Narratology is the theory and study of narrative and narrative structure and the ways they affect our perception. A narrative or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written spoken poetry prose images song Theater, or Dance) that describes a sequence of Narrative structure is generally described as the structural framework that underlies the order and manner in which a Narrative is presented to a reader listener or viewer  In principle, the word can refer to any systematic study of narrative, though in practice the use of the term is rather more restricted (see below). It is an anglicisation of the French word narratologie, coined by Tzvetan Todorov in his Grammaire du Décaméron (1969), and has been retrospectively applied to many studies that were described otherwise by their authors. Tzvetan Todorov (Цветан Тодоров (born on March 1 1939 in Sofia) is a Franco - Bulgarian Philosopher. Although a lineage stretching back to Aristotle's Poetics may be traced, modern narratology is most typically said to begin with the Russian Formalists, and in particular with Vladimir Propp's Morphology of the Folktale (1928). Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Aristotle 's Poetics ( Greek: Ποιητικός, c 335 BCE aims to give an account of what he calls 'poetry' (for him the term includes the Russian formalism was an influential school of literary criticism in Russia from the 1910s to the 1930s Vladimir Yakovlevich Propp (Владимир Яковлевич Пропп &mdash 22 August 1970) was a Russian formalist scholar who
Due to the origins of the term, it has a strong association with the structuralist quest for a system of formal description that can usefully be applied to any narrative (the analogy being with the grammars by reference to which sentences are parsed in some forms of linguistics). For the use of structuralism in biology see Structuralism (biology Structuralism is an approach to the human sciences that attempts to analyze In Formal semantics, Computer science and Linguistics, a formal grammar (also called formation rules) is a precise description of a Formal In Linguistics, a sentence is a grammatical unit of one or more words bearing minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it often preceded and followed In Computer science and Linguistics, parsing, or more formally syntactic analysis, is the process of analyzing a sequence of tokens to Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields This aim has not, however, characterised all work that is today described as narratological, Percy Lubbock's groundbreaking work on point of view, The Craft of Fiction (1921), is a case in point. Percy Lubbock, CBE ( June 4[[ 879]]- 1 August[[ 965]] was an English Man of letters, known as an essayist critic and biographer Jonathan Culler argues that the many strands of (what he regards as) narratology are all united by a recognition "that the theory of narrative requires a distinction between. Jonathan Culler (born 1944 is Class of 1966 Harvard graduate and Professor of English at Cornell University . . 'story' - a sequence of actions or events, conceived as independent of their manifestation in discourse - and. . . 'discourse', the discursive presentation or narration of events", but admits that this is only implicit in the work of many of the authors he is grouping together in this way.  The distinction was originally proposed by the Russian Formalists, who used the terms fabula and sjuzhet, but a succession of other pairs has preserved what is essentially the same dichotomy (e. Russian formalism was an influential school of literary criticism in Russia from the 1910s to the 1930s Sjuzhet (also syuzhet sjužet or suzet and Fabula are terms in Russian Formalism g. , histoire/discours, histoire/récit, story/plot).
To a certain extent, the designation of work as narratological or otherwise may have more to do with the university department in which it takes place than with any specific theoretical position. Although a narratological approach can be taken to any narrative at all, and the classic studies (for example, Propp's) were often of non-literary narratives, the term "narratology" is most likely to be encountered within the disciplines of literary theory and literary criticism: examples of systematic narrative study that would not typically be described as narratological would include sociolinguistic studies of oral storytelling, such as those of William Labov, and studies in conversation analysis or discourse analysis that deal with narratives arising in the course of spontaneous verbal interaction. Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of Literature and of the methods for analyzing literature Literary criticism is the study discussion evaluation and interpretation of Literature. Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of Society, including cultural norms expectations and context on the way Language is used William Labov (ləˈboʊv born December 4, 1927) is an American linguist widely regarded as the founder of the discipline of variationist Sociolinguistics Conversation analysis (commonly abbreviated as CA) is the study of talk in interaction Discourse analysis (DA or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyzing written spoken or signed language use However, constituent analyses of the type where narremes are considered to be the basic units of narrative structure could be included either in linguistics, in semiotics, or in literary theory. Narreme is the basic unit of Narrative structure. According to Helmut Bonheim (2000 the concept of narreme was developed three decades ago by Eugene Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of sign processes (semiosis or signification and communication signs and Symbols both Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of Literature and of the methods for analyzing literature