Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States Peyotism involves the use of the entheogen Peyote, a spineless cactus. An entheogen, in the strictest sense is a Psychoactive substance used in a religious or shamanic (or entheogenic) context Lophophora williamsii (loʊˈfɒfərə wɪlˈjæmsiaɪ lō-fof′ŏ-ră will-yăm′sē-ī better known by its common name Peyote, (from the A cactus (plural cacti) is any member of the Spine plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas
Peyote was used in the territory of modern-day Mexico in pre-Columbian times to commune with the spirit world and also as a medicine. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the In the mid 15th century, the use of peyote spread to the Great Plains area of the United States primarily through the efforts of the Apache people. The Great Plains are the broad expanse of Prairie and Steppe which lie east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Statistics are uncertain, but Peyotism is practiced in more than 50 Indian tribes and probably around 250,000 adherentes. 
Peyotist belief varies considerably from tribe to tribe. Among the various beliefs are: belief in Jesus as a Native American culture hero, an intercessor for man or a spiritual guardian; belief in the Bible; belief in Peyote personified as a God; and association of Jesus with Peyote. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) A culture hero is a Mythological Hero specific to some group ( cultural, ethnic, racial, religious, etc Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. Peyotists believe in a supreme God. The "Peyote Road" calls for Indian brotherly love (i. e. Indian Nationalism), family care, self-support through work, avoidance of alcohol, and avoidance of recreational drug use. Indian nationalism refers to the consciousness and expression of political social religious and ethnic influences that help mould Indian national consciousness
Traditionally, peyote is used in pursuit of bona fide religious faith in ceremony daily, and at all times; ceremony is a way of life practiced by Shaman, mystics, and medicine people. Lophophora williamsii (loʊˈfɒfərə wɪlˈjæmsiaɪ lō-fof′ŏ-ră will-yăm′sē-ī better known by its common name Peyote, (from the Peyote ritual or ceremony can be conducted by ones-self and Creator, with a guide, or in a group, at any place or time The Spirit or Creator and the participant deem it necessary. Ceremony or ritual is not limited to tipis or hogans, or to a certain number of people.
For some chapters of the Native American Church, the peyote ritual begins at 8 p. m. Saturday and continues through the night. The ritual includes prayer, the eating of peyote, Peyote songs, water rituals, and contemplation. Prayer is the act of attempting to communicate with a Deity or spirit Peyote songs are a form of Native American music, now most often performed as part of the Native American Church. It ends with breakfast Sunday morning. The peyote ritual is believed to allow communion with God and the deceased and to give power, guidance, and healing. The healing may be emotional or physical, or both.
Many Tribes practice inipi ceremonies, a. k. a. Sweat lodge, which involves prayer, singing, and the taking of the peyote sacrament. The sweat lodge (also called sweat house, medicine lodge, or medicine house) is a ceremonial Sauna and an important ritual used by These ceremonies are of shorter duration than a NAC tipi peyote ceremony, and are performed during the day, and at night.
For those Church members who feel they need structure, the communal ingestion of peyote and the ceremony of the Church meeting helps participants get into a proper relationship with each other and with God. In turn this leads to an ability to live a good day-to-day life. Church members have a very strong community awareness. A good life is considered to be one that is kind and responsible--and over and above all else, one that embodies love. Native people have turned to the Church and relied on it when their lives have been beset by substance-abuse or domestic problems.
In regards to the ideal frame of mind and manner of conduct, the Native American Church has affinity with various forms of Christianity. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings But it also has close affinity with the values of some forms of Buddhism, Zen for example. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism, referred to in Chinese as Chan. The renowned Zen Buddhist scholar D.T. Suzuki wrote that the aspects of this life were: a life of humility; a life of labor; a life of service; a life of prayer and gratitude; and a life of meditation. This is quite close to what the Native American Church deems to be a proper life.
Peyotism has faced many legal challenges for Native Americans and non-Native Americans. In the United States, federal law currently restricts peyote use in religious ceremonies to members of Federally Recognized Tribal entities; and although the Native American Religious Freedom Act of 1994 and 1996 specifically states that Native Americans are exempt from persecution under the law, conflicts between those who use peyote in religious ceremonies and state governments have continued in some circumstances. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Lophophora williamsii (loʊˈfɒfərə wɪlˈjæmsiaɪ lō-fof′ŏ-ră will-yăm′sē-ī better known by its common name Peyote, (from the Currently, laws regulating peyote use vary by state, although most follow the stipulations of the Native American Freedom Act. Use of peyote (religious or non-religious) outside of the ceremonies of the Native American Church is far more likely to be viewed as illegal by state authorities.
