A national language is a language (or language variant, i. A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them e. dialect) which has some connection - de facto or de jure - with a people and perhaps by extension the territory they occupy. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of The term is used variously. A national language may for instance represent the national identity of a nation or country. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity National language may alternatively be a designation given to one or more languages spoken as first languages in the territory of a country.
C. M. B. Brann, with particular reference to Africa, suggests that there are "four quite distinctive meanings" for national language in a polity:
The latter seems often to be given the title "official language. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory "
"National language" and "official language" are best understood as two concepts or legal categories with ranges of meaning that may coincide, or may be intentionally separate. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Obviously a stateless nation is not in the position to legislate an official language, but their language may be considered a national language. A stateless nation is a political term used to imply that a group usually a minority Ethnic group, is a Nation, and is entitled to its own State, specifically An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory
A national language declared as such by legislation could be the same as an official language. Legislation (or " Statutory law " is law which has been promulgated (or " Enacted quot by a Legislature or other Governing An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory It is different for that reason from the national predominant language, which is a national language only through de facto use or by historical association with a particular nation. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered
A national language is used for political and legal discourse. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Discourse (L discursus, "running to and from" means either "written or spoken communication or debate" or "a formal discussion
Some languages may be recognized popularly as "national languages," while others may enjoy a high degree of official recognition. Some examples of national languages that are not official languages include Aromanian, Cherokee, and Navajo (and other living Native American languages). Aromanian ( limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ Tsalagi) is an Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people which uses a unique syllabary writing system Navajo or Navaho ( native name: Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock spoken in the southwest United States by Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and
Certain languages may enjoy government recognition or even status as official languages in some countries while not in others. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory
In China, plenty of spoken variants exist in different parts of the country. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Spoken Chinese ( comprises many regional variants the largest of which are Mandarin, Wu, Cantonese, and Min. In ancient times, several local dialects were chosen as the official spoken language, such as the dialects from Hangzhou, Nanjing, etc. ( Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a Sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the People's Republic of China, ( Chinese: 南京 Romanizations Nánjīng ( Pinyin) Nan-ching ( Wade-Giles
After the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 , the Chinese Nationalist party (the Kuomintang) founded the Republic of China. The Xinhai Revolution or Shinhai Revolution ( also known as the 1911 Revolution or the Chinese Revolution, began with the Wuchang Uprising REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES In order to promote a sense of national unity and enhance the efficiency of communications within the nation, the Government decided to designate a national language. The Beijing dialect of Mandarin and Guangzhou dialect of Cantonese were the most popular options, and the Beijing dialect was chosen as the national language, given the name " 国语" in Chinese (Pinyin: Guóyǔ, lit. Beijing dialect ( is the Dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China. Standard Cantonese is the standard variant of the Cantonese (Yuet language Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use national language, commonly known as "Standard Mandarin" in English). In the beginning there were attempts to introduce elements from other Chinese spoken variants into the national language, in addition to those existing in the Beijing dialect. But this was deemed too difficult, and was abandoned in 1924. Since then the Beijing dialect became the major source of standard national pronunciation, due to its prestigious status in the preceding Qing Dynasty. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Elements from other dialects continue to exist in the standard language.
After the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Chinese communist party established the People's Republic of China in mainland China. The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction The nationalist regime of the Republic of China retreated to the island of Taiwan and maintained the same policy. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. Similarly, the People's Republic of China, which administers mainland China, continued the effort, and renamed the national language that is largely based on the Beijing dialect as "普通話" (Pinyin: pǔtōnghuà, lit. Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction common speech) in Chinese. 
The European Union has a list of 23 official languages, including English, French, German, Spanish, Greek, Portuguese, Polish, Italian, Hungarian and others. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The languages of the European Union are Languages used by people within the member states of the European Union. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe.
Suomi - Finland has two national languages namely Finnish language (suomi) and (Finland-)Swedish language ((finlands)svenska), according to the Constitution of Finland. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the For the constitution of the Grand Duchy of Finland see Swedish Constitution of 1772 The Constitution of Finland (in Finnish However, there is an aboriginal nation Sami (saami) and another group Romani (romani) that have their languages mentioned as legal to be maintained and developed by such groups. The Sami have partial right to use Sami languages in official situations according to other laws. Sami or Saami is a general name for a group of Finnic languages spoken by the Sami people in parts of northern Finland, Norway
Swedish language (6% of people) is a valid language everywhere in Finland, whereas Finnish language (92% of people) is most widely used, but is not legally valid everywhere. Despite the large difference in the numbers of users, Swedish is not officially classified as a minority language but equal to Finnish language. E. g. , there are some Swedish-only, but no Finnish-only universities. Finnish is legally in many cases banned in Åland Islands. In specific cases, Finnish language in particular may be forbidden in other regions in Finland, but in Sweden and Norway, too.
Most often bilingual Finns are counted as Swedes. Leading politicians have during the 2000s begun to proclaim that in order to have the identity of a Finn, one must possess Swedish skills. Historically, it has not been so, which we can see also from the Kalevala, or other old folklore, where no word of Swedish was used. The Kalevala is a book and epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian Folklore in the nineteenth Today, all schools at any grade compel all Finns to study Swedish, and one cannot get any exam nor public servant position above peon level, without particular exam/ certificate of Swedish language. Similar requirements for Swedes to know Finnish are required partially.
