and Alaska Natives
American Indian and Alaska Native
|Regions with significant populations|
| United States|
(predominantly the West and South)
Native American languages
|Native American Church|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Indigenous peoples of the Americas|
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Western United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American West or simply the West &mdashtraditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive Phonology North American English regional phonology In many ways compared to English English, North American English is conservative in its Phonology. Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or the Peyote religion originated in the U Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical The term continental United States refers to the 48 contiguous states located on the North American continent south of the border with Canada plus the District Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent They comprise a large number of distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as intact political communities. Ethnographers commonly classify Indigenous peoples in the United States and Canada into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits Native American tribe means any Indigenous peoples in the United States tribe band nation or other organized group or community extant or historical A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. There has been a wide range of terms used to describe them and no consensus has been reached among indigenous members as to what they prefer. They have been known as American Indians, Indians, Amerindians, Amerinds, or Indigenous, Aboriginal, Original Americans, or Red men. More recently, many tribal nations prefer Native Americans.
Not all Native Americans reside in the contiguous 48 states. Some come from Alaska or insular regions. An insular area is a United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nation's These other indigenous peoples, including Alaskan Native groups such as the Inupiaq, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not always counted as Native Americans. Alaska Natives are Indigenous peoples of the Americas native to the state of Alaska within the United States. The Inupiat or Iñupiaq (from inuit- people - and piaq/t real i The Yupik or in the Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik, are a group of indigenous or aboriginal peoples of western southwestern and southcentral The Aleuts ( self-denomination from Aleut language allíthuh 'community' older or regional self-denomination Unangax̂, Unangan or The Census 2000 demographics listed "American Indian and Alaskan Native" collectively. Native Hawaiians and various other Pacific Islander American peoples, such as the Chamorros (Chamoru) of Guam, can also be considered Native American in a broad sense but such a designation is not commonly made. "Kanaka" redirects here For the Tamil actress see Kanaka (actress. Pacific Islander Americans are residents of the United States with original ancestry from Oceania. "Chamoru" redirects here For the language see Chamorro language. Guam ( Chamorro: cha Guåhån) officially the Territory of Guam, is an island in the western Pacific Ocean and is an organized unincorporated 
Most of the historical record is about Native Americans and their contact with Europeans in the continental 48 United States.
The European colonization of the Americas nearly obliterated the populations and cultures of the Native Americans. The start of the European colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492 although there was at least one earlier colonization effort From the 16th through the 19th centuries, the population of Native Americans in what became the United States suffered in the following ways: epidemic diseases brought from Europe, violence and possible genocide at the hands of European explorers and colonists, displacement from their lands, internal warfare, enslavement, and a high rate of intermarriage. A pandemic (from Greek παν pan all + δήμος demos people is an Epidemic of Infectious disease that spreads through Violence is the exertion of force so as to injure or abuse The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like Storms and Earthquakes Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG as "any of Endemic warfare is the state of continual low-threshold Warfare in a tribal Warrior society As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another Interracial marriage occurs when two people of differing racial groups marry, often creating Multiracial children  Most mainstream scholars believe that, among the various contributing factors, epidemic disease was the overwhelming cause of the population decline of the American natives because of their lack of immunity to new diseases brought from Europe. This article is a list of major Epidemics. Worldwide pandemics The following are Epidemics which spread across several continents An infectious disease is a clinically evident Disease resulting from the presence of Pathogenic microbial agents including Pathogenic viruses Pathogenic 
European explorers and settlers brought infectious diseases to North America against which the Native Americans had no natural immunity. A European American (Euro-American is a person who resides in the United States and is either from Europe or is the descendant of European immigrants An infectious disease is a clinically evident Disease resulting from the presence of Pathogenic microbial agents including Pathogenic viruses Pathogenic Immunity is a material term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid Infection, Disease, or other unwanted biological invasion Chicken pox and measles, though common and rarely fatal among Europeans, often proved deadly to Native Americans. Chickenpox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with Varicella zoster virus (VZV Measles (rubeola is a Disease caused by a virus specifically a Paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. Smallpox proved particularly deadly to Native American populations. Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor.  Epidemics often immediately followed European exploration and sometimes destroyed entire village populations. In Epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people is a classification of a disease that appears as new cases in a While precise figures are difficult to determine, some historians estimate that up to 80% of some Native populations died due to European diseases after first contact. It is thought that up to 100 million indigenous people may have lived in The Americas when the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus began a historical period of large-scale 
In 1617–1619, smallpox wiped out 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans. Massachusetts Bay is one of the large bays of the Atlantic Ocean that form the distinctive shape of the coastline of the U  Historians believe Mohawk Indians were infected after contact with children of Dutch traders in Albany in 1634. The disease swept through Mohawk villages, reaching Native Americans at Lake Ontario in 1636, and the lands of the Iroquois by 1679, as it was carried by Mohawks and other Indians who traveled the trading routes. Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse  The high rate of fatalities caused breakdowns in Native American societies and disrupted generational exchanges of culture.
Similarly, after European direct contact by explorers on the Northwest Coast in the 1770s, smallpox rapidly killed at least 30% of the Northwest Coast Native Americans in the Puget Sound area. The " West Coast " " Western Seaboard " or " Pacific Seaboard " are terms for the westernmost coastal states of the Western United States For the next 80 to 100 years, the disease swept through their populations, reducing the number of Native Americans to only 9,000 survivors before the first European settlers arrived in the mid-19th century in the Puget Sound area. 
Smallpox epidemics in 1780–1782 and 1837–1838 brought devastation and drastic depopulation among the Plains Indians. The smallpox epidemic that ravaged the people of the Great Plains in 1837 and 1838 was believed to have began in spring of 1837 when a deckhand became ill aboard an American The Plains Indians are the Indigenous peoples who live on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America.  By 1832, the federal government established a smallpox vaccination program for Native Americans (The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832). The smallpox vaccine was the first successful vaccine ever to be developed It was the first program created to address a health problem of American Indians. 
In the sixteenth century Spaniards and other Europeans brought horses to the Americas. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. The reintroduction of horses resulted in benefits to Native Americans. As they adopted the animals, they began to change their cultures in substantial ways, especially by extending their ranges. Some of the horses escaped and began to breed and increase their numbers in the wild. Horses had originated naturally in North America and migrated westward via the Bering Land Bridge to Asia. The Bering land bridge was a Land bridge roughly 1000 miles (1600 km north to south at its greatest extent which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia The early American horse was game for the earliest humans and was hunted to extinction about 7,000 BC, just after the end of the last Ice Age. Equus scotti (translated from Latin as "Scott's horse" is an Extinct Horse species that was native to North America An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets
The re-introduction of the horse to North America had a profound impact on Native American culture of the Great Plains. The Great Plains are the broad expanse of Prairie and Steppe which lie east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada The tribes trained and used the horses to ride and to carry packs or pull travois, to expand their territories markedly, more easily exchange goods with neighboring tribes, and more easily hunt game. Game is any Animal hunted for Food or not normally domesticated (such as Venison) They fully incorporated the use of horses into their societies, including using the horses to conduct warring raids.
