Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, propane, butane, and pentane—heavier hydrocarbons removed prior to use as a consumer fuel —as well as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. ETHANE is a mnemonic indicating a protocol used by Emergency services to report situations which they may be faced with especially as it relates to major incidents where Propane is a three- Carbon Alkane, normally a gas but compressible to a liquid that is transportable Butane, also called n -butane, is the unbranched Alkane with four Carbon Atoms CH3CH2CH2CH3 Pentane is any or one of the Organic compounds with the formula C5H12 Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the Chemical compound with the formula H 2 S.  It is found in oil fields (associated) either dissolved or isolated in natural gas fields (non associated), and in coal beds (as coalbed methane). An oil field is a region with an abundance of Oil wells extracting Petroleum (crude oil from below ground Oil and Natural gas are produced by the same geological process anaerobic Decay of Organic matter deep under the Earth's surface Coalbed methane (CBM is a form of Natural gas extracted from coal beds When methane-rich gases are produced by the anaerobic decay of non-fossil organic material, these are referred to as biogas. Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which Microorganisms break down Biodegradable material in the absence of Oxygen. An organic compound is any member of a large class of Chemical compounds whose Molecules contain Carbon. See also Natural gas, Biofuel Biogas typically refers to a Gas produced by the biological breakdown of Organic matter in the Sources of biogas include swamps, marshes, and landfills (see landfill gas), as well as sewage sludge and manure by way of anaerobic digesters, in addition to enteric fermentation particularly in cattle. A swamp is a Wetland featuring temporary or permanent inundation of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water In Geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of Wetland which is subject For other uses see Water treatment and Land reclamation. A landfill, also known as a dump (and historically as See also Natural gas, Biofuel Biogas typically refers to a Gas produced by the biological breakdown of Organic matter in the Sewage is the mainly liquid Waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water Feces, Urine, laundry waste and other SLUDGE (Scripting Language for Unhindered Development of a Gaming Environment is a open source adventure game engine developed by Hungry Software Manure is Organic matter used as Organic fertilizer in Agriculture. Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which Microorganisms break down Biodegradable material in the absence of Oxygen. Enteric fermentation is fermentation that takes place in the Digestive systems of Ruminant Animals It is one of the factors in increased Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family
Since natural gas is not a pure product, when non associated gas is extracted from a field under supercritical (pressure/temperature) conditions, it may partially condense upon isothermic depressurizing--an effect called retrograde condensation. The liquids thus formed may get trapped by depositing in the pores of the gas reservoir. One method to deal with this problem is to reinject dried gas free of condensate to maintain the underground pressure and to allow reevaporation and extraction of condensates.
Natural gas is often informally referred to as simply gas, especially when compared to other energy sources such as electricity. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo extensive processing to remove almost all materials other than methane. Natural gas processing plants or fractionators are used to purify the raw Natural gas extracted from underground gas fields and brought up to the surface by The by-products of that processing include ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, elemental sulfur, and sometimes helium and nitrogen. Pentane is any or one of the Organic compounds with the formula C5H12 Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical
The primary component of natural gas is methane (CH4), the shortest and lightest hydrocarbon molecule. Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. It often also contains heavier gaseous hydrocarbons such as ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10), as well as other sulfur containing gases, in varying amounts, see also natural gas condensate. ETHANE is a mnemonic indicating a protocol used by Emergency services to report situations which they may be faced with especially as it relates to major incidents where Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Propane is a three- Carbon Alkane, normally a gas but compressible to a liquid that is transportable Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Butane, also called n -butane, is the unbranched Alkane with four Carbon Atoms CH3CH2CH2CH3 Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Natural gas condensate is a low-density mixture of Hydrocarbon liquids that are present as gaseous components in the raw natural gas produced from many natural Gas fields Natural gas that contains hydrocarbons other than methane is called wet natural gas. Natural gas consisting only of methane is called dry natural gas. Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas.
|Component||Typical wt. %|
|Propane (C3H8) and Butane (C4H10)||< 5|
|CO2, N2, H2S, etc.||balance|
Nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide and trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide, water and odorants can also be present . Natural gas also contains and is the primary market source of helium. Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical Mercury is also present in small amounts in natural gas extracted from some fields. Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum The exact composition of natural gas varies between gas fields.
