Neutralization is a chemical reaction, also called a water forming reaction, in which an acid and a base or alkali (soluble base) react and produce a salt and water solution (H2O). A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the interconversion of Chemical substances The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are In Chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of as an aqueous substance that can accept Protons This refers to the Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In other words, it can be said that neutralization is the combination of hydrogen ions H+ and hydroxide ions OH− (or oxide ions O2−) to form water molecule H2O. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 An ion is an Atom or Molecule which has lost or gained one or more Valence electrons giving it a positive or negative electrical charge In Chemistry, hydroxide is the most common name for the diatomic Anion OH− consisting of Oxygen and Hydrogen An ion is an Atom or Molecule which has lost or gained one or more Valence electrons giving it a positive or negative electrical charge An oxide is a Chemical compound containing at least one Oxygen atom as well as at least one other element An ion is an Atom or Molecule which has lost or gained one or more Valence electrons giving it a positive or negative electrical charge Water ( H2[[oxygen O]] H OH) is the most abundant Molecule on Earth 's surface composing of about 70% of the Earth's surface as In the process, a salt is formed. Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants In the process of neutralization a proton (usually hydrogen) is transferred. The proton ( Greek πρῶτον / proton "first" is a Subatomic particle with an Electric charge of one positive Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 An acid is a proton donor, while a base is a proton receiver. In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are In Chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of as an aqueous substance that can accept Protons This refers to the Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and H2O can act as either an acid or a base, depending on whether it comes in contact with an acid or a base; it takes the opposite form. Neutralization is generally exothermic, meaning it produces heat. In Thermodynamics, the word exothermic "outside heating" describes a process or reaction that releases Energy usually in the form of Heat, but In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature One example of an endothermic neutralization is that of baking soda and vinegar (or other weak acids). In Thermodynamics, the word endothermic "within-heating" describes a process or reaction that absorbs Energy in the form of Heat.
Most generally, the following occurs:
Since the HCl and NaOH dissociate into ions in solution, the ionic equation is:
And since the sodium and chloride ions are just spectator ions not involved in the reaction, the net equation becomes:
This illustrates why neutralization reactions are also referred to as water forming reactions. Of course the sodium and chloride ions are still in solution so the result is pH neutral salt water. pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a Solution.
acid + alkali = metal salt + water
acid + metal = metal salt + hydrogen
acid + metal oxide = metal salt + water
acid + metal hydroxide = metal salt + water
acid + ammonia = ammonia salt + water
acid + metal carbonate = metal salt + water + carbon dioxide
acid + metal hydrogencarbonate = metal salt + water + carbon dioxide
Chemical titration methods are used for analyzing acids or bases to determine the unknown concentration. Titration is a common laboratory method of Quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown Concentration of a known Reactant In Chemistry, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance A pH meter can be used to determine the point of neutralization or a pH indicator such as UI (universal indicator) which shows the point of neutralization by a distinct color change can be used. A pH meter is an electronic instrument used to measure the PH ( Acidity or alkalinity) of a liquid (though special probes are sometimes used to measure A pH indicator is a halochromic chemical compound that is added in small amounts to a Solution so that the PH ( Acidity or Simple stoichiometric calculations with the known volume of the unknown and the known volume and molarity of the added chemical gives the molarity of the unknown. Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry is the Calculation of Quantitative (measurable In Chemistry, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance
Excess gastric acid in the stomach (acid indigestion) is typically neutralized by the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or another neutralizing agent such as an antacid. Gastric acid is one of the main Secretions of the Stomach, together with several Enzymes and Intrinsic factor. Acid indigestion is a type of Indigestion involving an excess of Hydrochloric acid in the Stomach. Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the Chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3 An antacid is any substance generally a base or Basic salt, which counteracts stomach acidity.
Neutralization can also be used to reduce the pain of insect and plant stings. Bee stings can be neutralized with alkalis and wasps with acids. Nettle stings can be neutralized with alkalis like the one found in dock leaves.
In neutron wastewater treatment, chemical neutralization methods are often applied to reduce the damage that an effluent may cause upon release to the environment. Water treatment describes those processes used to make water more acceptable for a desired end-use For pH control, popular chemicals include Calcium Carbonate, Calcium Oxide, magnesium hydroxide, and sodium bicarbonate. Calcium carbonate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula Ca[[Carbon C]] O 3 Calcium oxide ( CaO) commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, is a widely used Chemical compound. Magnesium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH2 Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the Chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3 The selection of an appropriate neutralization chemical depends on the particular application.
Equal numbers of moles of acid and base are needed for neutralization reactions. The mole (symbol mol) is a unit of Amount of substance: it is an SI base unit, and almost the only unit to be used to measure this Hence, the formula becomes
a × [A] × Va = b × [B] × Vb
where a is the number of acidic hydrogens and b is the constant that tells you how many H3O+ ions the base can accept. [A] denotes the concentration of acid and [B], the concentration of base. Va is the volume of acid and Vb is the volume of base.
Metcalf & Eddy. Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. 526-532.