Naphtha (CAS No. : 8032-32-4, 8030-30-6, 8002-05-9) is a petroleum-based chemical, also often referred to as petroleum ether. Petroleum ether, also known as benzine, VM&P Naphta, Petroleum Naphta, Naptha ASTM, Petroleum Spirits, benzine, X4
It normally refers to a number of different flammable liquid mixtures of hydrocarbons, i. e. a distillation product from petroleum or coal tar boiling in a certain range and containing certain hydrocarbons, a broad term encompassing any volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Coal tar is a brown or black liquid of high Viscosity, which smells of Naphthalene and Aromatic hydrocarbons Coal tar is among the by-products when coal
Naphtha is used primarily as feedstock for producing a high octane gasoline component (via the catalytic reforming process). The octane rating is a measure of the resistance of Gasoline and other Fuels to Detonation ( Engine knocking) in spark-ignition Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert Petroleum refinery Naphthas typically having low octane ratings, into high-octane liquid products It is also used in the petrochemical industry for producing olefins in steam crackers and in the chemical industry for solvent (cleaning) applications. Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of Petroleum or other Hydrocarbon origin In Organic chemistry, an alkene, olefin, or olefine is an unsaturated Chemical compound containing at least one Carbon In Petroleum geology and Chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic Molecules such as Kerogens or heavy Hydrocarbons A solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid liquid or gaseous Solute, resulting in a Solution.
The origin of the word Naphtha is unclear. It is an Ancient Greek word that was used to refer to any sort of petroleum or pitch. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Pitch is the name for any of a number of highly viscous Liquids which appear Solid. The Greeks themselves borrowed the word from the Old Persian words nafata, naft or neft, which were used to describe bubbling oil. The Old Persian language is one of the two attested Old Iranian languages (besides Avestan) Naphtha may also have been derived from the name of the Vedic Hindu and Avestic god Apam Napat, a form of Agni, or fire god. "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical The Avesta is the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the Avestan language. Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. The word agni is Sanskrit for "fire" (noun cognate with Latin ignis
Naphtha is the root of the words naphthalene and napalm, which is derived from naphtha by mixing under controlled conditions with aluminium salts of palmitic acid (a type of soap). Naphthalene, also known as naphthalin, naphthaline, tar camphor, white tar, albocarbon, or antimite and not to be Napalm is the name given to any of a number of Flammable Liquids used in Warfare often jellied Gasoline.
In older usage, naphtha simply meant crude oil, but this usage is now obscure. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit
Forms of naphtha may be carcinogenic, and frequently products sold as naphtha contain some impurities, which may also have deleterious properties of their own. The term carcinogen refers to any substance Radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of Cancer or in the fatation of its propagation   Like many hydrocarbon products, because they are products of a refractory process where a complex soup of chemicals is broken into another range of chemicals, which are then graded and isolated mainly by their specific gravity and volatility, there is a range of distinct chemicals included in each product. In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. A refractory is a material that retains its strength at high Temperatures ASTM C71 defines refractories as "non-metallic materials having those chemical and physical Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the Density of a given solid or liquid substance to the density of water at a specific temperature and pressure typically Volatility in the context of Chemistry, Physics and Thermodynamics is a measure of the tendency of a substance to Vaporize. This makes rigorous comparisons and identification of specific carcinogens difficult, especially in our modern environment where exposure to a great number of such products occurs on a daily basis, and is further complicated by exposure to a significant range of other known and potential carcinogens (e. g. , see ).
Below are linked some Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) specifications for different "naphtha" products, which contain varying degrees of naphtha, as well as various other chemicals. As well as giving health guidelines, these are some of the few ways to determine what a given product contains.
Benzene in particular is a known high-risk carcinogen, and so benzene content is typically specified in the MSDS. Benzene, or benzol, is an organic Chemical compound and a known Carcinogen with the molecular formula C 6 H 6 But more specific breakdown of particular forms of hydrocarbon is not as common.
Molecular weight is 100-215; specific gravity is 0. 75- 0. 85; boiling point is 320-430 F; vapor pressure is < 5 mm HG. Naphthas are insoluble in water; colorless (kerosene odor) or red-brown (aromatic odor) liquid; incompatible with strong oxidizers.
Naphtha is obtained in petroleum refineries as one of the intermediate products from the distillation of crude oil. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Continuous distillation, a form of Distillation, is an ongoing separation in which a mixture is continuously (without interruption fed into the process and separated fractions It is a liquid intermediate between the light gases in the crude oil and the heavier liquid kerosene. Kerosene, sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage is a Combustible Hydrocarbon liquid Naphthas are volatile, flammable and have a specific gravity of about 0. Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the Density of a given solid or liquid substance to the density of water at a specific temperature and pressure typically 7. The generic name naphtha describes a range of different refinery intermediate products used in different applications. To further complicate the matter, similar naphtha types are often referred to by different names.
The different naphthas are distinguished by:
Generally speaking, less dense ("lighter") naphthas will have a higher paraffin content. In chemistry paraffin is the common name for the Alkane Hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H2 n +2 Alkanes, also known as Paraffins are Chemical compounds that consist only of the elements Carbon (C and Hydrogen (H (i In Organic chemistry, an alkene, olefin, or olefine is an unsaturated Chemical compound containing at least one Carbon Cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes, especially if from Petroleum sources are types of Alkanes which have one or more rings of Carbon Atoms In chemistry paraffin is the common name for the Alkane Hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H2 n +2 These are therefore also referred to as paraffinic naphtha. The main application for these naphthas is as a feedstock in the petrochemical production of olefins. In Organic chemistry, an alkene, olefin, or olefine is an unsaturated Chemical compound containing at least one Carbon This is also the reason they are sometimes referred to as "light distillate feedstock" or LDF (these naphtha types can also be called "straight run gasoline"/SRG or "light virgin naphtha"/LVN). When used as feedstock in petrochemical steam crackers, the naphtha is heated in the presence of water vapour and the absence of oxygen or air until the hydrocarbon molecules fall apart. The primary products of the cracking process are olefins (ethylene / ethene, propylene / propene and butadiene) and aromatics (benzene and toluene). Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Propene, also known as propylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the Chemical formula C 3 H 6 Propene, also known as propylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the Chemical formula C 3 H 6 Benzene, or benzol, is an organic Chemical compound and a known Carcinogen with the molecular formula C 6 H 6 Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane, is a clear water -insoluble liquid with the typical smell of Paint thinners redolent of These are used as feedstocks for derivative units that produce plastics (polyethylene and polypropylene for example), synthetic fiber precursors (acrylonitrile), industrial chemicals (glycols for instance). Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Polyethylene or polythene ( IUPAC name poly(ethene) is a Thermoplastic commodity heavily used in consumer products (notably the Polypropylene or polypropene ( PP) is a Thermoplastic Polymer, made by the Chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by Scientists to improve upon naturally occurring Animal and plant Acrylonitrile is the Chemical compound with the formula CH2CHCN A diol or glycol is a Chemical compound containing two Hydroxyl groups (-OH groups Vicinal diols have hydroxyl groups attached to adjacent atoms
The "heavier" or rather denser types are usually richer in naphthenes and aromatics and therefore also referred to as N&A's. These can also be used in the petrochemical industry but more often are used as a feedstock for refinery catalytic reformers where they convert the lower octane naphtha to a higher octane product called reformate. The octane rating is a measure of the resistance of Gasoline and other Fuels to Detonation ( Engine knocking) in spark-ignition Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert Petroleum refinery Naphthas typically having low octane ratings, into high-octane liquid products Alternative names for these types are Straight Run Benzene (SRB) or Heavy Virgin Naphtha (HVN).
Naphthas are also used in other applications such as:
“Light naphtha, a mixture consisting mainly of straight-chained and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons having from five to nine carbon atoms per molecule. Dextromethorphan ( DXM or DM) is an Antitussive (cough suppressant drug found in many over-the-counter cold and Cough medicines Heavy naphtha, a mixture consisting mainly of straight-chained and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons having from seven to nine carbons per molecule. ” “Almost all volatile, lipid-soluble organic chemicals cause general, nonspecific depression of the central nervous system or general anesthesia. ”  The OSHA PEL TWA = 100 parts-per-million (ppm); Health Hazards/Target Organs = eyes, skin, RS, CNS, liver kidney. Symptoms of acute exposure are dizziness and narcosis with loss of consciousness. The World Health Organization categorizes health effects into three groups: reversible symptoms (Type 1), mild chronic encephalopathy (Type 2) and severe chronic toxic encephalopathy (Type 3).
Shellite (Australia), also known as white gas (North America), white spirit or Coleman fuel, is a water white liquid with a hydrocarbon odour. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Coleman Company Inc is known is an American company that specializes in outdoor recreation products Shellite has a freeze point less than −30 °C (−22 °F), and a boiling point of 47 °C (117 °F). The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to Liquid. The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the Vapor pressure of the liquid equals the environmental pressure surrounding the liquid The composition of shellite is 95% paraffins and naphthenes, less than 5% aromatic hydrocarbons and less than 0. In chemistry paraffin is the common name for the Alkane Hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H2 n +2 5% benzene. Benzene, or benzol, is an organic Chemical compound and a known Carcinogen with the molecular formula C 6 H 6 It is highly flammable and due to its low flashpoint is used in many low pressure camping stoves. The flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest Temperature at which it can form an ignitable mixture in air Shellite is also a fast drying solvent used for cleaning metal, hard plastic and painted surfaces. Ronsonol is a brand name used in North America, and is marketed principally as a refill fluid for cigarette lighters and has a flashpoint of about 6 °C (43 °F). A lighter is a portable device used to create a Flame. It consists of a metal or plastic container filled with lighter fluid (usually Naphtha or liquid Butane