Quanah Parker is credited as the founder of the Native American Church Movement, which started in the 1890s, and formally incorporated in 1918. Quanah Parker (c late 1840s - February 23, 1911) was a Native American Indian leader the son of Comanche chief Peta Nocona and The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the " Mauve Decade" because William Henry Perkin 's aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that Parker adopted the peyote religion after reportedly seeing a vision of Jesus Christ while suffering from a near fatal wound following a battle with Federal Troops. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Peyote is reported to contain hordenine and tyramine, phenylethylamine alkaloids which act as potent natural antibiotics when taken in a combined form. Lophophora williamsii (loʊˈfɒfərə wɪlˈjæmsiaɪ lō-fof′ŏ-ră will-yăm′sē-ī better known by its common name Peyote, (from the Hordenine (N N-Dimethyl-hydroxyphenylethylamine is a Phenylethylamine Alkaloid with antibacterial and Antibiotic properties In organic Chemistry tyramine (4-hydroxy- Phenethylamine, para-tyramine p-tyramine is a Monoamine compound derived from the Phenethylamine, or β -phenylethylamine or 2-phenylethylamine is an Alkaloid and Monoamine. This article is about the chemical compounds alkaloids For the Pharmaceutical company in the Republic of Macedonia see Alkaloid (company. Parker was given peyote by Carrizo Coahuilatecan Indians in south Texas who healed him and showed him the proper way to run peyote ceremonies. Therefore, the genesis of modern NAC ceremonies have deep roots in Mexican Indian culture and ritual, due to the natural locality of Peyote and the dissemination by Parker to the Comanche and other plains tribes located in Indian Territory. . This key aspect of medicine history is often overlooked, and tension arises between NAC members who discriminate against Mexicans, ignorant to the knowledge that the way formed in this church was started by Mexican Indian relatives. Parker's words and teachings comprise the core of the Native American Church Doctrine and the "Peyote Road. "
Parker taught that the Sacred Peyote Medicine was the Sacrament given to all Peoples by the Creator, and was to be used with water when taking communion in some Native American Church medicine ceremonies. Parker created the "half-moon" style of the peyote ceremony. The "cross fire" ceremony (originally called the "Blue Moon" ceremony) later evolved in Oklahoma (initially among the Kiowa Indians) due to influences introduced by John Wilson, a Caddo Indian who traveled extensively with Parker during the early days of the Native American Church movement. The Kiowa (ˈkaɪoʊwə are a nation of American Indians who migrated from what is now Canada to their present location in Southwestern Oklahoma. The Caddo are a nation or group of tribes of Southeastern Native Americans who in the 16th century inhabited much of what is now East Texas, western The Native American Church was the first truly "American" religion based on Christianity outside of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known
Parker's most famous teaching regarding the Spirituality of the Native American Church:
The modern reservation era in Native American History saw many tribes adopting this religion. The Peyote religion and the Native American Church, however, was never the traditional religious practice of North American Indian Cultures. This religion was created by Parker's vision of Christ and was driven by influences from Mexico and other Southern Tribes who have used peyote since ancient times. Under Parker's leadership, peyote became an important item of trade, and this, combined with his Church movement and political and financial contacts, garnered Parker enormous wealth during his lifetime. d
The peyote religion evolved an elaborate trade network which has persisted since pre-Columbian times, in Southern Texas, with designated harvesters of the peyote in Rio Grande City,Texas, and Mirando City,Texas. The Peyoteros are a group of closely knit families of Spanish ancestry who have harvested peyote for Native Americans since the early 1700s. The modern peyoteros still harvest peyote in the same manner as their ancestors, with a machete' and a very small work crew of young and sometimes old men. Peyote is harvested and dried after the crowns of the plants are removed at ground level; cut at an angle, to allow water to run off. The peyoteros never dig up peyote, but rather cut the tops of the cactus crowns at ground level with a machete'. Peyote plants create large taproots with an extensive root system, and the plants slowly regenerate new heads after harvest, often producing a much larger plant after several years of regrowth. Lophophora williamsii (loʊˈfɒfərə wɪlˈjæmsiaɪ lō-fof′ŏ-ră will-yăm′sē-ī better known by its common name Peyote, (from the Currently, Peyote is being overharvested. seriously endangering the existence of the local populations of peyote. There are only 3 licensed Peyoteros left in Texas, due to overhavesting, and illegal poaching, and strict licensing and tax regulations by the Texas Department of Public Safety and the U. S. Federal government. Two Peyoteros in South Texas are Mauro Morales of Rio Grande City, Texas, and Salvador Johnson of Mirando City, Texas. Rio Grande City is a city in Starr County, Texas, United States. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Mirando City is a Census-designated place (CDP in Webb County, Texas, United States. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State.
Indians are permitted to purchase peyote to supply the Native American Church both in person and via US Mails "Restricted Delivery" procedures. Special ceremonies are performed with the harvested and dried peyote medicine in order to bless it for use as a sacrament for Native American Church rituals and ceremonies.
All three of the peyoteros are licensed by the United States Drug Enforcement Agency and operate under DEA 225 permits. Peyoteros are also required to be registered with the State of Texas Department of Public Safety, for a fee over $1,200 per year in a poverty stricken area of south Texas. Legitimate Native American Church Branches are required to register with the Texas Department of Public Safety in order to purchase, harvest, transport, or cultivate peyote. Non-Indian churches not affiliated with Federally Recognized Tribal entities are not eligible for registration with the Texas Department of Public Safety at this time.
Archaeological discoveries in Arizona and Southern Texas indicate that peyote has been used by the Southwestern Tribes and their ancestors since antiquity. Peyote has been found carbon dated as 10,000 years old in caves in Southern Texas and Arizona. The mummified samples did not resemble modern peyote and were larger and more domed in comparison to modern populations of Lophophora williamsii. A mummy is a Corpse whose Skin and Flesh have been preserved by either intentional or Incidental exposure to Chemicals extreme Lophophora williamsii (loʊˈfɒfərə wɪlˈjæmsiaɪ lō-fof′ŏ-ră will-yăm′sē-ī better known by its common name Peyote, (from the Lophophora ( John M Coulter, 1894) is a Genus of spineless button-like cacti native to the southwestern United States These samples also contained up to 6% mescaline by weight even after thousands of years in a desiccated state. Mescaline or 345-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a naturally-occurring Psychedelic Alkaloid of the Phenethylamine class Modern Lophophora varieties average 3% mescaline in comparison. Mescaline or 345-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a naturally-occurring Psychedelic Alkaloid of the Phenethylamine class The Dine (Navajo) oral traditions and those of other Southwest tribes indicate that a cold tolerant, high altitude variety of peyote existed in the area of the Grand Canyon in ancient times, called "white peyote" which was rumored to be of cosmic potency. The Navajo or Diné people (also spelled Navaho) of the Southwestern United States
Recent discoveries and botanical evidence indicates modern Lophophora species may in fact be divergent hybrids of Lophophora diffusa and a species recently named Lophophora brackii, a high altitude domed "white" peyote with 'Z' patterns and articulated ribbing that originates from a single population confined to a mountain near Viesca, in the northern state of Coahuila, Mexico. UserPolbot. --> Lophophora diffusa (also called Peyote) is a species of Plant in the Viesca is a small town located in the northern Mexican state of Coahuila. Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza is one of Mexico 's 31 component states. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Modern Lophophora varieties exhibit pollen structure which ranges from 3 pored pollen from its western ranges up to 9 pored pollen in the Eastern Range where Lophophora decipiens grows under extremely arid conditions, characteristics of a natural hybrid. Lophophora diffusa more closely resembles primitive cacti than the other Lophophora varieties and this species also exists as an isolated population in a mountainous area and is more cold tolerant than Lophophora williamsii populations. Lophophora williamsii (loʊˈfɒfərə wɪlˈjæmsiaɪ lō-fof′ŏ-ră will-yăm′sē-ī better known by its common name Peyote, (from the
Currently, Peyote is on the Endangered Species List in Mexico, where it is more abundant than in the U. S. where it is not on the Endangered Species List. It is currently illegal to harvest peyote species in Mexico as all Cacti are protected under CITES and the Mexican Government has enacted strict laws to protect native cactus species. A cactus (plural cacti) is any member of the Spine plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas CITES (the United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments drafted A cactus (plural cacti) is any member of the Spine plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas