aspire. An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with Antiquities or things of the past As Latin came to be less used outside the schoolroom, many Latin students went on to forget most of the Latin they had once known.
Among the lasting inheritances of New Latin is the system of binomial nomenclature and classification of living organisms devised by Carolus Linnaeus; the need for apt names within an (at least superficially) Latin structure continues to drive the development of new Latin or quasi-Latin vocabulary today. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for  Another continuation is the use of Latin names for the surface features of planets and planetary satellites (planetary nomenclature), originated in the mid-17th century for selenographic toponyms. Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature is a system of uniquely identifying features on the surface of a Planet or Natural satellite so that the features Selenography is the study of the surface and physical features of the Moon.
- IJsewijn, Jozef with Dirk Sacré. Companion to Neo-Latin Studies. 2 vols. Leuven University Press, 1990-1998.
- Waquet, Françoise, Latin, or the Empire of a Sign: From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries (Verso, 2003) ISBN 1-85984-402-2; translated from the French by John Howe. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar.
- ^ For instance, the scientific name of the shearwater genus Puffinus is a New Latin loanword derived from the English term "puffin" for some entirely unrelated seabirds. Shearwaters are medium-sized long-winged Seabirds There are more than 20 Species of shearwaters a few larger ones in the genus Calonectris A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic Puffinus is a Genus of Seabirds in the order Procellariiformes A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one Language from another with little or no translation English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Puffin describes any of four Auk species (or alcids) in the Bird genus Fratercula (Latin little brother — probably a reference Seabirds are Birds that have adapted to life within the marine environment Puffinus shearwaters were usually called mergus in Classical Latin. This was a catchall term for seabirds, which in New Latin became the genus name for another unrelated group of birds. Mergus is the Genus of the typical mergansers, fish-eating Ducks in the Seaduck subfamily (Merginae
Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Old Latin (also called Early Latin or Archaic Latin) refers to the Latin language in the period before the age of Classical Latin; that is all Classical Latin is the form of the Latin language used by the ancient Romans in what is usually regarded as "classical" Latin literature. Vulgar Latin (in Latin sermo vulgaris, "folk speech" is a Blanket term covering the popular Dialects and Sociolects of the Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the Liturgical language of the medieval Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to fifteenth centuries particularly Latin is a member of the family of Italic languages, and its alphabet the Latin alphabet, emerged from the Old Italic alphabets which Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language remains an enduring legacy of the culture of Ancient Rome. Vulgar Latin (in Latin sermo vulgaris, "folk speech" is a Blanket term covering the popular Dialects and Sociolects of the Latin Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) is the Latin dialect as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum ( CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin Inscriptions It forms an authoritative source© 2009 citizendia.org; parts available under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License, from http://en.wikipedia.org
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