Organosulfur compounds and hydrogen sulfide are common contaminants which must be removed prior to most uses. Organosulfur compounds are Organic compounds that contain Sulfur (sulphur Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the Chemical compound with the formula H 2 S. Gas with a significant amount of sulfur impurities, such as hydrogen sulfide, is termed sour gas; gas with sulfur or carbon dioxide impurities is acid gas. Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the Chemical compound with the formula H 2 S. Sour gas is Natural gas or any other gas containing significant amounts of Hydrogen sulfide (H2S Acid gas is Natural gas or any other gas mixture which contains significant amounts of Hydrogen sulfide (H2S Carbon dioxide (CO2 Processed natural gas that is available to end-users is tasteless and odorless, however, before gas is distributed to end-users, it is odorized by adding small amounts of odorants (mixtures of t-butyl mercaptan, isopropyl mercaptanthiol, tetrahydrothiophene, dimethyl sulfide and other sulfur compounds), to assist in leak detection. An odorizer is a device that adds an odor to a gas The most common type is one that adds a smelly Mercaptan liquid into gas lines so that leaks can be easily detected and explosions In Organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a Sulfur atom and a Hydrogen atom (-SH In Organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a Sulfur atom and a Hydrogen atom (-SH For other uses of THT, see THT (disambiguation Tetrahydrothiophene is a Heterocyclic Organic compound Dimethyl sulfide (DMS or methylthiomethane is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH32S In common usage a gas leak refers to a Leak of Natural gas, from a pipe or other containment into a living area or any other area where the gas should Processed natural gas is, in itself, harmless to the human body, however, natural gas is a simple asphyxiant and can kill if it displaces air to the point where the oxygen content will not support life.
Natural gas can also be hazardous to life and property through an explosion. An explosion is a sudden increase in Volume and release of Energy in an extreme manner usually with the generation of high Temperatures and the release Natural gas is lighter than air, and so tends to escape into the atmosphere. But when natural gas is confined, such as within a house, gas concentrations can reach explosive mixtures and, if ignited, result in blasts that could destroy buildings. Methane has a lower explosive limit of 5% in air, and an upper explosive limit of 15%. Explosive concerns with compressed natural gas used in vehicles are almost non-existent, due to the escaping nature of the gas, and the need to maintain concentrations between 5% and 15% to trigger explosions.
Quantities of natural gas are measured in normal cubic meters (corresponding to 0°C at 101. Natural gas prices, as with other commodity prices are driven by Supply and demand fundamentals In Physical sciences standard conditions for temperature and pressure are Standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to allow comparisons to be made 325 kPaA) or in standard cubic feet (corresponding to 60 °F (16 °C) and 14. The Standard atmosphere is an international reference pressure defined as 101325 Pa and formerly used as unit of Pressure (symbol atm A standard cubic foot (abbreviated as scf is a measure of quantity of gas equal to a cubic foot of volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and either 14 73 PSIA). The gross heat of combustion of one normal cubic meter of commercial quality natural gas is around 39 megajoules (≈10. The higher Heating value (HHValso known as the gross calorific value or gross energy of a Fuel is defined as the amount of Heat released by a specified In Physical sciences standard conditions for temperature and pressure are Standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to allow comparisons to be made The joule (written in lower case ˈdʒuːl or /ˈdʒaʊl/ (symbol J) is the SI unit of Energy measuring heat, Electricity 8 kWh), but this can vary by several percent. In US units, one standard cubic foot of natural gas produces around 1,030 British Thermal Units (BTUs). US customary units, also known in the United States as English units or Imperial units (in reference to the British Empire) (but see English A standard cubic foot (abbreviated as scf is a measure of quantity of gas equal to a cubic foot of volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and either 14 The actual heating value when the water formed does not condense is the net heat of combustion and can be as much as 10% less. The lower heating value (also known as net calorific value, net CV, or LHV) of a Fuel is defined as the amount of Heat released 
The price of natural gas varies greatly depending on location and type of consumer. In 2007, a price of $7 per 1,000 cubic feet (28 m³) was typical in the United States. The typical caloric value of natural gas is roughly 1,000 BTU per cubic foot, depending on gas composition. This corresponds to around $7 per million BTU's, or around $7 per gigajoule. The joule (written in lower case ˈdʒuːl or /ˈdʒaʊl/ (symbol J) is the SI unit of Energy measuring heat, Electricity In April 2008, the wholesale price was $10 per 1,000 cubic feet (28 m³) ($10/MBTU) . The residential price varies from 50% to 300% more than the wholesale price. At the end of 2007, this was $12-$16 per 1000 ft3 (or MBTU) . Natural gas in the United States is traded as a futures contract on the New York Mercantile Exchange. In Finance, a futures contract is a standardized Contract, traded on a Futures exchange, to buy or sell a certain Underlying instrument The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX is the World 's largest physical Commodity Futures exchange, located in New York City. Each contract is for 10,000 MMBTU (gigajoules), or 10 billion BTU's. The joule (written in lower case ˈdʒuːl or /ˈdʒaʊl/ (symbol J) is the SI unit of Energy measuring heat, Electricity Thus, if the price of gas is $10 per million BTU's on the NYMEX, the contract is worth $100,000.
In the United States, retail sales are often in units of therms (th); 1 therm = 100,000 BTU. The therm (symbol thm) is a non- SI unit of Heat Energy equal to 100000 British thermal units (BTU Gas meters measure the volume of gas used, and this is converted to therms by multiplying the volume by the energy content of the gas used during that period, which varies slightly over time. A gas meter is used to measure the volume of Fuel gases such as Natural gas and Propane. Wholesale transactions are generally done in decatherms (Dth), or in thousand decatherms (MDth), or in million decatherms (MMDth). The therm (symbol thm) is a non- SI unit of Heat Energy equal to 100000 British thermal units (BTU A million decatherms is roughly a billion cubic feet of natural gas.
Natural gas is also traded as a commodity in Europe, principally at the United Kingdom NBP and related European hubs, such as the TTF in the Netherlands. The National Balancing Point commonly referred to as the NBP is a virtual trading location for the sale and purchase of UK Natural gas. The Title Transfer Facility more commonly known as TTF is a Virtual trading point for Natural gas in the Netherlands
In the rest of the world, LNG (liquified natural gas) and LPG (liquified petroleum gas) is traded in metric tons or mmBTU as spot deliveries. Not to be confused with Natural Gas Liquids (NGL Liquefied natural gas or LNG is Natural gas (primarily Methane, CH4 Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, or Autogas) is a mixture of Hydrocarbon Gases used as a Fuel Long term contracts are signed in metric tons. The LNG and LPG is transported by specialized transport ships, as the gas is liquified at cryogenic temperatures. An LNG carrier is a ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas ( LNG) Cryogenics is often used incorrectly to refer to Cryonics, cryopreserving humans or animals The specification of each LNG/LPG cargo will usually contain the energy content, but this information is in general not available to the public.
The image below is a schematic block flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant. Natural gas processing plants or fractionators are used to purify the raw Natural gas extracted from underground gas fields and brought up to the surface by A process flow diagram (PFD is a diagram commonly used in chemical and Process engineering to indicate the general flow of plant processes and equipment It shows the various unit processes used to convert raw natural gas into sales gas pipelined to the end user markets.
