The nation state is a certain form of state that gets its legitimacy from serving as a sovereign entity for a nation as a sovereign territorial unit. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. The state is a political and geopolitical entity; the nation is a cultural and/or ethnic entity. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Geopolitics is the study that analyzes Geography, History and Social science with reference to Spatial politics and patterns at various scales Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic The term "nation state" implies that they geographically coincide, and this distinguishes the nation state from the other types of state, which historically preceded it. If successfully implemented, this implies that the citizens share a common language, culture, and values — which was not the case in many historical states. A world of nation states also implements the claim to self-determination and autonomy for every nation, a central theme of the ideology of nationalism. "The world " is a proper noun for the planet Earth envisioned from an Anthropocentric or Human Worldview, as a place Self-determination is defined as free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion and especially as the freedom of the people of a given Territory to determine their Autonomy ( Greek: Auto- Nomos - nomos meaning "law" one who gives oneself his/her own Law) is the right to Self-government An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation (For ambiguities in the usage of terms such as nation, international, state, and country, see Nation). A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered
Political science uses the term "nation state" for most existing sovereign state. Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems Even if their political boundaries do not coincide with ethnic boundaries.
In some cases, the geographic boundaries of an ethnic population and a political state largely coincide. In these cases, there is little immigration or emigration, few members of ethnic minorities, and few members of the "home" ethnicity living in other countries. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term "Emigrant" redirects here For the Butterflies, see Catopsilia.
Portugal is one example of a nation state. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Although surrounded by other lands and people, the Portuguese nation has occupied the same territory for almost 900 years. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered Since its foundation, in 1143, Portugal remained as a single nation living in a single country. Ethnically, Portuguese people are related to various peoples that passed through and settled in the territory of modern Portugal: native iberian peoples, ancient mediterraneans (Greeks, Phoenicians) Celts, Romans, Germanic peoples like the Suebi and the Visigoths, invading Berbers and Arabs and Jews. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Suebi or Suevi (from Proto-Germanic * swēbaz based on the Proto-Germanic root * swē- meaning "one's own" The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East The modern Portuguese people is a very old amalgam of distinct historical populations. Portugal, particularly the south of what is now that country, was ruled by the Moors for around 500 years. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent Portugal had a large colonial Empire for more than 500 years. The Portuguese Empire was the earliest and longest lived of the modern European colonial empires spanning almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta Nowadays, Portugal is a very singular country that is still seen as a nation state. However, Galicians are still considered by some as the same ethnic stock as the Portuguese (specially those in the north). The Galicians ( Galician: Galegos) are an Ethnic group or Nationality whose homeland is Galicia, which is a historical region
Iceland is often seen as a strong example of a nation state. Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( Although the inhabitants are ethnically related to other Scandinavian groups, the national culture and language are found only in Iceland. There are no cross-border minorities — the nearest land is too far away.
Japan is also traditionally seen as a good example of a nation state, although it includes minorities of the ethnically distinct Ryūkyū peoples in the south, Koreans, Chinese and Filipinos, and on the northern island of Hokkaidō, the indigenous Ainu minority; see also Japanese Demographics and Ethnic issues in Japan. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Ryukyuans ( Japanese: 琉球民族 Ryūkyū minzoku; Japanese Gairaigo based on Uchinaguchi ウチナンチュ Uchinanchu) are the Indigenous The Korean people are an East Asian Ethnic group. Most Koreans speak the Korean language. Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. Filipinos or the Filipino people are the citizens of the Philippines. WikipediaWikiProject Japanese prefectures for guidelines --> formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japan 's ʔáinu (also called Ezo in historical texts are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. In 2005 a United Nations special rapporteur on racism and xenophobia expressed concerns about "deep and profound" racism in Japan and insufficient government recognition
Both Iceland and Japan are island nations. Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Portugal, curiously, is not an island and is surrounded by other historic nations in Europe. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. An island (ˈaɪlənd or isle (/ˈaɪl/ is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water in two dimensions above high tide and isolated from other significant
The notion of a "national identity" also extends to countries which host multiple ethnic or language groups. For example, Switzerland is constitutionally a confederation of cantons, and has four official languages, but it has also a 'Swiss' national identity, a national history, and a classic national hero, Wilhelm Tell. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the states of the Federal state of Switzerland. William Tell (;) 
Many historical conflicts have arisen where political boundaries do not correspond with ethnic or cultural boundaries. For example, the Hatay Province was transferred to Turkey from Syria after the majority-Turk population complained of mistreatment. Hatay is a province of southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast with Syria to the south and east Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية The traditional homeland of the Kurdish people extends between northern Iraq and eastern Turkey, and western Iran. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Some of its inhabitants call for the creation of an independent Kurdistan, citing mistreatment by the Turkish and Iraqi governments. History See also History of the Kurdish people Ancient period See also Hurrians, Guti, Mannaeans, Medes An armed conflict between the Kurdistan Workers Party and the Turkish government over this issue has been ongoing since 1984. The Kurdistan Workers' Party (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan or PKK, also called KADEK, Kongra-Gel, and KGK It is listed as a terrorist
Belgium is a classic example of a disputed nation state. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The state was formed by secession from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1830 - protected by the Treaty of London 1839, and the Flemish population in the north speaks Dutch. United Kingdom of the Netherlands (or Kingdom of the United Netherlands) (1815 - 1830 (1839 (Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas was the unofficial Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. The Flemish identity is also ethnic and cultural, and there is a strong separatist movement. Vlaams Belang ( English: Flemish Interest) is an anti-immigration right-wing Political party in the Flemish Community of Belgium The Walloon identity is linguistic (Francophone) and regionalist. Wallonia, or Wallonie, (Wallonie Wallonien Wallonië Waloneye is the Meridional part of Belgium belonging to the Romance linguistic field In Politics, regionalism is a Political ideology that focuses on the interests of a particular Region or group of regions whether traditional or formal There is also a unitary Belgian nationalism, several versions of a Greater Netherlands ideal, and a German-speaking region annexed from Prussia in 1920, and re-annexed by Germany in 1940–1944. Belgian Nationalism (or Belgicistic nationalism; Dutch: Belgicisme; French: Belgicanisme) defines an ideology The Greater Netherlands (Groot-Nederland or Grootneerlandisme is the political aspiration of some in the Low Countries. The German-speaking Community of Belgium (Deutschsprachige Gemeinschaft Belgiens DGB) is one of the three federal communities in Belgium. Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state
China covers a large geographic area, and uses the concept of "Zhonghua minzu" — "a Chinese people" — although it also officially recognises the majority Han ethnic group, and no fewer than 55 national minorities. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Zhonghua minzu ( Traditional Chinese: 中華民族 ( Simplified Chinese: 中华民族 Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínzú sometimes translated as Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. Ethnic minorities in China refer to the non- Han Chinese population in Mainland China and Taiwan.
Where part of the national group lives in a neighbouring nation state, it is usually called a national minority. In some cases states have reciprocal national minorities, for instance the Slovaks in Hungary and the Magyars (ethnic Hungarians) in Slovakia. } The Slovaks or Slovakians are a western Slavic People that primarily inhabit Slovakia and speak the Slovak language, which is Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million
National minorities should not be confused with a national diaspora, which is typically located far from the national border. The term Diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά &ndash " a scattering or sowing of seeds " refers any population sharing common ethnic Most modern diasporas result from economic migration, for example the Irish diaspora. The Irish diaspora (Diaspóra na nGael consists of Irish Emigrants and their descendants in countries such as Great Britain, the United States
The possession of dependent territories does influence the status of a nation state. A dependent territory dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political Independence or Sovereignty as a A state with large colonial possessions is obviously inhabited by many ethnic groups, and is not a mono-ethnic state. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism However, in most cases, the colonies were not considered an integral part of the motherland, and were separately administered. Motherland is a term that may refer to a mother country, ie the place of one's birth the place of origin of an Ethnic group or Immigrant, or a Metropole Some European nation states have dependent territories in Europe. Denmark contains virtually all ethnic Danes and has relatively few foreign nationals within it. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe The term Dane may refer to People with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity whether living in Denmark, emigrants or the descendants of emigrants However, it exercises sovereignty over the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself The Faroe Islands or Faeroe Islands or simply Faroe(s or Faeroes (Føroyar meaning " Sheep Islands" Færøerne Old Norse Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the
The origins and early history of nation states are disputed. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation A major theoretical issue is: "which came first — the nation or the nation state?" For nationalists themselves, the answer is that the nation existed first, nationalist movements arose to present its legitimate demand for sovereignty, and the nation state met that demand. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself Some "modernisation theories" of nationalism see the national identity largely as a product of government policy, to unify and modernise an already existing state. Most theories see the nation state as a 19th-century European phenomenon, facilitated by developments such as mass literacy and the early mass media. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" However, historians also note the early emergence of a relatively unified state, and a sense of common identity, in England, Portugal and the Dutch Republic. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
In France, Eric Hobsbawm argues, the French state preceded the formation of the French people. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( Hobsbawm considers that the state made the French nation, and not French nationalism, which emerged at the end of the 19th century, the time of the Dreyfus Affair. The Dreyfus Affair a Political scandal which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s At the time of the 1789 French Revolution, only half of the French people spoke some French, and between 12% to 13% spoke it "fairly", according to Hobsbawm. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an During Italian unification, the number of people speaking the Italian language was even lower. Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. The French state promoted the unification of various dialects and languages into the French language. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The introduction of conscription, and the Third Republic's 1880s laws on public instruction, facilitated the creation of a national identity, under this theory. Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority The French Third Republic (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe
The theorist Benedict Anderson argues that nations are "imagined communities" (the members cannot possibly know each other), and that the main causes of nationalism and the creation of an imagined community are the reduction of privileged access to particular script languages (e. Benedict Richard O'Gorman Anderson (born August 26, 1936) is Aaron L The imagined community is a concept coined by Benedict Anderson which states that a Nation is a Community socially constructed which is to say A writing system is a type of Symbolic system used to represent elements or statements expressible in Language. g. Latin), the movement to abolish the ideas of divine rule and monarchy, as well as the emergence of the printing press under a system of capitalism (or, as Anderson calls it, "print-capitalism"). The Divine Right of Kings is a general term that refers to the philosophy and ideas used to justify the authority and legitimacy of Monarchs in Medieval and A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a medium (such as paper or cloth thereby transferring an image Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where The "state-driven" theories of the origin of nation states tend to emphasise a few specific states, such as France and its rival England. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland These states expanded from core regions, and developed a national consciousness and sense of national identity ("Frenchness" and "Englishness"). Both assimilated peripheral regions (Wales, Brittany, Aquitaine and Occitania); these areas experienced a revival of interest in the regional culture in the 19th century, leading to the creation of autonomist movements in the 20th century. Aquitaine (Aquitània Akitania archaic Guyenne / Guienne (Occitan Guiana) is one of the 26 Regions of France, in the south-western part of Occitania ( Occitan: Occitània) refers to the lands where Occitan is the traditional language in use though more recently viewed as a minority language
Some nation states, such as Germany or Italy, came into existence at least partly as a result of political campaigns by nationalists, during the nineteenth century. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation In both cases, the territory was previously divided among other states, some of them very small. The sense of common identity was at first a cultural movement, such as in the Völkisch movement in German-speaking states, which rapidly acquired a political significance. The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the populist movement with a romantic focus on Folklore and the "organic" In these cases, the nationalist sentiment and the nationalist movement clearly precede the unification of the German and Italian nation states.
The idea of a nation state is associated with the rise of the modern system of states — often called the "Westphalian system" in reference to the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). Westphalian sovereignty is the concept of Nation-state Sovereignty based on two principles territoriality and the exclusion of external actors from domestic authority The term Peace of Westphalia refers to the two peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, signed on May 15 and October 24 of The balance of power, which characterises that system, depends for its effectiveness upon clearly defined, centrally controlled, independent entities, whether empires or nation states, which recognise each other's sovereignty and territory. In International relations, a balance of power exists when there is parity or stability between competing forces An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that The Westphalian system did not create the nation state, but the nation state meets the criteria for its component states (assuming that there is no disputed territory).
The nation state received a philosophical underpinning in the era of Romanticism, at first as the 'natural' expression of the individual peoples (romantic nationalism — see Fichte's conception of the Volk, which would be later opposed by Ernest Renan). Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Romantic nationalism (also National Romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of Nationalism in which the state derives Johann Gottlieb Fichte ( May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814) was a German philosopher See also Folk (disambiguation, Volk (disambiguation Folk is one of the Germanic roots that mean "(of the people" or "our Ernest Renan ( February 28, 1823 &ndash October 12, 1892) was a French Philosopher and writer deeply attached to his native The increasing emphasis during the 19th century, on the ethnic and racial origins of the nation, led to a redefinition of the nation state in these terms. Racism, which in Boulainvilliers's theories was inherently antipatriotic and antinationalist, joined itself with colonialist imperialism and "continental imperialism", most notably in pan-Germanic and pan-Slavic movements . List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Henri de Boulainvilliers ( October 21, 1658, St Saire, Normandy - January 23, 1722, Paris) was a French Patriotism is commonly defined as love of and/or devotion to one's country See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung was a political movement of the 19th century aiming for unity of the German -speaking peoples of Europe Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic peoples The main focus was in the Balkans where the South Slavs had been This relation between racism and nationalism reached its height in the fascist and Nazi movements of the 20th century. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The specific combination of 'nation' ('people') and 'state' expressed in such terms as the Völkische Staat and implemented in laws such as the 1935 Nuremberg laws made fascist states such as early Nazi Germany qualitatively different from non-fascist nation states. The Nuremberg Laws ( German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Obviously, minorities, who are not part of the Volk, have no authentic or legitimate role in such a state. In Germany, neither Jews nor the Roma were considered part of the Volk, and specifically targeted for persecution. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins However German nationality law defined 'German' on the basis of German ancestry (as it still largely does), excluding all non-Germans from the 'Volk'. Nationality law is the branch of a country's legal system wherein legislation custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that country's Nationality and
In recent years, the nation state's claim to absolute sovereignty within its borders has been much criticised. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself A global political system based on international agreements, and supra-national blocs characterized the post-war era. International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards Non-state actors, such as international corporations and non-governmental organizations, are widely seen as eroding the economic and political power of nation states, leading to their eventual disappearance. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business 
In Europe, in the eighteenth century, the classic non-national states were the multi-ethnic empires, (the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire), and smaller states at what would now be called sub-national level. Cisleithania (Cisleithanien Předlitavsko was the name of the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual monarchy created in 1867 and dissolved in 1918 Transleithania (Transleithanien was an unofficial term for the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual monarchy created in 1867 and dissolved in 1918 Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The multi-ethnic empire was a monarchy ruled by a king, emperor, or Sultan. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or An emperor (from the Latin " Imperator " is a (male Monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an Empire or another type of Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings The population belonged to many ethnic groups, and they spoke many languages. The empire was dominated by one ethnic group, and their language was usually the language of public administration. The ruling dynasty was usually, but not always, from that group. A dynasty is a succession of rulers who belong to the same family for generations This type of state is not specifically European: such empires existed on all continents. Some of the smaller European states were not so ethnically diverse, but were also dynastic states, ruled by a royal house. A dynasty is a succession of rulers who belong to the same family for generations Their territory could expand by royal marriage, or merge with another state when the dynasty merged. In some parts of Europe, notably Germany, very small territorial units existed. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. They were recognised by their neighbours as independent, and had their own government and laws. Some were ruled by princes or other hereditary rulers, some were governed by bishops or abbots. Prince, from the Latin root Princeps, is a general term for a Monarch, for a member of a monarch's or former monarch's family and is a A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight The word abbot, meaning Father, is a title given to the head of a Monastery in various traditions including Christianity. Because they were so small, however, they had no separate language or culture: the inhabitants shared the language of the surrounding region.
In some cases these states were simply overthrown by nationalist uprisings in the 19th century. Some older nation states, such as England and France seem to have grown by accretion of smaller entities, such as city states, before the 19th century, or chiefdoms earlier in history. A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. A chiefdom is a type of complex society of varying degrees of centralization that is led by an individual known as a chief. Liberal ideas of free trade played a role in German unification, which was preceded by a customs union, the Zollverein. Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions A customs union is a Free trade area with a Common external tariff. The Zollverein or German Customs Union was formed among the majority of the states of the German Confederation in 1834 during the Industrial Revolution However, the Austro-Prussian War, and the German alliances in the Franco-Prussian War, were decisive in the unification. The Austro-Prussian The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 The Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire broke up after the First World War, the Russian Empire became the Soviet Union, after the long Russian Civil War. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed
Some of the smaller states survived: the independent principalities of Liechtenstein, Andorra, and Monaco, and the republic of San Marino. The Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein) is a tiny doubly landlocked Alpine country in Western Europe, bordered by Switzerland Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra ( Catalan: Principat d'Andorra) is a small Landlocked country in western For other uses see Monaco (disambiguation Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco ( French: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque The Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino is a country in the Apennine Mountains. The Vatican City is not a survival, although there was a larger Papal State. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa In its present form, it was created by the 1929 Lateran treaties between Italy and the Roman Catholic Church. The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
Nation states have their own characteristics, differing from those of the pre-national states. For a start, they have a different attitude to their territory, compared to the dynastic monarchies: it is semi-sacred, and non-transferable. A dynasty is a succession of rulers who belong to the same family for generations No nation would swap territory with other states simply, for example, because the king's daughter got married. They have a different type of border, in principle defined only by the area of settlement of the national group, although many nation states also sought natural borders (rivers, mountain ranges). Borders define geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions such as Governments States or subnational administrative
The most noticeable characteristic is the degree to which nation states use the state as an instrument of national unity, in economic, social and cultural life.
The nation state promoted economic unity, first by abolishing internal customs and tolls. Customs is an Authority or agency in a Country responsible for collecting and safeguarding customs duties and for controlling the flow of goods A toll road, (also known as a tollway, turnpike, pike, or toll highway, especially if it is constructed to Freeway standards In Germany this process - the creation of the Zollverein - preceded formal national unity. The Zollverein or German Customs Union was formed among the majority of the states of the German Confederation in 1834 during the Industrial Revolution Nation states typically have a policy to create and maintain a national transportation infrastructure, facilitating trade and travel. In 19th-century Europe, the expansion of the rail transport networks was at first largely a matter for private railway companies, but gradually came under control of the national governments. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where The French rail network, with its main lines radiating from Paris to all corners of France, is often seen as a reflection of the centralised French nation state, which directed its construction. The history of rail transport in France dates from the first French railway in 1832 to present-day enterprises such as the TGV. Nation states continue to build, for instance, specifically national motorway networks. Motorway is a term for both a type of Road and a classification or designation Specifically trans-national infrastructure programmes, such as the Trans-European Networks, are a recent innovation. The Trans-European Networks ( TEN in EU Jargon) were created by the European Union by Articles 154-156 of the Maastricht Treaty (
The nation states typically had a more centralised and uniform public administration than its imperial predecessors: they were smaller, and the population less diverse. Public administration can be broadly described as the development implementation and study of branches of government Policy. (The internal diversity of, for instance, the Ottoman Empire was very great). The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish After the triumph of the nation state in Europe, regional identity was subordinate to national identity, in regions such as Alsace-Lorraine, Catalonia, Brittany, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen generally Elsass - Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) Corsica (Corse Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily In many cases, the regional administration was also subordinated to central (national) government. This process was partially reversed from the 1970s onward, with the introduction of various forms of regional autonomy, in formerly centralised states such as France. Regional autonomy is the term for the Decentralisation of governance to outlying regions A centralized government is the Form of government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which Local governments are subject This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
However, the most obvious impact of the nation state, as compared to its non-national predecessors, is the creation of a uniform national culture, through state policy. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic The model of the nation state implies that its population constitute a nation, united by a common descent, a common language, and many forms of shared culture. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered When the implied unity was absent, the nation state often tried to create it. It promoted a uniform national language, through language policy. Many countries have a language policy designed to favour or discourage the use of a particular Language or set of languages The creation of national systems of compulsory primary education and a relatively uniform curriculum in secondary schools, was the most effective instrument in the spread of the national languages. Primary education is the first stage of Compulsory education. In formal education a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses and their content offered at a School or University. A national language is a Language (or language variant, ie Dialect) which has some connection - de facto or de jure - with The schools also taught the national history, often in a propagandistic and mythologised version, and (especially during conflicts) some nation states still teach this kind of history. Historiography is the study of how history is written One pervasive influence upon the writing of history has been Nationalism, a set of beliefs about 
Language and cultural policy was sometimes negative, aimed at the suppression of non-national elements. Language prohibitions were sometimes used to accelerate the adoption of national languages, and the decline of minority languages, see Germanisation. Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, also known as Noble Experiment, refers to a Sumptuary law which prohibits Alcohol A minority language is a Language spoken by a Minority of the Population of a country Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is either the spread of the German language, people and culture either by force or Assimilation
In some cases these policies triggered bitter conflicts and separatism. Separatism refers to the advocacy of a state of cultural ethnic tribal religious racial or gender separation from the larger group often with demands for greater political autonomy Where it worked, the cultural uniformity and homogeneity of the population increased. Conversely, the cultural divergence at the border became sharper: in theory, a uniform French identity extends from the Atlantic coast to the Rhine, and on the other bank of the Rhine, a uniform German identity begins. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge To enforce that model, both sides have divergent language policy and educational systems, although the linguistic boundary is in fact well inside France, and the Alsace region changed hands four times between 1870 and 1945. Many countries have a language policy designed to favour or discourage the use of a particular Language or set of languages Alsace (Alsace alzas Alsatian and Elsass pre-1996 German: Elsaß; Alsatia is one of the 26 Regions of France, located on the eastern
The most obvious deviation from the ideal of 'one nation, one state', is the presence of minorities, especially ethnic minorities, which are clearly not members of the majority nation. The nationalist definition of a nation is always exclusive: no nation has open membership. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered In most cases, there is a clear idea that surrounding nations are different, and that includes members of those nations who live on the 'wrong side' of the border. Historical examples of groups, who are specifically singled out as outsiders, are the Roma and Jews in Europe. The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins PLEASE TAKE NOTE************
Negative responses to minorities within the nation state have ranged from state-enforced cultural assimilation, to expulsion, persecution, violence, and extermination. A region or society where several different groups are spontaneously assimilated is sometimes referred to as a Melting pot. Ethnic cleansing is a Euphemism referring to the persecution through imprisonment expulsion or killing of members of an ethnic minority by a majority to achieve ethnic homogeneity Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group The assimilation policies are usually state-enforced, but violence against minorities is not always state-initiated: it can occur in the form of mob violence such as lynching or pogroms. Riots are a form of Civil disorders characterized by disorganized groups lashing out in a sudden and intense rash of Violence, Vandalism or other Lynching is an Extrajudicial punishment meted out by a mob Lynching an enumerated Felony in some states in the United States, is defined by some A pogrom is a form of Riot directed against a particular group whether ethnic religious or other and characterized by destruction of their Homes Businesses Nation states are responsible for some of the worst historical examples of violence against minorities—that is, minorities which were not considered part of the nation.
However, many nation states do accept specific minorities as being in some way part of the nation, and the term national minority is often used in this sense. The Sorbs in Germany are an example: for centuries they have lived in German-speaking states, surrounded by a much larger ethnic German population, and they have no other historical territory. Sorbs (Serbja Serby also known as Wends, Lusatian Sorbs or Lusatian Serbs, are a Slavic people settled in Lusatia They are now generally considered to be part of the German nation, and are accepted as such by the Federal Republic of Germany, which constitutionally guarantees their cultural rights. Of the thousands of ethnic and cultural minorities in nation states across the world, only a few have this level of acceptance and protection.