During the American Revolution, the newly proclaimed United States competed with the British for the allegiance of Native American nations east of the Mississippi River. Benjamin West RA ( October 10, 1738 – March 11, 1820) was an Anglo - American painter of historical The Death of General Wolfe is a well-known 1770 painting by Anglo-American artist Benjamin West depicting the final moments of British General In the eighteenth-century cult of " Primitivism " the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization was considered more worthy more authentically noble In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to Most Native Americans who joined the struggle sided with the British, hoping to use the American Revolutionary War to halt further colonial expansion onto Native American land. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Many native communities were divided over which side to support in the war. The first native community to sign a treaty with the new United States Government was the Lenape. The Treaty of Fort Pitt, also known as the' Treaty With the Delawares' or the Fourth Treaty of Pittsburgh, was signed on September 17, 1778 and The shannon (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans were in the 17th century organized bands of Native American peoples with shared cultural and linguistic For the Iroquois Confederacy, the American Revolution resulted in civil war. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state Cherokees split into a neutral (or pro-American) faction and the anti-American Chickamaugas, led by Dragging Canoe. The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ a-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who at the time of European contact The Chickamauga wars (1776&ndash1794 were a series of back-and-forth raids campaigns ambushes minor skirmishes and several full-scale frontier battles that were a continuation of Dragging Canoe (c 1738 &ndash March 1 1792 was an American Indian war leader who led a dissident band of young Cherokees against the United States in
Frontier warfare during the American Revolution was particularly brutal, and numerous atrocities were committed by settlers and native tribes alike. Background When the American Revolutionary War began in 1775 the Ohio River marked a tenuous border between the American colonies and the American Indians of the Ohio Noncombatants suffered greatly during the war. Military expeditions on each side destroyed villages and food supplies to reduce the ability of people to fight, as in frequent raids in the Mohawk Valley and western New York.  The largest of these expeditions was the Sullivan Expedition of 1779, in which American troops destroyed more than 40 Iroquois villages to neutralize Iroquois raids in upstate New York. Background When the American Revolutionary War began British officials as well as the colonial Continental Congress sought the allegiance (or at least the neutrality Upstate New York is the region of New York State north of the core of the New York metropolitan area. The expedition failed to have the desired effect: Native American activity became even more determined.
The British made peace with the Americans in the Treaty of Paris (1783), through which they ceded vast Native American territories to the United States without informing the Native Americans. The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, formally The United States initially treated the Native Americans who had fought with the British as a conquered people who had lost their lands. Although many of the Iroquois tribes went to Canada with the Loyalists, others tried to stay in New York and western territories and tried to maintain their lands. Nonetheless, the state of New York made a separate treaty with Iroquois and put up for sale 5 million acres of land that had previously been their territory. The state established a reservation near Syracuse for the Onondagas who had been allies of the colonists.
The United States was eager to expand, to develop farming and settlements in new areas, and to satisfy land hunger of settlers from New England and new immigrants. The national government initially sought to purchase Native American land by treaties. This is a list of treaties to which the United States has been a party or which have had direct relevance to U The states and settlers were frequently at odds with this policy. 
In the nineteenth century, the incessant westward expansion of the United States incrementally compelled large numbers of Native Americans to resettle further west, often by force, almost always reluctantly. This is a list of Indian reservations and other tribal homelands in the United States. Manifest Destiny was the belief that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. Under President Andrew Jackson, United States Congress passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which authorized the President to conduct treaties to exchange Native American land east of the Mississippi River for lands west of the river. Andrew Jackson (March 15 1767 June 8 1845 was the seventh President of the United States (1829&ndash1837 The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The Indian Removal Act, part of a United States government policy known as Indian removal, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 26 The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to As many as 100,000 Native Americans eventually relocated in the West as a result of this Indian Removal policy. Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to ethnically cleanse Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi In theory, relocation was supposed to be voluntary and many Native Americans did remain in the East such as the Choctaw who were first to be removed. The Choctaw are a Native American people originally from the Southeastern United States ( Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana) In practice great pressure was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties.
The most egregious violation of the stated intention of the removal policy took place under the Treaty of New Echota, which was signed by a dissident faction of Cherokees but not the elected leadership. The Treaty of New Echota was a removal treaty signed in New Echota, Georgia by officials of the United States government and several members The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ a-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who at the time of European contact President Jackson rigidly enforced the treaty, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees on the Trail of Tears. The Trail of Tears was the forced relocation of Native Americans from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma in the Western United States About 17,000 Cherokees — along with approximately 2,000 black slaves held by Cherokees — were removed from their homes. 
Indian Removal forced or coerced the relocation of major Native American groups in the Eastern United States, resulting directly and indirectly in the deaths of tens of thousands. The Choctaw are a Native American people originally from the Southeastern United States ( Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana) The Eastern Half of The United States, the American East, or simply the East is traditionally defined as the states east of the Mississippi River. The subsequent process of assimilations was no less devastating to Native American peoples. Tribes were generally located to reservations on which they could more easily be separated from traditional life and pushed into European-American society. Some southern states additionally enacted laws in the 19th century forbidding non-Indian settlement on Indian lands, with the intention to prevent sympathetic white missionaries from aiding the scattered Indian resistance. 
At one point, President Jackson told people to kill as many American Bison as possible in order to cut out the Plains Indian's main source of food. Andrew Jackson (March 15 1767 June 8 1845 was the seventh President of the United States (1829&ndash1837 The American bison ( Bison bison) is a Bovine Mammal, also commonly known as the American buffalo. There was enough greed in hunting without his encouragement. From overhunting due to trophy hunters and people hunting from trains, by 1885 there were fewer than 500 bison left in the Great Plains. 