The block flow diagram also shows how processing of the raw natural gas yields byproduct sulfur, byproduct ethane, and natural gas liquids (NGL) propane, butanes and natural gasoline (denoted as pentanes +). Pentane is any or one of the Organic compounds with the formula C5H12 
The major difficulty in the use of natural gas is transportation and storage because of its low density. Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Natural gas, like many other commodities, can be stored for an indefinite period of time in natural gas storage facilities for later consumption Natural gas pipelines are economical, but are impractical across oceans. Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. An ocean (from Greek, ''Okeanos'' (Oceanus) is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the Hydrosphere. Many existing pipelines in North America are close to reaching their capacity, prompting some politicians representing colder areas to speak publicly of potential shortages. This is a list of pipelines used to transport Natural gas in the United States and Canada
LNG carriers can be used to transport liquefied natural gas (LNG) across oceans, while tank trucks can carry liquefied or compressed natural gas (CNG) over shorter distances. An LNG carrier is a ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas ( LNG) Not to be confused with Natural Gas Liquids (NGL Liquefied natural gas or LNG is Natural gas (primarily Methane, CH4 A tank truck ( United States usage or tanker lorry ( United Kingdom usage is a Motor vehicle designed to carry liquefied loads, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG is a Fossil fuel substitute for Gasoline (petrol Diesel, or Propane Fuel. They may transport natural gas directly to end-users, or to distribution points such as pipelines for further transport. These may have a higher cost, requiring additional facilities for liquefaction or compression at the production point, and then gasification or decompression at end-use facilities or into a pipeline. Liquefaction of gases includes a number of phases used to convert a Gas into a Liquid state Physical compression is the result of the subjection of a material to Compressive stress, resulting in reduction of Volume. Gasification is a process that converts carbonaceous materials such as Coal, Petroleum, or Biomass, into Carbon monoxide and Hydrogen
In the past, the natural gas which was recovered in the course of recovering petroleum could not be profitably sold, and was simply burned at the oil field (known as flaring). Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of gas flare or flare stack is an elevated vertical stack or Chimney found on Oil wells or oil rigs, and in refineries This wasteful practice is now illegal in many countries. WASTE is a Peer-to-peer and Friend-to-friend protocol and software application developed by Justin Frankel at Nullsoft in 2003 that features Additionally, companies now recognize that value for the gas may be achieved with LNG, CNG, or other transportation methods to end-users in the future. The gas is now re-injected back into the formation for later recovery. This also assists oil pumping by keeping underground pressures higher. For information on Wikipedia project-related discussions see WikipediaVillage pump. Pressure (symbol 'p' is the force per unit Area applied to an object in a direction perpendicular to the surface In Saudi Arabia, in the late 1970s, a "Master Gas System" was created, ending the need for flaring. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Satellite observation unfortunately shows that some large gas-producing countries still use flaring and venting routinely. The natural gas is used to generate electricity and heat for desalination. Desalination, desalinization, or desalinisation refers to any of several processes that remove excess salt and other Minerals from Water Similarly, some landfills that also discharge methane gases have been set up to capture the methane and generate electricity.
Natural gas is often stored in underground caverns formed inside depleted gas reservoirs from previous gas wells, salt domes, or in tanks as liquefied natural gas. A salt dome is a type of structural dome formed when a thick bed of Evaporite minerals (mainly salt or Halite) found at depth intrudes vertically into Not to be confused with Natural Gas Liquids (NGL Liquefied natural gas or LNG is Natural gas (primarily Methane, CH4 The gas is injected during periods of low demand and extracted during periods of higher demand. Storage near the ultimate end-users helps to best meet volatile demands, but this may not always be practicable.
With 15 nations accounting for 84% of the world-wide production, access to natural gas has become a significant factor in international economics and politics. In this respect, control over the pipelines is a major strategic factor. 
Natural gas is a major source of electricity generation through the use of gas turbines and steam turbines. Electricity generation is the process of converting non-electrical Energy to Electricity. A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary Engine that extracts energy from a flow of Combustion gas Uses A Steam engine uses the expansion of steam in order to drive a Piston or Turbine to perform Mechanical work. A turbine is a rotary Engine that extracts Energy from a Fluid flow Particularly high efficiencies can be achieved through combining gas turbines with a steam turbine in combined cycle mode. A combined cycle is characteristic of a power producing engine or plant that employs more than one Thermodynamic cycle. Natural gas burns cleaner than other fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, and produces less carbon dioxide per unit energy released. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30% less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum and about 45% less than burning coal. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit  Combined cycle power generation using natural gas is thus the cleanest source of power available using fossil fuels, and this technology is widely used wherever gas can be obtained at a reasonable cost. Fuel cell technology may eventually provide cleaner options for converting natural gas into electricity, but as yet it is not price-competitive. A fuel cell is an electrochemical conversion device It produces electricity from Fuel (on the Anode side and an oxidant (on the
Natural gas can be used to produce hydrogen, with one common method being the hydrogen reformer. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Steam reforming (SR hydrogen reforming or catalytic oxidation, is a method of producing Hydrogen from Hydrocarbons. Hydrogen has various applications: it is a primary feedstock for the chemical industry, a hydrogenating agent, an important commodity for oil refineries, and a fuel source in hydrogen vehicles. A hydrogen vehicle is a Vehicle that uses Hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power
Compressed natural gas (methane) is a cleaner alternative to other automobile fuels such as gasoline (petrol) and diesel. Metrobus is a bus service operated by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA Compressed Natural Gas (CNG is a Fossil fuel substitute for Gasoline (petrol Diesel, or Propane Fuel. Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. Diesel or Diesel fuel (ˈdiːzəl in general is any Fuel used in Diesel engines The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum As of 2005, the countries with the largest number of natural gas vehicles were Argentina, Brazil, Pakistan, Italy, Iran, and the USA. "NGV" redirects here For the art gallery in Melbourne Australia see National Gallery of Victoria. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  The energy efficiency is generally equal to that of gasoline engines, but lower compared with modern diesel engines. Benzene (aka gasoline, petrol) vehicles converted to run on Natural Gas suffer because of the low compression ratio of their engines, resulting in a cropping of delivered power while running on natural gas (10%-15%). The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine particularly piston engines (but can be used on essentially any Internal-combustion CNG-specific engines, however, use a higher compression ratio due to this fuel's higher octane number of 120-130. The octane rating is a measure of the resistance of Gasoline and other Fuels to Detonation ( Engine knocking) in spark-ignition
Natural gas is supplied to homes, where it is used for such purposes as cooking in natural gas-powered ranges and/or ovens, natural gas-heated clothes dryers, heating/cooling and central heating. Cooking is the process of preparing Food by applying Heat, selecting measuring and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure for producing safe and edible A clothes dryer or tumble dryer is a household appliance that is used to remove the moisture from a load of Clothing and other Textiles, generally HVAC (pronounced either "H-V-A-C" or occasionally " H-vak " is an Initialism or Acronym that stands for " Heating The term air conditioning refers to the cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for Thermal comfort. For the Grand Central Records albums see Central Heating (Grand Central album and Central Heating 2. Home or other building heating may include boilers, furnaces, and water heaters. A furnace is a device used for Heating The name derives from Latin fornax, Oven. Water heating is a thermodynamic process using an energy source to heat Water above its initial Temperature. CNG is used in rural homes without connections to piped-in public utility services, or with portable grills. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time Plumbing, from the Latin plumbum for Lead, is the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and Plumbing fixtures for A public utility (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the Infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using There are multiple varieties of grills, with most falling into one of two categories Gas - Fueled and Charcoal. However, due to CNG being less economical than LPG, LPG (Propane) is the dominant source of rural gas.
Natural gas is a major feedstock for the production of ammonia, via the Haber process, for use in fertilizer production. Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is the Nitrogen fixation reaction of Nitrogen and Hydrogen, over an iron substrate Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant
Russian aircraft manufacturer Tupolev is currently running a development program to produce LNG- and hydrogen-powered aircraft. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Tupolev ( Туполев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company headquartered in Moscow. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1  The program has been running since the mid-1970s, and seeks to develop LNG and hydrogen variants of the Tu-204 and Tu-334 passenger aircraft, and also the Tu-330 cargo aircraft. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Tupolev Tu-334 is a Russian short to medium range Airliner currently under development to replace the aging Tu-134s and The Tupolev Tu-330 is a modern medium transport aircraft of the Russian airplane manufacturer Tupolev PSC It claims that at current market prices, an LNG-powered aircraft would cost 5,000 roubles less to operate per ton, roughly equivalent to 60%, with considerable reductions to carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. The ruble or rouble (in Russian: рубль rubl') is a unit of currency Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any Binary compound of Oxygen and Nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds Nitric
The advantages of liquid methane as a jet engine fuel are that it has more specific energy than the standard kerosene mixes and that its low temperature can help cool the air which the engine compresses for greater volumetric efficiency, in effect replacing an intercooler. Kerosene, sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage is a Combustible Hydrocarbon liquid An intercooler, or Charge air cooler, is an air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat exchange device used on turbocharged and supercharged (forced Alternatively, it can be used to lower the temperature of the exhaust.
Natural gas is also used in the manufacture of fabrics, glass, steel, plastics, paint, and other products. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Paint is any Liquid, liquifiable or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque Solid
Natural gas is commercially produced from oil fields and natural gas fields. An oil field is a region with an abundance of Oil wells extracting Petroleum (crude oil from below ground Oil and Natural gas are produced by the same geological process anaerobic Decay of Organic matter deep under the Earth's surface Gas produced from oil wells is called casinghead gas or associated gas. The natural gas industry is producing gas from increasingly more challenging resource types: sour gas, tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane. Natural gas has been used almost as long as Crude oil in Canada, but its commercial development was not as rapid Shale gas may also refer to gas generated from Oil shale Shale gas is Natural gas produced from Shale. Coalbed methane (CBM is a form of Natural gas extracted from coal beds
The world's largest gas field by far is Qatar's offshore North Field, estimated to have 25 trillion cubic metres (9. Qatar ( قطر; ˈqɑtˁɑr local pronunciation giṭar officially the State of Qatar (Arabic دولة قطر transliterated The South Pars / North Dome field is a Gas condensate field located in the Persian Gulf. 0×1010 cu ft) of gas in place—enough to last more than 200 years at optimum production levels. The second largest natural gas field is the South Pars Gas Field in Iranian waters in the Persian Gulf. Asalouyeh (عسلویه also transcribed Assalouyeh and Assaluyeh, and sometimes prefixed by bandar, meaning port is a town in southern Iran For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the Connected to Qatar's North Field, it has estimated reserves of 8 to 14 trillion cubic metres (2. 8×1010 to 5. 0×1010 cu ft) of gas.
Town gas is a mixture of methane and other gases, mainly the highly toxic carbon monoxide, that can be used in a similar way to natural gas and can be produced by treating coal chemically. This list of Natural gas fields includes major fields of the past and present Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. This is a historic technology, still used as 'best solution' in some local circumstances, although coal gasification is not usually economic at current gas prices. However, depending upon infrastructure considerations, it remains a future possibility.
Methanogenic archaea are responsible for all biological sources of methane, some in symbiotic relationships with other life forms, including termites, ruminants, and cultivated crops. Methanogens are Archaea that produce Methane as a Metabolic byproduct in Anoxic conditions The termites are a group of Social Insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera (but see also taxonomy Physiologically a ruminant is a Mammal of the order Artiodactyla that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first stomach known Methane released directly into the atmosphere would be considered a pollutant, however, methane in the atmosphere is oxidised, producing carbon dioxide and water. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Methane in the atmosphere has a half life of seven years, meaning that every seven years, half of the methane present is converted to carbon dioxide and water.
Future sources of methane, the principal component of natural gas, include landfill gas, biogas and methane hydrate. Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. Biogas, and especially landfill gas, are already used in some areas, but their use could be greatly expanded. Landfill gas is a type of biogas, but biogas usually refers to gas produced from organic material that has not been mixed with other waste.
Landfill gas is created from the decomposition of waste in landfills. See also Natural gas, Biofuel Biogas typically refers to a Gas produced by the biological breakdown of Organic matter in the For other uses see Water treatment and Land reclamation. A landfill, also known as a dump (and historically as If the gas is not removed, the pressure may get so high that it works its way to the surface, causing damage to the landfill structure, unpleasant odor, vegetation die-off and an explosion hazard. An explosion is a sudden increase in Volume and release of Energy in an extreme manner usually with the generation of high Temperatures and the release The gas can be vented to the atmosphere, flared or burned to produce electricity or heat. gas flare or flare stack is an elevated vertical stack or Chimney found on Oil wells or oil rigs, and in refineries In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature Experimental systems were being proposed for use in parts Hertfordshire, UK and Lyon in France. Hertfordshire (ˈhɑːtfədʃə(r, abbreviated Herts) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East region of ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France.
Once water vapor is removed, about half of landfill gas is methane. General properties of water vapor Evaporation/sublimation Whenever a water molecule leaves a surface it is said to have evaporated Almost all of the rest is carbon dioxide, but there are also small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 There are usually trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide and siloxanes, but their concentration varies widely. Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the Chemical compound with the formula H 2 S. A siloxane is any Chemical compound composed of units of the form R2 Si[[Oxygen O]] where R is a Hydrogen atom or a Hydrocarbon group Landfill gas cannot be distributed through natural gas pipelines unless it is cleaned up to the same quality. It is usually more economical to combust the gas on site or within a short distance of the landfill using a dedicated pipeline. Water vapor is often removed, even if combusting the gas on site. If low temperatures condense out the water from the gas, siloxanes can be lowered as well because they tend to condense out with the water vapour. A siloxane is any Chemical compound composed of units of the form R2 Si[[Oxygen O]] where R is a Hydrogen atom or a Hydrocarbon group Other non-methane components may also be removed in order to meet emission standards, to prevent fouling of the equipment or for environmental considerations. Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of Pollutants that can be released into the environment Co-firing landfill gas with natural gas improves combustion, which lowers emissions.
Biogas is usually produced using agricultural waste materials, such as otherwise unusable parts of plants and manure. See also Natural gas, Biofuel Biogas typically refers to a Gas produced by the biological breakdown of Organic matter in the Manure is Organic matter used as Organic fertilizer in Agriculture. Biogas can also be produced by separating organic materials from waste that otherwise goes to landfills. Organic matter (or organic material) is Matter that has come from a once-living Organism; is capable of This is more efficient than just capturing the landfill gas it produces. Using materials that would otherwise generate no income, or even cost money to get rid of, improves the profitability and energy balance of biogas production.
Anaerobic lagoons produce biogas from manure, while biogas reactors can be used for manure or plant parts. Anaerobic lagoons are used to dispose of animal waste particularly that of cows and pigs Like landfill gas, biogas is mostly methane and carbon dioxide, with small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. However, with the exception of pesticides, there are usually lower levels of contaminants.
A speculative source of enormous quantities of methane is from methane hydrate, found under sediments in the oceans. Methane clathrate, also called methane hydrate or methane ice, is a solid form of water that contains a large amount of Methane within its Crystal However, as of 2006 no technology has been developed to recover it economically.
In any form, a minute amount of odorant such as t-butyl mercaptan, with a rotting-cabbage-like smell, is added to the otherwise colorless and almost odorless gas, so that leaks can be detected before a fire or explosion occurs. Butanethiol, also known as butyl mercaptan, is a volatile, clear to yellowish Liquid with a foetid (extremely foul-smelling odor commonly described LEAK is the brand name for high-fidelity audio equipment made by H An explosion is a sudden increase in Volume and release of Energy in an extreme manner usually with the generation of high Temperatures and the release Sometimes a related compound, thiophane is used, with a rotten-egg smell. For other uses of THT, see THT (disambiguation Tetrahydrothiophene is a Heterocyclic Organic compound Adding odorant to natural gas began in the United States after the 1937 New London School explosion. The New London School explosion occurred on March 18, 1937, when a Natural gas leak caused an Explosion, destroying the New London School of The buildup of gas in the school went unnoticed, killing three hundred students and faculty when it ignited. Odorants are considered non-toxic in the extremely low concentrations occurring in natural gas delivered to the end user.
In mines, where methane seeping from rock formations has no odor, sensors are used, and mining apparatuses have been specifically developed to avoid ignition sources, e. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument g. , the Davy lamp. The Davy lamp is a Safety lamp containing a candle devised in 1815 by Sir Humphry Davy.
Explosions caused by natural gas leaks occur a few times each year. In common usage a gas leak refers to a Leak of Natural gas, from a pipe or other containment into a living area or any other area where the gas should Individual homes, small businesses and boats are most frequently affected when an internal leak builds up gas inside the structure. A home is a place of Residence or Refuge. It is usually a place where an individual or a family can rest in and be able to store Personal property. A boat is a Watercraft of modest size designed to float or plane on water and provide transport over it Frequently, the blast will be enough to significantly damage a building but leave it standing. In these cases, the people inside tend to have minor to moderate injuries. Injury or bodily injury is Damage or Harm caused to the Structure or function of the Body caused by an outside agent or Occasionally, the gas can collect in high enough quantities to cause a deadly explosion, disintegrating one or more buildings in the process. The gas usually dissipates readily outdoors, but can sometimes collect in dangerous quantities if weather conditions are right. The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. However, considering the tens of millions of structures that use the fuel, the individual risk of using natural gas is very low. Risk is a Concept that denotes the precise probability of specific eventualities
Some gas fields yield sour gas containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Sour gas is Natural gas or any other gas containing significant amounts of Hydrogen sulfide (H2S Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the Chemical compound with the formula H 2 S. This untreated gas is toxic. Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism Amine gas treating, an industrial scale process which removes acidic gaseous components, is often used to remove hydrogen sulfide from natural gas. Amine gas treating, also known as gas sweetening and acid gas removal, refers to a group of processes that use aqueous solutions of various Amines to remove In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter 
Extraction of natural gas (or oil) leads to decrease in pressure in the reservoir. Pressure (symbol 'p' is the force per unit Area applied to an object in a direction perpendicular to the surface A petroleum reservoir or an oil and gas reservoir (or system) is a subsurface pool of Hydrocarbons contained in porous This in turn may lead to subsidence at ground level. In Geology, Engineering, and Surveying, subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually the Earth's surface as it shifts downward relative to Subsidence may affect ecosystems, waterways, sewer and water supply systems, foundations, etc. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( A waterway is any navigable Body of water. These include Rivers Lakes Seas Oceans and Canals In order for a waterway Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users A foundation is a Structure that transfers loads to the earth
Natural Gas heating systems are the leading cause of carbon monoxide deaths in the United States, according to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. When a natural gas heating system malfunctions, it produces odorless carbon monoxide. With no fumes or smoke to give warning, poisoning victims are easily asphyxiated by the carbon monoxide. Detectors are available that warn of carbon monoxide and/or explosive gas (methane, propane, etc. )
It is difficult to evaluate the cost of heating a home with natural gas compared to that of heating oil, because of differences of energy conversion efficiency, and the widely fluctuating price of crude oil. Heating oil, or oil heat, also known in the United States as No However, for illustration, one can calculate a representative cost per BTU. Assuming the following current values:
This gives a cost of $8. 70 per million BTU ($8. 30/GJ) for natural gas, as compared to $18 per million BTU ($17/GJ) for fuel oil. Of course, such comparisons fluctuate with time and vary from place to place dependent on the cost of the raw materials and local taxation.