Multiculturalism is an official policy in many states, establishing the ideal of peaceful existence among multiple ethnic, cultural, and linguistic groups. The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified Many nations have laws protecting minority rights. The term minority rights embodies two separate concepts first normal individual Rights as applied to members of racial Ethnic, class religious linguistic or
Ideally, the border of a nation state extends far enough to include all the members of the nation, and all of the national homeland. Irredentism is any position advocating Annexation of territories administered by another State on the grounds of common Ethnicity or prior historical possession A homeland (rel Country of origin and native land) is the concept of the territory ( Cultural geography) to which an Ethnic group Again, in practice some of them always live on the 'wrong side' of the border. Part of the national homeland may be there too, and it may be inhabited by the 'wrong' nation. The response to the non-inclusion of territory and population may take the form of irredentism - demands to annex unredeemed territory and incorporate it into the nation state. Irredentism is any position advocating Annexation of territories administered by another State on the grounds of common Ethnicity or prior historical possession Irredentist claims are usually based on the fact that an identifiable part of the national group lives across the border. However, they can include claims to territory where no members of that nation live at present, either because they lived there in the past, or because the national language is spoken in that region, or because the national culture has influenced it, or because of geographical unity with the existing territory, or for a wide variety of other reasons. Past grievances are usually involved (see Revanchism). Revanchism (from French revanche " Revenge " is a term used since the 1870s to describe a political manifestation of the will to reverse territorial It is sometimes difficult to distinguish irredentism from pan-nationalism, since both claim that all members of an ethnic and cultural nation belong in one specific state. Pan-nationalism is a form of Nationalism distinguished by the large scale of the claimed national territory and because it often defines the nation on the basis of a ‘’cluster’’ Pan-nationalism is less likely to ethnically specify the nation. For instance, variants of Pan-Germanism have different ideas about what constituted Greater Germany, including the confusing term Grossdeutschland - which in fact implied the inclusion of huge Slavic minorities from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung was a political movement of the 19th century aiming for unity of the German -speaking peoples of Europe Großdeutschland ( German for "Greater Germany" or "Large Germany" is a term referring to the concept of one German Nation-state
Typically, irredentist demands are at first made by members of non-state nationalist movements. When they are adopted by a state, they result in tensions, and actual attempts at annexation are always considered a casus belli, a cause for war. Casus belli is a Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war In many cases, such claims result in long-term hostile relations between neighbouring states. Irredentist movements typically circulate maps of the claimed national territory, the greater nation state. That territory, which is often much larger than the existing state, plays a central role in their propaganda. For examples, see below (See Also).
Irredentism should not be confused with claims to overseas colonies, which are not generally considered part of the national homeland. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism Some French overseas colonies would be an exception: French rule in Algeria did indeed treat the colony legally as a département of France, unsuccessfully. French rule of Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962 under a variety of governmental systems In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division
It has been observed by both proponents of globalization and various future fiction writers that the concept of a nation state may disappear with the ever-increasingly interconnected nature of the world. World government is the concept of a political body that would make interpret and enforce International law. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones  Notably, the Star Trek mythos, set in the 22nd-24th centuries, describes Earth as having gradually progressed into a united government, which is itself later but one in a federation of many planets. In the fictional Star Trek universe several political organisations take power over part or all of Earth. The United Federation of Planets, (also known as the "The Federation" or UFP) is a fictional interplanetary state depicted in the Star Trek
An alternative to World Government or the continuation of a multitude of nation states, is the disintegration of centralized political units into small, local political entities. Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio is the act of withdrawing from an organization union or especially a political entity Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against As the governments of the world spend themselves into bankruptcy people may simply walk away from them. Alternatively, some localities may secede from the centralized states, which will not have the power to stop them.
This disintegration of political unity does not necessarily imply world economic disintegration. In fact the opposite is likely true because political institutions usually create barriers to trade and corrupt the marketplace. A world made up of thousands of politically autonomous municipalities and commonwealths may be the fertile soil from which a more greatly integrated humanity grows. Some are sceptic of the feasibility of this, as groups of humans with no overreaching regulation or control have historically tended to go to war on each other.