Conflicts generally known as "Indian Wars" broke out between U. S. forces and many different tribes. U. S. government authorities entered into numerous treaties during this period but later abrogated many for various reasons. Military engagements included Native American victories at the Battle of the Wabash in 1791 and the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876. The Battle of the Wabash, also known as St Clair's Defeat and the Battle of Wabash River, was fought on November 4, 1791, in the Northwest The Battle of the Little Bighorn &mdashalso known as Custer's Last Stand, and in the parlance of the relevant Native Americans, the Battle of the Greasy Grass Massacres included the Minnesota Massacre in 1862, the Sand Creek Massacre in 1864 and the Wounded Knee in 1890. The Dakota War of 1862 (also known as the Sioux Uprising, Sioux Outbreak of 1862, the Dakota Conflict, the U The Sand Creek Massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek or the Massacre of Cheyenne Indians) was an incident in The Wounded Knee Massacre also known as The Battle at Wounded Knee Creek was the last major armed conflict between the Oglala Lakota and the United States  These events, together with the near-extinction of the bison which many tribes had lived on, were catalysts to the decline of Prairie Culture that had developed around the use of the horse for hunting, travel and trading.
|“||The Indian (was thought) as less than human and worthy only of extermination. We did shoot down defenseless men, and women and children at places like Camp Grant, Sand Creek, and Wounded Knee. We did feed strychnine to red warriors. We did set whole villages of people out naked to freeze in the iron cold of Montana winters. And we did confine thousands in what amounted to concentration camps.||”|
— Wellman- The Indian Wars of the West, 1934
American policy toward Native Americans has continued to evolve. In the late eighteenth century, reformers starting with George Washington and Henry Knox, in efforts to "civilize" or otherwise assimilate Indians (as opposed to relegating them to reservations), adopted the practice of educating native children in Indian Boarding Schools. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the Henry Knox ( July 25, 1750 &ndash October 25, 1806) was an American Bookseller from Boston who became the chief A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements An Indian reservation is an area of land managed by a Native American Tribe under the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau Americanization can refer to the policies of the United States government and public opinion that there is a standard set of cultural values that should be held in common These schools, which were run primarily by Christian missionaries, often proved traumatic to Native American children, who were forbidden to speak their native languages, taught Christianity instead of their native religions and in numerous other ways forced to abandon their various Native American identities and adopt European-American culture. Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings There were many documented cases of sexual, physical and mental abuse occurring at these schools. 
The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted United States citizenship to Native Americans. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 also known as the Snyder Act, was proposed by Representative Homer P There was an interest in their assimilation to the American mainstream, and also a desire to recognize the service of many Native American veterans in World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The earliest documented U. S. Native American citizens were the Choctaw, who were granted citizenship in 1831 under the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. The Choctaw are a Native American people originally from the Southeastern United States ( Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana) See also Choctaw The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was a Treaty signed on September 27, 1830 (and proclaimed on 24 February
There are 561 federally recognized tribal governments in the United States. Federally recognized tribes are those Indian tribes recognized by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs for certain federal government These tribes possess the right to form their own government, to enforce laws (both civil and criminal), to tax, to establish requirements for membership, to license and regulate activities, to zone and to exclude persons from tribal territories. Limitations on tribal powers of self-government include the same limitations applicable to states; for example, neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or coin money (this includes paper currency). 
Many Native Americans and advocates of Native American rights point out that the US Federal government's claim to recognize the "sovereignty" of Native American peoples falls short, given that the US still wishes to govern Native American peoples and treat them as subject to US law. True respect for Native American sovereignty, according to such advocates, would require the United States federal government to deal with Native American peoples in the same manner as any other sovereign nation, handling matters related to relations with Native Americans through the Secretary of State, rather than the Bureau of Indian Affairs. History Although the bureau which was called the Office of Indian Affairs was formed in 1824 similar agencies had existed in the U The Bureau of Indian Affairs reports on its website that its "responsibility is the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres (225,000 km²) of land held in trust by the United States for American Indians, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives. " Many Native Americans and advocates of Native American rights believe that it is condescending for such lands to be considered "held in trust" and regulated in any fashion by a foreign power, whether the US Federal Government, Canada, or any other non-Native American authority.
According to 2003 United States Census Bureau estimates, a little over one third of the 2,786,652 Native Americans in the United States live in three states: California at 413,382, Arizona at 294,137 and Oklahoma at 279,559. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. 
As of 2000, the largest tribes in the U. S. by population were Navajo, Cherokee, Choctaw, Sioux, Chippewa, Apache, Blackfeet, Iroquois, and Pueblo. The Navajo Nation ( Diné in the Navajo language) is a semi- autonomous Native American homeland covering about 26000 square miles (67339 square The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ a-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who at the time of European contact The Choctaw are a Native American people originally from the Southeastern United States ( Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana) Sioux (pronounced SUE are a Native American and First Nations people The Ojibwa or Chippewa (also Ojibwe, Ojibway, Chippeway) is the largest group of Native Americans - First Nations The Piegan Blackfeet ( Aamsskáápipikani (Southern Pikáni /Piegan or simply as Pikáni in Blackfoot) are a tribe of Native Americans The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse Pueblos are traditional communities of Native Americans in the southwestern United States of America. In 2000, eight of ten Americans with Native American ancestry were of mixed blood. It is estimated that by 2100 that figure will rise to nine out of ten.  In addition, there are a number of tribes that are recognized by individual states, but not by the federal government. State recognized tribes are Native American Indian Tribes and Heritage Groups that are recognized by individual states for their various internal government purposes The rights and benefits associated with state recognition vary from state to state.
Some tribal nations have been unable to establish their heritage and obtain federal recognition. The Muwekma Ohlone of the San Francisco bay area are pursuing litigation in the federal court system to establish recognition. The Ohlone people also known as the Costanoan and as the Muwekma, are the indigenous people of Northern California who have lived in the  Many of the smaller eastern tribes have been trying to gain official recognition of their tribal status. The recognition confers some benefits, including the right to label arts and crafts as Native American and permission to apply for grants that are specifically reserved for Native Americans. But gaining recognition as a tribe is extremely difficult; to be established as a tribal group, members have to submit extensive genealogical proof of tribal descent. Genealogy (from Greek: el γενεά el-Latn genea, "descent" and el λόγος el-Latn logos, "knowledge" is the study of
Military defeat, cultural pressure, confinement on reservations, forced cultural assimilation, outlawing of native languages and culture, termination policies of the 1950s and 1960s and earlier, slavery and poverty, have had deleterious effects on Native Americans' mental and physical health. The Indian Reorganization Act, 1934, also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act or informally the Indian New Deal, was a U Indian Slavery was the practice of using Indigenous peoples of the Americas as Slaves. Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and Contemporary health problems suffered disproportionately include alcoholism, heart disease, diabetes, and suicide. Alcoholism is a term with multiple and sometimes conflicting definitions Heart disease is an Umbrella term for a variety for different diseases affecting the Heart. Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc
As recently as the 1970s, the Bureau of Indian Affairs was still actively pursuing a policy of "assimilation", dating at least to the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924. History Although the bureau which was called the Office of Indian Affairs was formed in 1824 similar agencies had existed in the U The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 also known as the Snyder Act, was proposed by Representative Homer P The goal of assimilation—plainly stated early on—was to eliminate the reservations and steer Native Americans into mainstream U. S. culture. In July 2000 the Washington state Republican Party adopted a resolution of termination for tribal governments. Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. As of 2004, there are still claims of theft of Native American land for the coal and uranium it contains. Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the 
In the state of Virginia, Native Americans face a unique problem. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Virginia has no federally recognized tribes, largely due to Walter Ashby Plecker. Walter Ashby Plecker ( 2 April 1861 –1947 was a Physician and Public health advocate who was the first registrar of Virginia 's Bureau In 1912, Plecker became the first registrar of the state's Bureau of Vital Statistics, serving until 1946. Plecker believed that the state's Native Americans had been "mongrelized" with its African American population. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa A law passed by the state's General Assembly recognized only two races, "white" and "colored". Plecker pressured local governments into reclassifying all Native Americans in the state as "colored", leading to the destruction of records on the state's Native American community.
Maryland also has a non-recognized tribal nation—the Piscataway Indian Nation. The Piscataway Indian Nation is a non-state non-federally recognized Native American tribal nation which at one time was one of the most populous and powerful Native
In order to receive federal recognition and the benefits it confers, tribes must prove their continuous existence since 1900. The federal government has so far refused to bend on this bureaucratic requirement.  A bill currently before U.S. Congress to ease this requirement has been favorably reported out of a key Senate committee, being supported by both of Virginia's senators, George Allen and John Warner, but faces opposition in the House from Representative Virgil Goode, who has expressed concerns that federal recognition could open the door to gambling in the state. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives George Felix Allen (born March 8 1952 is a former Republican United States Senator from the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the son of former John William Warner (born February 18 1927 is an American Politician, who served as Secretary of the Navy from 1972 to 1974 and has served as the The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Virgil Hamlin Goode Jr (surname rhymes with mood, not would) born October 17, 1946, is an American politician and a Republican 
In the early 21st century, Native American communities remain an enduring fixture on the United States landscape, in the American economy, and in the lives of Native Americans. Communities have consistently formed governments that administer services like firefighting, natural resource management, and law enforcement. Distinguish from a Firefight, which means a battle with firearms Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified ( natural) form Law enforcement agency ( LEA) is a term used to describe either an organisation that enforces the laws of one or more governing bodies or an organisation that actively and directly Most Native American communities have established court systems to adjudicate matters related to local ordinances, and most also look to various forms of moral and social authority vested in traditional affiliations within the community. A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its To address the housing needs of Native Americans, Congress passed the Native American Housing and Self Determination Act (NAHASDA) in 1996. This legislation replaced public housing, and other 1937 Housing Act programs directed towards Indian Housing Authorities, with a block grant program directed towards Tribes.
Gambling has become a leading industry. Casinos operated by many Native American governments in the United States are creating a stream of gambling revenue that some communities are beginning to use as leverage to build diversified economies. A casino is in the modern sense of the word a facility that houses and accommodates certain types of Gambling activities Native American communities have waged and prevailed in legal battles to assure recognition of rights to self-determination and to use of natural resources. Some of those rights, known as treaty rights, are enumerated in early treaties signed with the young United States government. Tribal sovereignty has become a cornerstone of American jurisprudence, and at least on the surface, in national legislative policies. Tribal sovereignty refers to the inherent authority of indigenous tribes to govern themselves Jurisprudence is the Theory and Philosophy of Law. Scholars of jurisprudence or legal philosophers hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature Although many Native American tribes have casinos, they are a source of conflict. Most tribes, especially small ones such as the Winnemem Wintu of Redding, California, feel that casinos and their proceeds destroy culture from the inside out. The Winnemem Wintu ("middle river people" or "middle water people" are a band of the Native American Wintu tribe originally located along the Redding is a city in Northern California. It is the County seat of Shasta County California, USA These tribes refuse to participate in the gaming industry.
On May 19, 2005, the Massachusetts legislature finally repealed a disused 330 year-old law that barred Native Americans from entering Boston. Events 1535 - French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships 110 men and Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A repeal is the Removal or Reversal of a Law. This is generally done when a law is no longer effective or it is shown that a law is having far more negative
In August 2005, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) banned the use of "hostile and abusive" Native American mascots from postseason tournaments. The National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA, often pronounced "N-C-Double-A" is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions conferences organizations  The use of Native American themed team names in U. S. professional sports is widespread and often controversial, with examples such as Chief Wahoo of the Cleveland Indians and the Washington Redskins. Chief Wahoo is a trademarked Mascot for the Cleveland Indians baseball team The Cleveland Indians are a professional baseball team based in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. The Washington Redskins are a professional American football team based in the Washington D
Conflicts between the federal government and native Americans occasionally erupt into violence. Perhaps one of the more noteworthy incidents in recent history is the Wounded Knee incident in small town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. For the 1890 massacre see Wounded Knee Massacre. The Wounded Knee incident began February 27, 1973 when the town of Wounded Wounded Knee ( Lakhota Cankpe Opi) is a Census-designated place (CDP in Shannon County, South Dakota, United States. On February 27, 1973, the town was surrounded by federal law enforcement officials and the United States military. The town itself was under the control of members of the American Indian Movement which was protesting a variety of issues important to the organization. The American Indian Movement ( AIM) is an Indian Activist organization in the United States. Two members of AIM were killed and one United States Marshal was paralyzed as a result of gunshot wounds. In the aftermath of the conflict, one man, Leonard Peltier was arrested and sentenced to life in prison while another, John Graham, as late as 2007, was extradited to the U. S. to stand trial for killing a Native American woman, months after the standoff, that he believed to be an FBI informant. 
Despite the ongoing political and social issues surrounding Native Americans' position in the United States, there has been relatively little public opinion research on attitudes toward them among the general public. In a 2007 focus group study by the nonpartisan Public Agenda organization, most non-Indians admitted they rarely encounter Native Americans in their daily lives. While sympathetic toward Native Americans and expressing regret over the past, most people had only a vague understanding of the problems facing Native Americans today. For their part, Native Americans told researchers that they believed they continued to face prejudice and mistreatment in the broader society. 
Intertribal and interracial mixing was common among Native American tribes making it difficult to clearly identify which tribe an individual belonged to. Bands or entire tribes occasionally split or merged to form more viable groups in reaction to the pressures of climate, disease and warfare. A number of tribes practiced the adoption of captives into their group to replace their members who had been captured or killed in battle. These captives came from rival tribes and later from European settlers. Some tribes also sheltered or adopted white traders and runaway slaves and Native American-owned slaves. So a number of paths to genetic mixing existed.
In later years, such mixing, however, proved an obstacle to qualifying for recognition and assistance from the U. S. federal government or for tribal money and services. To receive such support, Native Americans must belong to and be certified by a recognized tribal entity. This has taken a number of different forms as each tribal government makes its own rules while the federal government has its own set of standards. In many cases, qualification is based upon the percentage of Native American blood, or the "blood quantum" of an individual seeking recognition. To attain such certainty, some tribes have begun requiring genetic genealogy (DNA testing). Genetic genealogy is the application of Genetics to traditional genealogy.  Requirements for tribal certification vary widely by tribe. The Cherokee require only a descent from a Native American listed on the early 20th century Dawes Rolls while federal scholarships require enrollment in a federally recognized tribe as well as a Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood card showing at least a one-quarter Native American descent. The Dawes Rolls (or Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes or Dawes Commission of Final Rolls were created by the Dawes Commission. A Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood or Certificate of Degree of Alaska Native Blood (both abbreviated CDIB is an official U Tribal rules regarding recognition of members with Native American blood from multiple tribes are equally diverse and complex.
Tribal membership conflicts have led to a number of activist groups, legal disputes and court cases. One example are the Cherokee freedmen, who were descendants of slaves once owned by the Cherokees. The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ a-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who at the time of European contact The Cherokees had allied with the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War and, after the war, were forced by the federal government, in an 1866 treaty, to free their slaves and make them citizens. The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South They were later disallowed as tribe members due to their not having "Indian blood". However, in March 2006, the Judicial Appeals Tribunal—the Cherokee Nation's highest court—ruled that Cherokee freedmen are full citizens of the Cherokee Nation. The court declared that the Cherokee freedmen retain citizenship, voting rights and other privileges despite attempts to keep them off the tribal rolls for not having identifiable "Indian" blood. In March 2007 the Freedmen were voted out of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ a-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who at the time of European contact
In the 20th century, among white ethnic groups, it became popular to claim descent from an "American Indian princess", often a Cherokee. The prototypical "American Indian princess" was Pocahontas, and, in fact, descent from her is a frequent claim. Pocahontas (c 1595 – March 21 1617 was a Native American woman who married an Englishman John Rolfe, and became a celebrity in London in the last year of her However, the American Indian "princess" is a false concept, derived from the application of European concepts to Native Americans, as also seen in the naming of war chiefs as "kings".  Descent from "Indian braves" is also sometimes claimed.
This descent from Native Americans was seen as fashionable not only among whites claiming prestigious colonial descent but also among whites seeking to claim connection to groups with distinct folkways that would differentiate them from the mass culture. Large influxes of recent immigrants with unique social customs may have been partially an object of envy. Among African-Americans, the desire to be un-black was sometimes expressed in claims of Native American descent.  Those passing as white might use the slightly more acceptable Native American ancestry to explain inconvenient details of their heritage. the racial politics of North America, racial passing refers to a person classified by society as a member of one "racial" group choosing to identify
Though cultural features, language, clothing, and customs vary enormously from one tribe to another, there are certain elements which are encountered frequently and shared by many tribes.
Early hunter-gatherer tribes made stone weapons from around 10,000 years ago; as the age of metallurgy dawned, newer technologies were used and more efficient weapons produced. A hunter-gatherer society is one whose primary subsistence method involves the direct procurement of edible plants and animals from the wild Foraging and Hunting Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their Prior to contact with Europeans, most tribes used similar weaponry. The most common implement were the bow and arrow, the war club, and the spear. Quality, material, and design varied widely.
Large mammals like mammoths and mastodonts were largely extinct by around 8,000 B. A mammoth is any Species of the Extinct Genus Mammuthus. These Proboscideans are members of the elephant family and Mastodons or Mastodonts (from Greek μαστός and οδούς, meaning " Nipple tooth" are members of the extinct C. , and the Native Americans switched to hunting other large game, such as bison. The American bison ( Bison bison) is a Bovine Mammal, also commonly known as the American buffalo. The Great Plains tribes were still hunting the bison when they first encountered the Europeans. The acquisition of the horse and horsemanship from the Spanish in the 17th century greatly altered the natives' culture, changing the way in which these large creatures were hunted and making them a central feature of their lives. For the Roman class see Equestrian (Roman Equestrianism refers to the skill of riding or driving Horses This broad description
Before the formation of tribal structure, a structure dominated by gentes existed. In Ancient Rome, a gens (pl gentes) was a Clan, Caste, or group of Families, that shared a common name (the
Subdivision and differentiation took place between various groups. Upwards of forty stock languages developed in North America, with each independent tribe speaking a dialect of one of those languages. Some functions and attributes of tribes are:
The Iroquois, living around the Great Lakes and extending east and north, used strings or belts called wampum that served a dual function: the knots and beaded designs mnemonically chronicled tribal stories and legends, and further served as a medium of exchange and a unit of measure. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. Wampum is a string of creamy white colored shell beads fashioned from the North Atlantic Channeled whelk ( Busycotypus canaliculatus) shell and is traditionally used The keepers of the articles were seen as tribal dignitaries. 
Pueblo peoples crafted impressive items associated with their religious ceremonies. The Pueblo people are a Native American people in the Southwestern United States. Kachina dancers wore elaborately painted and decorated masks as they ritually impersonated various ancestral spirits. Kachinas (also spelled Katsina, the plural "katsinam" exist in Hopi and in Pueblo cosmology and religious practices Sculpture was not highly developed, but carved stone and wood fetishes were made for religious use. Superior weaving, embroidered decorations, and rich dyes characterized the textile arts. Both turquoise and shell jewelry were created, as were high-quality pottery and formalized pictorial arts.
Navajo spirituality focused on the maintenance of a harmonious relationship with the spirit world, often achieved by ceremonial acts, usually incorporating sandpainting. The Navajo or Diné people (also spelled Navaho) of the Southwestern United States Sandpainting is the art of pouring colored sands onto a surface to make a painting The colors—made from sand, charcoal, cornmeal, and pollen—depicted specific spirits. These vivid, intricate, and colorful sand creations were erased at the end of the ceremony.
Native American Agriculture started about 7,000 years ago in the area of present day Illinois. The first crop the Native Americans grew was squash. This was the first of several crops the Native Americans learned to domesticate. Others included cotton, sunflower, pumpkins, watermelon, tobacco, goosefoot, and sump weed. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp The sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) is an Annual plant in the family Asteraceae and native to the Americas, with a large flowering Pumpkin is a Gourd -like squash of the genus Cucurbita and the family Cucurbitaceae (which also includes gourds Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ( Thunb) Matsum & Nakai family Cucurbitaceae) refers to both Fruit and Plant of a vine-like (climber Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. "Goosefoot" redirects here The unrelated Smearwort ( Aristolochia rotunda) is sometimes called "Mercury Goosefoot" Iva annua ( sumpweed or marshelder) is an Herbaceous Annual plant native to much of North America. The most important crop the Native Americans raised was maize. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica It was first started in Mesoamerica and spread north. Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Mesoamérica is a Region extending approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua, defined About 2,000 years ago it reached eastern America. This crop was important to the Native Americans because it was part of their everyday diet, it could be stored in underground pits during the winter, and no part of it was wasted. The husk was made into art crafts and the cob was used as fuel for fires. By 800 A. D. the Native Americans had established 3 main crops which were beans, squash, and corn called the three sisters. The Three Sisters are the three main agricultural crops of some Native American groups in North America: squash, Maize, and climbing Beans Agriculture in the southwest started around 4,000 years ago when traders brought cultigens from Mexico. Due to the varying climate, some ingenuity had to be done for agriculture to be successful. The climate in the southwest ranged from cool, moist mountains regions, to dry, sandy soil in the desert. Some innovations of the time included irrigation to bring water into the dry regions, and the selection of seed based on their seed trait. Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops In the southwest, they grew beans that were self-supported, much of the way they are grown today. In the east, however, they were planted right by corn in order for the vein to be able to climb the stalk.
The gender role of the Native Americans, when it came to agriculture, varied from region to region. In the southwest area, men would prepare the soil with hoes. Hoes are Bladed Tools used to agitate the surface of the Soil around Plants to remove weeds pile soil around the base The women were in charge of planting, weeding, and harvesting the crops. In most other regions, the women were in charge of doing everything including clearing the land. Clearing the land was an immense chore since the Native Americans rotated fields frequently. There have been stories about how Squanto showed pilgrims to put fish in fields and this would acts like a fertilizer, but this story is not true. Tisquantum, more commonly known today as Squanto or 'Big Bean' (c They did plant beans next to corn; the beans would replace the nitrogen the corn took from the ground. Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 They also had controlled fires to burn weeds and this would put nutrients back into the ground. If this did not work they would simply abandon the field and go find a new spot for their field.
Some of the tools the Native Americans used were the hoe, the maul, and the dibber. Hoes are Bladed Tools used to agitate the surface of the Soil around Plants to remove weeds pile soil around the base A dibber is a pointed hand operated wooden tool for making holes in the ground so that seeds or bulbs can be planted The hoe was the main tool used to till the land and prepare it for planting and then used for weeding. The first versions were made out of wood and stone. When the settlers brought iron, Native Americans switched to iron hoes and hatches. The dibber was essentially a digging stick, and was used to plant the seed. Once the plants were harvested they were prepared by the women for eating. The maul was used to grind the corn into mash ate that way or made into corn bread. 
No particular religion or religious tradition is hegemonic among Native Americans in the United States. Most self-identifying and federally recognized Native Americans claim adherence to some form of Christianity, some of these being cultural and religious syntheses unique to the particular tribe. Traditional Native American spiritual rites and ceremonies are maintained by many Americans of both Native and non-Native identity. These spiritualities may accompany adherence to another faith, or can represent a person's primary religious identity. Spirituality, in a narrow sense concerns itself with matters of the Spirit, a concept closely tied to religious belief and Faith, a transcendent reality While much Native American spiritualism exists in a tribal-cultural continuum, and as such cannot be easily separated from tribal identity itself, certain other more clearly-defined movements have arisen within "Trad" Native American practitioners, these being identifiable as "religions" in the clinical sense. The Midewiwin Lodge is a traditional medicine society inspired by the oral traditions and prophesies of the Ojibwa (Chippewa) and related tribes. The Midewiwin (also spelled Midewin and Medewiwin) or the Grand Medicine Society is a secretive religion of the aboriginal groups of the Maritimes The Ojibwa or Chippewa (also Ojibwe, Ojibway, Chippeway) is the largest group of Native Americans - First Nations Traditional practices include the burning of sacred herbs (tobacco, sweetgrass, sage, etc. Sweet grass ( Anthoxanthum nitens) also known as Sweetgrass Holy grass buffalo grass Vanilla grass Manna grass Seneca grass Mary's grass ), the sweatlodge, fasting (paramount in "vision quests"), singing and drumming, and the smoking of natural tobacco in a pipe. The sweat lodge (also called sweat house, medicine lodge, or medicine house) is a ceremonial Sauna and an important ritual used by American Indian music is the Musics that are shared by or that distinguish American Indian Tribes and First Nations. A peace pipe, also called a calumet or medicine pipe, is a ceremonial Smoking pipe used by many Native American tribes traditionally as a token A practitioner of Native American spiritualities and religions may incorporate all, some or none of these into their personal or tribal rituals.
Another significant religious body among Native peoples is known as the Native American Church. Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or the Peyote religion originated in the U It is a syncretistic church incorporating elements of native spiritual practice from a number of different tribes as well as symbolic elements from Christianity. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Its main rite is the peyote ceremony. Lophophora williamsii (loʊˈfɒfərə wɪlˈjæmsiaɪ lō-fof′ŏ-ră will-yăm′sē-ī better known by its common name Peyote, (from the Prior to 1890, traditional religious beliefs included Wakan Tanka. In the Sioux tradition Wakan Tanka (correct Siouan spelling Wakaŋ Tȟaŋka also known as Wakan or Wakanda by the Omaha Tribe) is In the American Southwest, especially New Mexico, a syncretism between the Catholicism brought by Spanish missionaries and the native religion is common; the religious drums, chants, and dances of the Pueblo people are regularly part of Masses at Santa Fe's Saint Francis Cathedral. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. The Pueblo people are a Native American people in the Southwestern United States. The Mass is the Eucharistic celebration in the Latin liturgical rites of the Roman Catholic Church. Santa Fe ( Navajo: Yootó is the Capital of the state of New Mexico.  Native American-Catholic syncretism is also found elsewhere in the United States. (e. g. , the National Kateri Tekakwitha Shrine in Fonda, New York and the National Shrine of the North American Martyrs in Auriesville, New York). Blessed Kateri Tekakwitha or Blessed Catherine Tekakwitha (ɡɔdeli deɡɔkwidɔ in Mohawk (1656 – April 17, 1680) the daughter of a Mohawk Fonda is a Village in Montgomery County, New York, United States. The National Shrine of the North American Martyrs, also dedicated as the Shrine of Our Lady of Martyrs, is a Roman Catholic Shrine in Auriesville Auriesville is a hamlet on the south bank of the Mohawk River, in the northeast part of the Town of Glen New York, about forty miles west of Albany
Native Americans are the only known ethnic group in the United States requiring a federal permit to practice their religion. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos The eagle feather law, (Title 50 Part 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations), stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe are legally authorized to obtain eagle feathers for religious or spiritual use. In the United States, there are a number of federal wildlife laws pertaining to Eagles and their feathers (e Eagles are large birds of prey which are members of the Bird order Falconiformes and family Accipitridae, and belong to several genera A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos The term supernatural or supranatural ( Latin: super, supra "above" + natura "nature" pertains to entities events Native Americans and non-Native Americans frequently contest the value and validity of the eagle feather law, charging that the law is laden with discriminatory racial preferences and infringes on tribal sovereignty. In the United States, there are a number of federal wildlife laws pertaining to Eagles and their feathers (e The law does not allow Native Americans to give eagle feathers to non-Native Americans, a common modern and traditional practice. Eagles are large birds of prey which are members of the Bird order Falconiformes and family Accipitridae, and belong to several genera Many non-Native Americans have been adopted into Native American families, made tribal members and given eagle feathers.
Most Native American tribes had traditional gender roles. A gender role is defined as a set of perceived behavioural norms associated particularly with Males or Females in a given social group or system In some tribes, such as the Iroquois nation, social and clan relationships were matrilineal and/or matriarchal, although several different systems were in use. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse Matrilineality is a system in which lineage is traced through the mother and maternal ancestors Matriarchy is a term which is applied to gynocentric form of Society, in which the leading role is by the Female and especially by the Mothers Kinship is a relationship between any entities that share a genealogical origin through either biological cultural or historical descent One example is the Cherokee custom of wives owning the family property. Men hunted, traded and made war, while women cared for the young and the elderly, fashioned clothing and instruments and cured meat. The cradleboard was used by mothers to carry their baby while working or traveling. A cradle board is a typical North American Baby carrier used to keep babies secure and comfortable and at the same time allowing the mothers freedom to work and travel  However, in some (but not all) tribes a kind of transgender was permitted; see Two-Spirit. Transgender (trænzˈdʒɛndɚ from ( Latin) derivatives Two-Spirit (also two spirit or twospirit) people are Native Americans who fulfill one of many mixed Gender roles found traditionally among many
At least several dozen tribes allowed polygyny to sisters, with procedural and economic limits. Polygyny (which comes from neo- Greek: πολύ poly "many" + γυνή gyny "woman" is a specific form of Polygamy, 
Apart from making home, women had many tasks that were essential for the survival of the tribes. They made weapons and tools, took care of the roofs of their homes and often helped their men hunt buffalos. The American bison ( Bison bison) is a Bovine Mammal, also commonly known as the American buffalo.  In some of the Plains Indian tribes there reportedly were medicine women who gathered herbs and cured the ill. 
In some of these tribes girls were also encouraged to learn to ride and fight. Though fighting was mostly left to the boys and men, there had been cases of women fighting alongside them, especially when the existence of the tribe was threatened. 
Native American music is almost entirely monophonic, but there are notable exceptions. American Indian music is the Musics that are shared by or that distinguish American Indian Tribes and First Nations. In Music, texture is the overall quality of sound of a piece, most often indicated by the number of voices in the music and by the relationship between Traditional Native American music often includes drumming and/or the playing of rattles or other percussion instruments but little other instrumentation. The drum is a member of the percussion group technically classified as a Membranophone. Flutes and whistles made of wood, cane, or bone are also played, generally by individuals, but in former times also by large ensembles (as noted by Spanish conquistador de Soto). Native American flute has achieved some measure of fame for its distinctive sound used in a variety of New Age and World music recordings This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador The tuning of these flutes is not precise and depends on the length of the wood used and the hand span of the intended player, but the finger holes are most often around a whole step apart and, at least in Northern California, a flute was not used if it turned out to have an interval close to a half step.
Performers with Native American parentage have occasionally appeared in American popular music, such as Tina Turner, Rita Coolidge, Wayne Newton, Gene Clark, Blackfoot, Tori Amos and Redbone. Tina Turner (born Anna Mae Bullock; November 26, 1939) is an eight time Grammy Award -winning American Rita Coolidge (born May 1, 1945, in Lafayette Tennessee) is a Grammy Award-winning American singer Carson Wayne Newton' (born April 3, 1942) is an American Singer and entertainer based in Las Vegas Nevada. Gene Clark, born Harold Eugene Clark (born Tipton Missouri, November 17, 1944 - May 24, 1991) was an American Blackfoot is a Southern rock band from Jacksonville Florida. They were formed in 1972 and were contemporaries of Lynyrd Skynyrd, and tried for years to Tori Amos (born Myra Ellen Amos on August 22, 1963) is a Pianist and Singer-songwriter of dual British and American Redbone was a Native American rock group that was most active in the 1970s Some, such as John Trudell have used music to comment on life in Native America, and others, such as R. Carlos Nakai integrate traditional sounds with modern sounds in instrumental recordings. John Trudell (born February 15, 1946) is an American Author, Poet, Musician, and former political Activist R Carlos Nakai (born April 16, 1946) is a Native American flautist of Navajo / Ute heritage A variety of small and medium-sized recording companies offer an abundance of recent music by Native American performers young and old, ranging from pow-wow drum music to hard-driving rock-and-roll and rap.
The most widely practiced public musical form among Native Americans in the United States is that of the pow-wow. At pow-wows, such as the annual Gathering of Nations in Albuquerque, New Mexico, members of drum groups sit in a circle around a large drum. The Gathering of Nations is one of the largest Pow-wows in the United States New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. Drum groups play in unison while they sing in a native language and dancers in colorful regalia dance clockwise around the drum groups in the center. Familiar pow-wow songs include honor songs, intertribal songs, crow-hops, sneak-up songs, grass-dances, two-steps, welcome songs, going-home songs, and war songs. Most indigenous communities in the United States also maintain traditional songs and ceremonies, some of which are shared and practiced exclusively within the community. 
Native American art comprises a major category in the world art collection. Native American contributions include pottery(Native American pottery), paintings, jewellery, weavings, sculptures, basketry, and carvings. Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware Prior to the coming of Europeans the peoples of both the North and South American continents had a wide variety of Pottery traditions Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal Ornament, such as a necklace ring or bracelet made from Gemstones This article describes textile weaving For other senses of this word see Weaving (disambiguation. Basket weaving (also basketry, basket making, or basketmaking) is the process of Weaving unspun Vegetable Fibers into Wood carving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool held in the hand (this may be a power tool resulting in a wooden figure or figurine (this may be abstract
The integrity of certain Native American artworks is now protected by an act of Congress that prohibits representation of art as Native American when it is not the product of an enrolled Native American artist.
The Inuit, or Eskimo, prepared and buried large amounts of dried meat and fish. Inuit (plural the singular Inuk, means "man" or "person" is a general term for a group of culturally similar Indigenous peoples inhabiting Eskimos or Esquimaux are Indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the circumpolar region from eastern Siberia ( Russia) across Pacific Northwest tribes crafted seafaring dugouts 40–50 feet long for fishing. The Pacific Northwest is a region in the northwest of North America (the term refers to the land not the ocean Farmers in the Eastern Woodlands tended fields of maize with hoes and digging sticks, while their neighbors in the Southeast grew tobacco as well as food crops. On the Plains, some tribes engaged in agriculture but also planned buffalo hunts in which herds were efficiently driven over bluffs. Dwellers of the Southwest deserts hunted small animals and gathered acorns to grind into flour with which they baked wafer-thin bread on top of heated stones. Some groups on the region's mesas developed irrigation techniques, and filled storehouses with grain as protection against the area's frequent droughts. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply
As these native peoples encountered European explorers and settlers and engaged in trade, they exchanged food, crafts, and furs for trinkets, blankets, iron, and steel implements, horses, firearms, and alcoholic beverages.
There were historical treaties between the European Colonists and the Native American tribes requesting the return of any runaway slaves. In the History of slavery in the United States, a fugitive slave was a slave who had escaped his or her enslaver often with the intention of traveling to a place where For example, in 1726, the British Governor of New York exacted a promise from the Iroquois to return all runaway slaves who had joined up with them. This same promise was extracted from the Huron Natives in 1764 and from the Delaware Natives in 1765.  There are also numerous accounts of advertisements requesting the return of African Americans who had married Native Americans or who spoke a Native American language. Individuals in some tribes owned African slaves; however, other tribes incorporated African Americans, slave or freemen, into the tribe. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another This custom among the Seminoles was part of the reason for the Seminole Wars where the European Americans feared their slaves fleeing to the Natives. The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in Florida between various groups of Native Americans collectively known as The Cherokee Freedmen and tribes such as the Lumbee in North Carolina include African American ancestors. The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ a-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who at the time of European contact The Lumbee are a Native American tribe of North Carolina, though their origins are disputed
After 1800, the Cherokees and some other tribes started buying and using black slaves, a practice they continued after being relocated to Indian Territory in the 1830s. The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ a-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who at the time of European contact The Indian Territory, also known as The Indian Country, The Indian territory or the Indian territories, was land set aside within the United States The nature of slavery in Cherokee society often mirrored that of white slave-owning society. The Cherokee Freedmen Controversy is an ongoing political and tribal dispute between the administration of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma and descendants of the Cherokee The law barred intermarriage of Cherokees and blacks, whether slave or free. Blacks who aided slaves were punished with one hundred lashes on the back.  In Cherokee society, blacks were barred from holding office, bearing arms, and owning property, and it was illegal to teach blacks to read and write. 
Due to continued intermarriage between African-Americans and Native people, many people who are considered African American can claim native heritage. It has been easier for younger generations of mixed African/Native people to become more easily recognized in their respective ethnic groups. Some people of African American descent don't realize they have native heritage even though they have Native American physical features; they have confused them with being Sub-Saharan African due to the negative influence of the one-drop rule. A phenotype is any observable characteristic of an Organism, such as its morphology, Development, biochemical or physiological properties The one-drop rule is a historical colloquial term in the United States that holds that a person with any trace of African ancestry is considered black unless 
Native Americans have been depicted by American artists in various ways at different historical periods. During the period when America was first being colonized, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the artist John White made watercolors and engravings of the people native to the southeastern states. John White (c 1540 &ndash c 1606 was an English artist and one of several early "Virginian" settlers who sailed with Richard Grenville in 1585 to the modern John White’s images were, for the most part, faithful likenesses of the people he observed. Later the artist Theodore de Bry used White’s original watercolors to make a book of engravings entitled, A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia. Theodorus de Bry (1528 – 1598 was a Engraver, Goldsmith and editor who travelled around Europe starting from the City of Liège (where he In his book, de Bry often altered the poses and features of White’s figures to make them appear more European, probably in order to make his book more marketable to a European audience. During the period that White and de Bry were working, when Europeans were first coming into contact with native Americans, there was a large interest and curiosity in native American cultures by Europeans, which would have created the demand for a book like de Bry’s.
Several centuries later, during the construction of the Capitol building in the early nineteenth century, the U.S. government commissioned a series of four relief panels to crown the doorway of the Rotunda. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. The rotunda is the central rotunda of the United States Capitol, below the Capitol dome. The reliefs encapsulate a vision of European—Native American relations that had assumed mythicohistorical proportions by the nineteenth century. The four panels depict: The Preservation of Captain Smith by Pocahontas (1825) by Antonio Capellano, The Landing of the Pilgrims (1825) and The Conflict of Daniel Boone and the Indians (1826–27) by Enrico Causici, and William Penn’s Treaty with the Indians (1827) by Nicholas Gevelot. The reliefs present idealized versions of the Europeans and the native Americans, in which the Europeans appear refined and gentile, and the natives appear ferocious and savage. The Whig representative of Virginia, Henry A. Wise, voiced a particularly astute summary of how Native Americans would read the messages contained in all four reliefs: “We give you corn, you cheat us of our lands: we save your life, you take ours. The Whig Party was a Political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Henry Alexander Wise ( December 3, 1806 September 12, 1876) was an American statesman from Virginia. ”
While many nineteenth century images of native Americans conveyed similarly negative messages, there were artists, such as Charles Bird King, who sought to express a more realistic image of the native Americans. Charles Bird King (1785–1862 is a United States artist who is best known for his portraiture
The term Native American was originally introduced in the United States by anthropologists as a more accurate term for the indigenous people of the Americas, as distinguished from the people of India. The Native American name controversy is an ongoing dispute over the acceptable ways to refer to the Indigenous peoples of the Americas and to the broad subsets thereof such The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Because of the widespread acceptance of this newer term in and outside of academic circles, some people believe that Indians is outdated or offensive. People from India (and their descendants) who are citizens of the United States are known as Indian Americans or Asian Indians. Indian Americans are Americans who are of Indian ancestry The U
Criticism of the neologism Native American, however, comes from diverse sources. Some American Indians have misgivings about the term Native American. Russell Means, a famous American Indian activist, opposes the term Native American because he believes it was imposed by the government without the consent of American Indians. Russell Charles Means ( Lakota: Oyate Wacinyapin (Works for the People born November 10 1939) is one of contemporary America 's best-known  Furthermore, some American Indians question the term Native American because, they argue, it serves to ease the conscience of "white America" with regard to past injustices done to American Indians by effectively eliminating "Indians" from the present.  Still others (both Indians and non-Indians) argue that Native American is problematic because "native of" literally means "born in," so any person born in the Americas could be considered "native". However, very often the compound "Native American" will be capitalized in order to differentiate this intended meaning from others. Capitalization (or capitalisation &mdash see spelling differences) is writing a word with its first letter as a Majuscule (upper case letter Likewise, "native" (small 'n') can be further qualified by formulations such as "native-born" when the intended meaning is only to indicate place of birth or origin.
A 1995 US Census Bureau survey found that more American Indians in the United States preferred American Indian to Native American.  Nonetheless, most American Indians are comfortable with Indian, American Indian, and Native American, and the terms are often used interchangeably.  The traditional term is reflected in the name chosen for the National Museum of the American Indian, which opened in 2004 on the Mall in Washington, D.C.. The Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian is a museum dedicated to the life languages literature history and arts of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D
Recently, the U. S. Census Bureau has introduced the "Asian Indian" category to avoid ambiguity when sampling the Indian-American population.
In 2005, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated that about 1. 0 percent of the U. S. population was of American Indian or Alaska Native descent. Alaska Natives are Indigenous peoples of the Americas native to the state of Alaska within the United States. This population is unevenly distributed across the country: Native Americans formed more than one-tenth of the population of the states of Alaska and New Mexico, while in five states they constituted only 0. 2% of the population.  Below, the states (and the District of Columbia) are listed by the proportion of residents citing American Indian or Alaska Native ancestry, based on 2005 estimates:
DjVu (pronounced Déjà vu) is a Computer File format designed primarily to store scanned images especially those containing text and line