Neither the Constitution of India nor Indian law specifies a National language. The Constitution of India envisages Hindi as the primary official language to be used by the Union Government, with English as the subsidiary official language The Constitution of India ( Hindi: भारतीय़ संविधान see names in other Indian languages) is the supreme law of India. Article 343 of the constitution specifies that the official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. Article 354 specifies that the legislature of a State may by law adopt any one or more of the languages in use in the State or Hindi as the Language or Languages to be used for all or any of the official purposes of that State.  Section 8 of The Official Languages Act of 1963 (as amended in 1967) empowers the Union Government to make rules regarding the languages which may be used for the official purposes of the Union, for transaction of business in Parliament, and for communication between the Union Government and the states.  Section 3 of G. S. R. 1053, titled "Rules, 1976 (As Amended, 1987)" specifies that communications from a Central (Union) Government office to a State or a Union Territory in shall, save in exceptional cases (Region "A") or shall ordinarily (Region "B"), be in Hindi, and if any communication is issued to any of them in English it shall be accompanied by a Hindi translation thereof. 
Tamil Nadu state communicates with the Union Government in Tamil and English due to its two language policy. Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
Irish (Gaeilge), a Celtic language, is recognized as the primary constitutional language of Ireland; notwithstanding that English is the de facto language of the nation. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic" a branch of the greater Indo-European Language family. Irish is spoken by about 1% of its population as a first language in restricted geographical locations. However, according to the 2002 Census of Population, 42% of the population of Ireland have the ability to speak Irish. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. The Irish government is committed to the development of a bilingual society, where as many people as possible can use Irish and English with equal ease and facility. 
In Malta, the Maltese language is the national language. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands Maltese (Maltese Malti is the National language of Malta, and a co-official language of the country alongside English, This is recognised as official as well together with English. In Malta most of the people speak the Maltese language and it is recognised as "national" in Chapter 1 of the Laws of Malta.
The Filipino language, which is based on Tagalog alone although it should also be based on other existing Filipino languages, is designated by the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines as the national language. Filipino is the national and an Official language of the Philippines as designated in the 1987 Philippine Constitution. Tagalog is one of the major languages used in the Philippines. In Philippines there are over 170 languages almost all of them belong to the Austronesian language family. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) The Constitution of the Philippines ( Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas in Filipino) is the supreme Law of the Philippines The constitution also designates both Filipino and English as official languages for purposes of communication and instruction, and designates the regional languages as auxiliary official languages in the regions to serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. More than 170 languages are spoken in the Philippines and almost all of them belong to the Borneo-Philippines languages group of the Austronesian language family. In Philippines there are over 170 languages almost all of them belong to the Austronesian language family. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP As of 2008, leaders from the Ilocos region and other Ilocano-dominated provinces are considering the possible declaration of Ilocano language as an official language in their provinces along with the national language to foster the continuity of their language and heritage. Ilocos collectively refers to two provinces in the Philippines: Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur. The Ilocano or Ilokano people are the third largest Filipino Ethnolinguistic group To view the Ilokano edition of this Wikipedia article select from the in other languages section to the side of this page
In Singapore, the Malay language is the national and official language, since it is the native language of Malay Singaporeans, who were the original inhabitants of the land but are now a minority due to mass ethnic Chinese immigration and who, as of the 2000 census, make up only about 14% of the total population of 4. Singapore The Malay language ( ISO 639-1 code MS is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people and people of other ethnic groups who reside in the Malays (Melayu are an Ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast 55 million.  Three other languages enjoy official language status, including English, which is the language of business and governance and the medium of instruction in public schools; Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used in mainland China and Taiwan Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. 
In the USA, English is the national language only in an informal sense, by numbers and by historical and contemporary association. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The US Constitution does not explicitly declare any official language, although the constitution is written in English, as is all federal legislation. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory
On May 8, 2007, Senator James M. Inhofe (R-Okla. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. A senate is a Deliberative body, often the Upper house or chamber of a Legislature or Parliament. James Mountain "Jim" Inhofe (born November 17 1934 is a American Politician from Oklahoma. ) introduced Senate Bill S. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives 1335, which would declare English as the official language of the government of the United States. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The bill would require that the U. S. government conduct its official activities in English, repeal federal bilingual voting requirements, and require naturalization ceremonies to be conducted solely in the English language. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. Naturalization is the acquisition of Citizenship or Nationality by somebody who was not a citizen or national of that country when he or she was born The bill contains a provision preventing it from pre-empting any law of any U.S. state. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government 
Previous incarnations of this bill were co-written and supported by Ron Unz, a California millionaire. Ron K Unz, (born 1961 in North Hollywood) is a former Businessman and political activist best known for an unsuccessful race in 1994 for the Governorship California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. He, along with his organization (U.S. English), has been pushing for the "English-Only" cause for many years. This article is about the political organization US English For the dialect of English spoken in the United States see American English. English-only movement, called also Official English movement by its supporters refers to a Political movement for the use only of the English language
As of May 2007, several bills relating to English as a national language are pending in the U.S.House of Representatives. MAY ( also known as: Mei メイ 메이 is a Korean singer well known in South Korea for singing the song "Miracle" Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate.