The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings. In a cultural sense it refers to the worldwide community of Muslims, adherents of Islam. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. This community numbers about 1.3-1.5 billion people, roughly one-fifth of the world population. Listing of Muslims by country Important note Population counts by religious affiliation like most demographic characteristics of a Population The world population is the total number of living Humans on Earth at a given time This community is spread across many different nations and ethnic groups connected only by religion. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos In a historical or geopolitical sense the term usually refers collectively to majority Muslim countries or countries in which Islam dominates politically. History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Geopolitics is the study that analyzes Geography, History and Social science with reference to Spatial politics and patterns at various scales
The worldwide Muslim community is also known collectively as the ummah. Ummah (أمة is an Arabic word meaning Community or Nation. It is commonly used to mean either the collective nation of states, or (in the Islam emphasizes unity and defense of fellow Muslims, although many divisions of Islam (see the Sunni-Shia relations) exist. Sunni and Shia (or Shiite are the two major denominations of Islam. In the past both Pan-Islamism and nationalist currents have influenced the status of the Muslim world. Pan-Islamism ( اتّحاد الاسلام) is a Political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state or a Caliphate The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation
The term "Islamic art and architecture" denotes the works of art and architecture produced from the 7th century onwards by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. Muslim history began in Arabia with the Muhammad 's first recitations of the Qur'an in the 7th century There is much more to Muslim history than its military and political aspects this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political nature The Spread of Islam began shortly after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 632. The initial Arab Muslim conquests (632–732 (فتح Fatah, literally opening, also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally 
No Islamic visual images or depictions of God are meant to exist because such artistic depictions may lead to idolatry. Aniconism in Islam is a proscription against the creation of images of God in Islam. Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking" is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious Icons and other symbols or monuments The arabesque is an elaborative application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals Idolatry is usually defined as Worship of any Cult image, Idea, or object, as opposed to the worship of a monotheistic God. Moreover, Muslims believe that God is incorporeal, making any two- or three- dimensional depictions impossible. The English word " spirit " comes from the Latin " spiritus " (breath Instead, Muslims describe God by the names and attributes that he revealed to his creation. The 99 Names of Allah, also known as The 99 Most Beautiful Names of God () are the Names of God (specifically attributes by which Muslims regard God All but one sura of the Qur'an begins with the phrase "In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful". Basmala (Arabic بسملة is an Arabic language noun which is used as the collective name of the whole of the recurring Islamic phrase bismi-llāhi ar-raḥmāni Images of Mohammed are likewise prohibited. Such aniconism and iconoclasm can also be found in Jewish and some Christian theology. Aniconism is the practice or belief in avoiding or shunning the graphic representation of divine beings or religious figures or in different manifestations any human beings or living Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking" is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious Icons and other symbols or monuments
Islamic art frequently adopts the use of geometrical floral or vegetal designs in a repetition known as arabesque. The arabesque is an elaborative application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals Such designs are highly nonrepresentational, as Islam forbids representational depictions as found in pre-Islamic pagan religions. Despite this, there is a presence of depictional art in some Muslim societies, although this is not widespread. Another reason why Islamic art is usually abstract is to symbolize the transcendence, indivisible and infinite nature of God, an objective achieved by arabesque.  Arabic calligraphy is an omnipresent decoration in Islamic art, and is usually expressed in the form of Qur'anic verses. Islamic calligraphy, equally known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing and by extension of bookmaking Two of the main scripts involved are the symbolic kufic and naskh scripts, which can be found adorning the walls and domes of mosques, the sides of minbars, and so on. Kufic is the oldest calligraphic form of the various Arabic scripts and consists of a modified form of the old Nabataean script. A minbar ( Arabic: منبر also spelt mimbar) is a Pulpit in the Mosque where the Imam (leader of prayer stands to deliver sermons 
Distinguishing motifs of Islamic architecture have always been ordered repetition, radiating structures, and rhythmic, metric patterns. In art a motif is a repeated idea pattern image or theme Paisley designs are referred to as motifs In this respect, fractal geometry has been a key utility, especially for mosques and palaces. A fractal is generally "a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be split into parts each of which is (at least approximately a reduced-size copy of the whole" Other significant features employed as motifs include columns, piers and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnettes.  The role of domes in Islamic architecture has been considerable. Its usage spans centuries, first appearing in 691 with the construction of the Dome of the Rock mosque, and recurring even up until the 17th century with the Taj Mahal. The Dome of the Rock ( Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة translit As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar The Taj Mahal (tɑdʒ And as late as the 19th century, Islamic domes had been incorporated into Western architecture. 
From between the eighth and eighteenth centuries, the use of glazed ceramics was prevalent in Islamic art, usually assuming the form of elaborate pottery. Glaze is a layer or coating of a Vitreous substance which has been fired to fuse to a ceramic object to color decorate strengthen or waterproof it Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware  Tin-opacified glazing was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters. Tin-glazing is the process of giving Ceramic items a tin-based glaze which is white shiny and opaque normally applied to red or buff Earthenware. The first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century. Basra ( BGN: AlBasrah also called Basorah Abillah and Uruk or IRAQ The name that British colony has adopted for Basra The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Another significant contribution was the development of stonepaste ceramics, originating from 9th century Iraq. Stoneware a Vitreous or semivitreous ceramic ware of fine texture made primarily from nonrefactory fire clay The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.  Other centers for innovative ceramic pottery in the Islamic world included Fustat (from 975 to 1075), Damascus (from 1100 to around 1600) and Tabriz (from 1470 to 1550). Fustat (also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, and in Arabic الفسطاط was the first Capital of Egypt Events By Place Europe King Edward the Martyr is crowned in England. Tabriz ( تبریز, تبریز) is the largest city in northwestern Iran. 
Perhaps the most important expression of Islamic art is architecture, particularly that of the mosque. Islamic architecture has encompassed a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day influencing the design and construction  Through it the effect of varying cultures within Islamic civilization can be illustrated. The North African and Spanish Islamic architecture, for example, has Roman-Byzantine elements, as seen in the Alhambra palace at Granada, or in the Great Mosque of Cordoba. This article is about the Alhambra in Granada Spain For other meanings see Alhambra (disambiguation. The Mezquita (Spanish for " Mosque " of Cordoba is a Roman Catholic Cathedral and former mosque situated in the Andalusian city of Córdoba Persian-style mosques are characterized by their tapered brick pillars, large arcades, and arches supported each by several pillars. An arcade is a passage or walkway covered over by a succession of Arches or vaults supported by columns In South Asia, elements of Hindu architecture were employed, but were later superseded by Persian designs. The most numerous and largest of mosques exist in Turkey, which obtained influence from Byzantine, Persian and Syrian designs, although Turkish architects managed to implement their own style of cupola domes. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches In Architecture, a cupola or lantern is a radially symmetrical ornamental structure (often dome-shaped or quadrilateral located on top of a larger 
The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights), which was a compilation of many earlier folk tales. Fiction is the telling of stories which are not real More specifically fiction is an imaginative form of Narrative, one of the four basic Rhetorical modes. The epic took form in the 10th century and reached its final form by the 14th century; the number and type of tales have varied from one manuscript to another.  All Arabian fantasy tales were often called "Arabian Nights" when translated into English, regardless of whether they appeared in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. Fantasy is a Genre that uses magic and other Supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States  This epic has been influential in the West since it was translated in the 18th century, first by Antoine Galland. Antoine Galland ( April 4, 1646 &mdash February 17, 1715) was a French Orientalist and Archaeologist, most  Many imitations were written, especially in France.  Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin, Sinbad and Ali Baba. Aladdin (an Anglicisation of the Arabic name (originally Syrian Alāʼ ad-Dīn, Arabic: علاء الدين literally "nobility of the faith" Ali Baba ( Arabic, Persian: علي بابا is a Fictional character based in Ancient Arabia.
A famous example of Arabic poetry and Persian poetry on romance (love) is Layla and Majnun, dating back to the Umayyad era in the 7th century. Arabic poetry ( Arabic, الِشعر العربي ash-shi`ru 'l-`arabiy) is the earliest form of Arabic literature. Persian literature ( spans two and a half millennia though much of the pre- Islamic material has been lost NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** For the film see Leyli o Majnun (1936 film. Layla and Majnun, also known as The Madman of Layla - in Arabic It is a tragic story of undying love much like the later Romeo and Juliet, which was itself said to have been inspired by a Latin version of Layli and Majnun to an extent. Love is any of a number of Emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong Affection. Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written early in the Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.  Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, the national epic of Iran, is a mythical and heroic retelling of Persian history. Hakīm Abū l-Qāsim Firdawsī Tūsī ( more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935&ndash1020 was a highly revered Persian Poet. Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma ((alternative spellings are Shahnama Shahnameh Shahname Shah-Nama, etc For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. See Also Persian Empire History of Iran and Greater Iran (also referred to as the " Iranian Cultural Continent Amir Arsalan was also a popular mythical Persian story, which has influenced some modern works of fantasy fiction, such as The Heroic Legend of Arslan. Amir Arsalan-e Namdar (in Persian امیرارسلان نامدار is a popular Persian legend which was narrated to the Qajar Shah of The Heroic Legend of Arslan is the title of a Japanese Fantasy Novel, which is known in Japan as.
Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) and Ibn al-Nafis were pioneers of the philosophical novel. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Ibn Tufail (c 1105 Guadix Spain &ndash 1185 (full Arabic name TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Ala al-Din Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi ( Philosophical novels are works of Fiction in which a significant proportion of the novel is devoted to a discussion of the sort of questions normally addressed in discursive Ibn Tufail wrote the first fictional Arabic novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan (Philosophus Autodidactus) as a response to al-Ghazali's The Incoherence of the Philosophers, and then Ibn al-Nafis also wrote a fictional novel Theologus Autodidactus as a response to Ibn Tufail's Philosophus Autodidactus. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān ( حي بن يقظان " Alive son of Awake " Philosophus Autodidactus " The Self-Taught Philosopher Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī (1058-1111 ( ابو حامد محمد ابن محمد الغزالی or امام محمد غزالی was born and died The Incoherence of the Philosophers ( Tahāfut al-Falāsifaʰ) in Arabic (تهافت الفلاسفة is the title of a landmark 11th century Polemic in Islamic TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Ala al-Din Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi ( Both of these narratives had protagonists (Hayy in Philosophus Autodidactus and Kamil in Theologus Autodidactus) who were autodidactic feral children living in seclusion on a desert island, both being the earliest examples of a desert island story. The Protagonist or main character is the central figure of a story. Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is self-education or self-directed learning A feral child ( Feral, Wild, or undomesticated) is a human child who has lived isolated from human contact from a very young age and has no (or little The term desert island, or deserted island, refers to an Island which is uninhabited or sparsely inhabited However, while Hayy lives alone with animals on the desert island for the rest of the story in Philosophus Autodidactus, the story of Kamil extends beyond the desert island setting in Theologus Autodidactus, developing into the earliest known coming of age plot and eventually becoming the first example of a science fiction novel. Coming of age is a young person's transition from Adolescence to Adulthood The age at which this transition takes place varies in society as does the nature 
Theologus Autodidactus, written by the Arabian polymath Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288), is the first example of a science fiction novel. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Ala al-Din Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi ( It deals with various science fiction elements such as spontaneous generation, futurology, the end of the world and doomsday, resurrection, and the afterlife. In the Natural sciences, Abiogenesis, or origin of life, is the study of how Life on Earth emerged from Inanimate Organic Futures Studies, Foresight, or Futurology is the science art and practice of postulating possible probable and preferable futures and the worldviews Eschatology (from the Greek, Eschatos meaning "last" and -logy meaning "the study of" is a part of Theology This article concerns itself with Jesus Christ Christian, Islamic and other religious interpretations of resurrection in general AfterLife is a film drama set in Scotland directed by Alison Peebles made in 2003 about an ambitious Scottish journalist forced to choose between Rather than giving supernatural or mythological explnations for these events, Ibn al-Nafis attempted to explain these plot elements using the scientific knowledge of biology, astronomy, cosmology and geology known in his time. Cosmology (from Greek grc κοσμολογία - grc κόσμος kosmos, "universe" and grc -λογία -logia) is study Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit His main purpose behind this science fiction work was to explain Islamic religious teachings in terms of science and philosophy through the use of fiction. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar 
A Latin translation of Ibn Tufail's work, Philosophus Autodidactus, first appeared in 1671, prepared by Edward Pococke the Younger, followed by an English translation by Simon Ockley in 1708, as well as German and Dutch translations. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Edward Pococke (1604-1691 was an English Orientalist and biblical scholar Simon Ockley (1678 – August 9, 1720) was a British Orientalist. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname These translations later inspired Daniel Defoe to write Robinson Crusoe, regarded as the first novel in English. Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 — April 24, 1731 was an English Writer, Journalist, and Pamphleteer, who gained enduring fame for The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe (of York Mariner Who lived Eight and Twenty Years all alone in an un-inhabited Island on the Coast of America near the Mouth The following works of literature have each been claimed as the first Novel in English.  Philosophus Autodidactus also inspired Robert Boyle to write his own philosophical novel set on an island, The Aspiring Naturalist. Robert Boyle was a Natural philosopher, chemist physicist inventor and early Gentleman scientist, noted for his work in Physics and Chemistry  The story also anticipated Rousseau's Emile: or, On Education in some ways, and is also similar to Mowgli's story in Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book as well as Tarzan's story, in that a baby is abandoned but taken care of and fed by a mother wolf. Emile or On Education (1762 which Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed to be the “best and most important of all my writings” is largely a philosophical treatise Mowgli (ˈmaʊɡli is a fictional character who originally appeared in Rudyard Kipling 's Short story "In the Rukh" (collected in Many Inventions Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936 was an English Author and poet The Jungle Book (1894 is a collection of stories written by Rudyard Kipling. Tarzan is a Fictional character, an archetypal Feral child raised in the African jungle by Apes who later returns to civilization only to The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora 
Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, considered the greatest epic of Italian literature, derived many features of and episodes about the hereafter directly or indirectly from Arabic works on Islamic eschatology: the Hadith and the Kitab al-Miraj (translated into Latin in 1264 or shortly before as Liber Scale Machometi, "The Book of Muhammad's Ladder") concerning Muhammad's ascension to Heaven, and the spiritual writings of Ibn Arabi. The Divine Comedy Islamic eschatology is concerned with the al-Qiyāmah "Last Judgement" Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic The Kitab al Miraj (Arabic كتاب المعراج "Book of Ascension" is a Muslim book concerned with Muhammad 's ascension into the Heavens (known as IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Ibn Arabi (ابن عربي ( July 28, 1165 - November 10, 1240) was an The Moors also had a noticeable influence on the works of George Peele and William Shakespeare. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent George Peele (born in London and baptized 25 July 1556 &ndash buried 9 November 1596) was an English Dramatist William Shakespeare ( baptised Some of their works featured Moorish characters, such as Peele's The Battle of Alcazar and Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice, Titus Andronicus and Othello, which featured a Moorish Othello as its title character. The Battle of Alcazar is a play by George Peele, probably written and first staged in the late 1580s published in 1594. The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1596 and 1598 Titus Andronicus may be Shakespeare's earliest Tragedy; it is believed to have been written sometime between 1584 and the early 1590s Othello is the Title character of William Shakespeare's Othello. These works are said to have been inspired by several Moorish delegations from Morocco to Elizabethan England at the beginning of the 17th century. Delegation (also called deputation) is the assignment of authority and responsibility to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate to carry out specific activities Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Romance and reality The Victorian era and the early twentieth century idealised the Elizabethan era 
One of the common definitions for "Islamic philosophy" is "the style of philosophy produced within the framework of Islamic culture. " Islamic philosophy, in this definition is neither necessarily concerned with religious issues, nor is exclusively produced by Muslims.  The Persian scholar Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980-1037) had more than 450 books attributed to him. The Iranian people are a collection of Ethnic groups defined along linguistic lines as speaking Iranian languages. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born His writings were concerned with many subjects, most notably philosophy and medicine. His medical textbook The Canon of Medicine was used as the standard text in European universities for centuries. The Canon of Medicine ( Arabic: القانون في الطب Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb " The Law of Medicine " Persian His works on Aristotle was a key step in the transmission of learning from ancient Greeks to the Islamic world and the West. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. He often corrected the philosopher, encouraging a lively debate in the spirit of ijtihad. Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد is a technical term of Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the legal sources He also wrote The Book of Healing, an influential scientific and philosophical encyclopedia. The Book of Healing ( Arabic: الشفاء Al-Shefa, Latin: Sanatio) is a scientific and philosophical His thinking and that of his follower Ibn Rushd (Averroes) was incorporated into Christian philosophy during the Middle Ages, notably by Thomas Aquinas. Abū 'l-Walīd Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Rushd (Arabicأبو الوليد محمد بن احمد بن رشد better known just as Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد and in European Christian philosophy is a term to describe the fusion of various fields of Philosophy with the theological doctrines of Christianity.
One of the most influential Muslim philosophers in the West was Averroes (Ibn Rushd), founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, whose works and commentaries had an impact on the rise of secular thought in Western Europe. Abū 'l-Walīd Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Rushd (Arabicأبو الوليد محمد بن احمد بن رشد better known just as Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد and in European Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe '  He also developed the concept of "existence precedes essence". The proposition that existence precedes essence is a central claim of Existentialism, which reverses the traditional philosophical view that the Essence or nature  Avicenna also founded his own Avicennism school of philosophy, which was influential in both Islamic and Christian lands. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born Avicennism ( is a school of Early Islamic philosophy which began during the middle of the Islamic Golden Age. He was also a critic of Aristotelian logic and founder of Avicennian logic, and he developed the concepts of empiricism and tabula rasa, and distinguished between essence and existence. The Organon is the name given by Aristotle 's followers the Peripatetics to the standard collection of his six works on Logic. Avicennism ( is a school of Early Islamic philosophy which began during the middle of the Islamic Golden Age. In Philosophy, empiricism is a theory of Knowledge which asserts that knowledge arises from Experience. Tabula rasa ( Latin: blank slate) refers to the epistemological thesis that individual human beings are born with no built-in mental content In Philosophy, essence is the attribute or set of attributes that make an object or substance what it fundamentally is and which it has by necessity In common usage existence is the world of which we are aware through our senses but in Philosophy the word has a more specialized meaning and is often contrasted with
Another infuential philosopher who had a significant influence on modern philosophy was Ibn Tufail. Modern philosophy is Philosophy done in Europe and North America between the 17th and early 20th centuries. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Ibn Tufail (c 1105 Guadix Spain &ndash 1185 (full Arabic name His philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, translated into Latin as Philosophus Autodidactus in 1671, developed the themes of empiricism, tabula rasa, nature versus nurture, condition of possibility, materialism, and Molyneux's Problem. Philosophical novels are works of Fiction in which a significant proportion of the novel is devoted to a discussion of the sort of questions normally addressed in discursive Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān ( حي بن يقظان " Alive son of Awake " Philosophus Autodidactus " The Self-Taught Philosopher The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature" i Condition of possibility ( Bedingungen der Möglichkeit) is a Philosophical Concept made popular by Immanuel Kant. The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. Molyneux's Problem is an unsolved problem in philosophy. In response to John Locke 's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, scientist and politician  European scholars and writers influenced by this novel include John Locke, Gottfried Leibniz, Melchisédech Thévenot, John Wallis, Christiaan Huygens, George Keith, Robert Barclay, the Quakers, and Samuel Hartlib. John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 was an English Philosopher. Melchisédech (or Melchisédec) Thévenot (c 1620 - October 29, 1692) was a French author scientist traveler cartographer John Wallis ( November 23, 1616 - October 28, 1703) was an English mathematician who is given partial credit for the Christiaan Huygens (ˈhaɪgənz in English ˈhœyɣəns in Dutch) ( April 14, 1629 &ndash July 8, 1695) was a Dutch George Keith (1638/9 – March 27, 1716) was a Scottish Missionary. Robert Barclay ( December 23, 1648 – October 3, 1690) one of the most eminent Writers belonging to the Religious Society Samuel Hartli(eb (ca 1600 &ndash 1662 was a German Briton Polymath, an expert in many subjects called "the Great Intelligencer of Europe" 
Islamic philosophers continued making advances in philosophy through to the 17th century, when Mulla Sadra founded his school of Transcendent Theosophy and developed the concept of existentialism. Sadr al-Din Moḥammad Shirazi also called Mulla Sadra ( also spelt Molla Sadra or Mollasadra or sadrol mote allehin; (c Transcendent theosophy or al-hikmat al-muta’li ( حكمت متعالي) the doctrine and Philosophy that has been developed and perfected by the Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine which posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives and that this essence follows from their existence 
Other influential Muslim philosophers include al-Jahiz, a pioneer in evolutionary thought; Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), a pioneer of phenomenology and the philosophy of science and a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy and Aristotle's concept of place (topos); Biruni, a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy; Ibn Tufail and Ibn al-Nafis, pioneers of the philosophical novel; Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi, founder of Illuminationist philosophy; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, a critic of Aristotelian logic and a pioneer of inductive logic; and Ibn Khaldun, a pioneer in the philosophy of history and social philosophy. Al-Jāḥiẓ (in Arabic الجاحظ (real name Abu Uthman Amr ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, c eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Arabic: ابو علی، حسن بن حسن بن هيثم Latinized Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions foundations and implications of Science. The Greek Philosopher Aristotle ( 384 BC – 322 BC) developed many theories on the nature of Physics that are completely different Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. In Mathematics, a topos (plural "topoi" or "toposes" is a type of category that behaves like the category of sheaves of sets TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Ibn Tufail (c 1105 Guadix Spain &ndash 1185 (full Arabic name TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Ala al-Din Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi ( Philosophical novels are works of Fiction in which a significant proportion of the novel is devoted to a discussion of the sort of questions normally addressed in discursive Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi ( Persian شهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) was a Persian philosopher Sufi For other uses see Illuminati (disambiguation. Illuminationist Philosophy ( Arabic: حكمة الإشراق ḥikmah al-ishrāq, Persian TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Umar ibn al-Husayn al-Taymi al-Bakri al-Tabaristani Fakhr al-Din al-Razi ( Arabic / Induction or inductive reasoning, sometimes called inductive logic, is the process of Reasoning in which the premises of an argument are believed Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون,, ( May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH &ndash March 19 Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of Philosophy concerning the eventual significance if any of human History. Social philosophy is the philosophical study of questions about social Behavior (typically of Humans.
Muslim scientists made significant advances in the sciences. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding The mathematician Al-Khwarizmi, from whose name the word algorithm derives, is considered to be a father of algebra (which is named after his book, kitab al-jabr). In Mathematics, Computing, Linguistics and related subjects an algorithm is a sequence of finite instructions often used for Calculation Algebra is a branch of Mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation, and Quantity. Al-Kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī hīsāb al-ğabr wa’l-muqābala ( Arabic for "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing"  Recent studies show that it is very likely that the Medieval Muslim artists were aware of advanced decagonal quasicrystal geometry (discovered half a millennium later in 1970s and 1980s in West) and used it in intricate decorative tilework in the architecture.  Muslim mathematicians also made several refinements to the Arabic numerals (which originally came from India), such as the introduction of decimal point notation. The arabic numerals (often capitalized are the ten Digits (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 which—along with the system In a positional Numeral system, the decimal separator is a Symbol used to mark the boundary between the integral and the fractional
Muslim scientists placed far greater emphasis on experiment than had the Greeks. In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions This led to an early scientific method being developed in the Muslim world, where significant progress in methodology was made, beginning with the experiments of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) on optics from circa 1000, in his Book of Optics. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Arabic: ابو علی، حسن بن حسن بن هيثم Latinized The Book of Optics ( Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Opticae Thesaurus Alhazeni  The most important development of the scientific method was the use of experiments to distinguish between competing scientific theories set within a generally empirical orientation, which began among Muslim scientists. In Philosophy, empiricism is a theory of Knowledge which asserts that knowledge arises from Experience. Ibn al-Haytham is also regarded as the father of optics, especially for his empirical proof of the intromission theory of light. Some have also described Ibn al-Haytham as the "first scientist" for his development of the modern scientific method. 
Muslim physicians contributed significantly to the field of medicine, including the subjects of anatomy and physiology: such as in the 15th century Persian work by Mansur ibn Muhammad ibn al-Faqih Ilyas entitled Tashrih al-badan (Anatomy of the body) which contained comprehensive diagrams of the body's structural, nervous and circulatory systems; or in the work of the Egyptian physician Ibn al-Nafis, who proposed the theory of pulmonary circulation. A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Anatomy (from the Greek anatomia, from ana separate apart from and temnein, to cut up cut open is a branch of Biology that is the consideration Physiology (from Greek grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the mechanical physical Manṣūr ibn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Yūsuf Ibn Ilyās (ar منصور ابن محمد ابن احمد ابن يوسف ابن الياس was a late 14th century physician from The nervous system is a Network of specialized cells that communicate information about an animal's surroundings and itself This is an article about the rock music band "Circulatory System" TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Ala al-Din Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi ( Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the Cardiovascular system which carries Oxygen -depleted Blood away from the heart to the Lungs, and Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine remained an authoritative medical textbook in Europe until the 18th century. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born The Canon of Medicine ( Arabic: القانون في الطب Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb " The Law of Medicine " Persian Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (also known as Abulcasis) contributed to the discipline of medical surgery with his Kitab al-Tasrif ("Book of Concessions"), a medical encyclopedia which was later translated to Latin and used in European and Muslim medical schools for centuries. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013 (أبو القاسم بن خلف Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Other medical advancements came in the fields of pharmacology and pharmacy. Pharmacology (from Greek grc φάρμακον pharmakon, "drug" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of how Drugs Pharmacy (from the Greek φάρμακον 'pharmakon' = drug is the Health profession that links the Health sciences with the chemical sciences 
In astronomy, al-Battani improved the precision of the measurement of the precession of the earth's axis. Precession refers to a change in the direction of the axis of a rotating object The corrections made to the geocentric model by al-Battani, Averroes, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi and Ibn al-Shatir were later incorporated into the Copernican heliocentric model. In Astronomy, the geocentric model of the Universe is the superseded theory that the Earth is the center of the universe and other Abū 'l-Walīd Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Rushd (Arabicأبو الوليد محمد بن احمد بن رشد better known just as Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد and in European Mu’ayyad al-Din al-’Urdi (d 1266 was an Arab Muslim astronomer, mathematician, architect and engineer working at the Maragheh Ala Al-Din Abu'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Shatir (1304 &ndash 1375 (ابن الشاطر was an Arab Muslim astronomer, mathematician, engineer See also Nicolaus Copernicus, Heliocentrism Earlier theories See also Heliocentrism Early traces of a Heliocentric model Heliocentric theories were also discussed by several other Muslim astronomers such as Abu-Rayhan Biruni, Abu Said Sinjari, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, and 'Umar al-Katibi al-Qazwini. In Astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Solar System. TemplateInfobox Persian scholars --> Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236 &ndash 1311 (قطبالدین شیرازی was a 13th The astrolabe, though originally developed by the Greeks, was perfected by Islamic astronomers and engineers, and was subsequently brought to Europe. The astrolabe is a historical Astronomical instrument used by classical astronomers, Navigators
Muslim chemists and alchemists played an important role in the foundation of modern chemistry. A chemist is a Scientist trained in the Science of Chemistry. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties Scholars such as Will Durant and Alexander von Humboldt regard Muslim chemists to be the founders of chemistry. William James Durant ( November 5, 1885 &ndash November 7, 1981) was a prolific American popularizer in the fields of History (September 14 1769 &ndash May 6 1859 was a German naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister philosopher and linguist In particular, Geber is regarded as the "father of chemistry". For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. The works of Arab chemists influenced Roger Bacon (who introduced the empirical method to Europe, strongly influenced by his reading of Arabic writers), and later Isaac Newton. For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician. Roger Bacon, O Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements A number of chemical processes (particularly in alchemy) and distillation techniques (such as the production of alcohol) were developed in the Muslim world and then spread to Europe. In a " scientific " sense a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more Chemicals or Chemical compounds Such a chemical Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon
Some of the most famous scientists from the Islamic world include Geber (polymath, father of chemistry), al-Farabi (polymath), Abu al-Qasim (father of modern surgery), Ibn al-Haytham (universal genius, father of optics, founder of psychophysics and experimental psychology, pioneer of scientific method, "first scientist"), Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (universal genius, father of Indology and geodesy, "first anthropologist"), Avicenna (universal genius, father of momentum and modern medicine), Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (polymath), and Ibn Khaldun (father of demography, cultural history, historiography, the philosophy of history, sociology, and the social sciences), among many others. For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. A polymath ( Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής "having learned much" is a person whose knowledge is not restricted to one subject area Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abū Nasr Muhammad ibn al-Farakh al-Fārābi ( Nastaliq:) or Abū Nasr al-Fārābi TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013 (أبو القاسم بن خلف Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Arabic: ابو علی، حسن بن حسن بن هيثم Latinized A polymath ( Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής "having learned much" is a person whose knowledge is not restricted to one subject area Psychophysics is a subdiscipline of Psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their subjective correlates or Percepts Experimental psychology approaches Psychology as one of the natural sciences investigates it using the experimental method. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena Indology refers to the academic study of the languages texts History and Cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies Geodesy (dʒiːˈɒdɪsi also called geodetics, a branch of Earth sciences, is the scientific discipline that deals Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born In Classical mechanics, momentum ( pl momenta SI unit kg · m/s, or equivalently N · s) is the product Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون,, ( May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH &ndash March 19 Demography is the statistical study of all Populations. It can be a very general science that can be applied to any kind of dynamic population that is one that changes over The term cultural history (from the German term) refers both to an Academic discipline and to its subject matter Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of Philosophy concerning the eventual significance if any of human History. Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" The social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including Anthropology, Communication studies
In technology, the Muslim world adopted papermaking from China and further advanced the technology with their invention of papermills many centuries before paper was known in the West. Papermaking is the process of making Paper, a material which is used ubiquitously today for writing and packaging A paper mill is a Factory devoted to making Paper from wood pulp and other ingredients using a Fourdrinier Machine or similar apparatus Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging  The knowledge of gunpowder was also transmitted from China via Islamic countries, where the formulas for pure potassium nitrate and an explosive gunpowder effect were first developed. Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes Potassium nitrate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula K[[Nitrogen N]] O 3 An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied 
Advances were made in irrigation and farming, using new technology such as the windmill. Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops A windmill is a machine that is powered by the energy of the wind Crops such as almonds and citrus fruit were brought to Europe through al-Andalus, and sugar cultivation was gradually adopted by the Europeans. The Almond ( Prunus dulcis, syn Prunus amygdalus Batsch Amygdalus communis L Citrus is a common term and Genus of Flowering plants in the family Rutaceae, originating in tropical and subtropical southeast regions of Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Arab merchants dominated trade in the Indian Ocean until the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century. The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Hormuz was an important center for this trade. There was also a dense network of trade routes in the Mediterranean, along which Muslim countries traded with each other and with European powers such as Venice, Genoa and Catalonia. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. The Silk Road crossing Central Asia passed through Muslim states between China and Europe. The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south
Muslim engineers in the Islamic world made a number of innovative industrial uses of hydropower, and early industrial uses of tidal power, wind power, steam power, fossil fuels such as petroleum, and early large factory complexes (tiraz in Arabic). For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Hydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that is derived from the Force or Energy of moving water which may Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of Hydropower that converts the energy of Tides into electricity or other useful forms of power Wind Power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form such as electricity using Wind turbines At the end of 2007 worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is an industrial Building where workers manufacture goods  The industrial uses of watermills in the Islamic world date back to the 7th century, while horizontal-wheeled and vertical-wheeled water mills were both in widespread use since at least the 9th century. This article is about a type of structure For other locational uses see Milldam. A water wheel is a means of extracting power from the flow (or fall of water otherwise known as Hydropower. A variety of industrial mills were being employed in the Islamic world, including early fulling mills, gristmills, hullers, paper mills, sawmills, shipmills, stamp mills, steel mills, sugar mills, tide mills and windmills. A gristmill or grist mill is a building where Grain is ground into Flour, or the grinding mechanism itself A huller (or sometimes called a rice husker) is a kind of Agricultural machinery to hull Rice. A paper mill is a Factory devoted to making Paper from wood pulp and other ingredients using a Fourdrinier Machine or similar apparatus A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards Sawmill process A sawmill's basic operation is much like those of 100 years ago a log enters A stamp mill (or stamp battery) is a type of mill that crushes material by pounding rather than grinding either for further processing or for extraction of metallic ores Steel Mill was one of Bruce Springsteen 's early bands and performed regularly on the Jersey Shore, in Virginia, and also in California from 1969 A Sugar Refinery or sugar Mill is a Factory which refines sugar from various organic sources like sugar cane or beets into a A tide mill is a specialist type of water mill driven by tidal rise and fall A windmill is a machine that is powered by the energy of the wind By the 11th century, every province throughout the Islamic world had these industrial mills in operation, from al-Andalus and North Africa to the Middle East and Central Asia. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south  Muslim engineers also invented crankshafts and water turbines, employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, and pioneered the use of dams as a source of water power, used to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. The crankshaft, sometimes casually abbreviated to crank, is the part of an Engine which translates reciprocating Linear A water turbine is a rotary Engine that takes energy from moving water This is the page for mechanical Gears For other uses see Gear (disambiguation For the gear-like device used to drive a roller chain see Sprocket A machine is any device that uses Energy to perform some activity A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water while other structures such as Floodgates, Levees  Such advances made it possible for many industrial tasks that were previously driven by manual labour in ancient times to be mechanized and driven by machinery instead in the medieval Islamic world. Manual labour (or manual labor) is physical work done with the hands especially in an unskilled job such as fruit and vegetable picking road building or any "Ancient" redirects here For other uses see Ancient_(disambiguation. Mechanization or mechanisation ( BE) is providing human operators with machinery to assist them with the physical requirements of work A machine is any device that uses Energy to perform some activity The transfer of these technologies to medieval Europe had an influence on the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the 
A number of industries were generated due to the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, including early industries for agribusiness, astronomical instruments, ceramics, chemicals, distillation technologies, clocks, glass, mechanical hydropowered and wind powered machinery, matting, mosaics, pulp and paper, perfumery, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, rope-making, shipping, shipbuilding, silk, sugar, textiles, water, weapons, and the mining of minerals such as sulfur, ammonia, lead and iron. In Agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various Businesses involved in Food production including Farming, Seed The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός ( keramikos) The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput, or Clock is a gene which encodes proteins regulating Circadian rhythm. Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many Hydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that is derived from the Force or Energy of moving water which may Wind Power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form such as electricity using Wind turbines At the end of 2007 worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was A machine is any device that uses Energy to perform some activity A mat is a generic term for a piece of fabric or flat material generally placed on a Floor or other flat surface and serving a range of purposes including Art History Mosaics of the 4th century BC are found in the Macedonian palace-city of Aegae, and they enriched the floors of Hellenistic The global pulp and paper industry is dominated by North American ( United States, Canada) Northern European ( Finland, Sweden Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by Oil tankers and pipelines A rope is a length of Fibers twisted or Braided together to improve strength for pulling and Connecting. Shipping is physical process of Transporting goods and Cargo. See also Shipbuilding (song. Shipbuilding is the construction of Ships It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. The Textile industry (also known in the United Kingdom and Australia as the Rag Trade) is a term used for industries primarily concerned with the design The water industry provides Drinking water and Wastewater services (including Sewage treatment) to households and industry A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Early large factory complexes (tiraz) were built for many of these industries, and knowledge of these industries were later transmitted to medieval Europe, especially during the Latin translations of the 12th century, as well as before and after. A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is an industrial Building where workers manufacture goods The Renaissance of the 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe especially to Islamic For example, the first glass factories in Europe were founded in the 11th century by Egyptian craftsmen in Greece. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία  The agricultural and handicraft industries also experienced high levels of growth during this period. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Handicraft, also known as craftwork or simply Craft, is a type of work where useful and decorative devices are made completely by hand or using only simple tools 
In circa 1800, the gross domestic product of the Muslim world was estimated at about 12 per cent of the world total. By the end of the 19th century, this share had plunged to about 5 per cent of the world total. This share had since then stagnated throughout the 20th century due to half-hearted economic reforms.
As of 2006, the Arab World accounts for two-fifth of the gross domestic product and three-fifth of the trade of the wider Muslim World. It should be noted that oil industry and related services account for almost two-fifth of the gross domestic product of the Muslim world.
Many Muslims not only live in, but also have an official status in the following regions:
The countries of Southwest Asia, and many in Northern and Northeastern Africa are considered part of the Greater Middle East. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The North Caucasus, also Ciscaucasus, Ciscaucasia or Forecaucasia, is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe Idel-Ural (Идел-Урал|İdel-Ural Идель-Урал is a historical region in Eastern Europe, in what is today Russia. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially The Maldives ( or, or Maldive Islands) officially the Republic of Maldives, is an Island nation consisting of a group of atolls stretching China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Xinjiang ( Uyghur: شىنجاڭ Shinjang;; Postal map spelling: Sinkiang; Turkish: Sincan, Sincan Uygur Özerk Ningxia ( Postal map spelling: Ningsia full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region ( is a Hui autonomous region of the People's Republic (青海 qīnghǎi is a province of the People's Republic of China, named after Qinghai Lake. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Brunei Darussalam, (bruːˈnaɪ in English officially the State of Brunei Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam Jawi: برني دارالسلام For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Greater Middle East (also known as " The New Middle East " is a political term coined by the Bush administration to englobe together various
Also worthy of mention are provinces of Kosovo in the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Савезна Република Југославија / Savezna Republika Jugoslavija) or FRY was a federal state
In Chechnya, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, Ingushetia, Tatarstan, Bashkiria in Russia, Muslims are in the majority. The Chechen Republic (ˈʧɛʧɨn rɪˈpʌblɨk Чече́нская Респу́блика Chechenskaya Respublika; Нохчийн Республика Noxçiyn Respublika The Republic of Dagestan dæɡɪˈstɑːn (IntEng ˈdeɪɡəstæn (AmEng (Респу́блика Дагеста́н Дагъистанлъул ДжумхIурият Daɣistanłul The Kabardino-Balkar Republic (Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ Karachay-Cherkess Republic (Карача́ево-Черке́сская респу́блика Karachay-Balkar: Къарачай-Черкес Республика The Republic of Ingushetia ( Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк Респу́блика Ингуше́тия Respublika Ingushetiya) is a federal Republic of Tatarstan (Респу́блика Татарста́н Татарстан Республикасы|Tatarstan Respublikası is a federal subject of the Russian Republic of Bashkortostan (Респу́блика Башкортоста́н Башҡортостан Республикаһы or Bashkiria (ru Башки́рия Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
The Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir has a Muslim majority population, particularly concentrated in the Kashmir valley. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country ( Dogri: जम्मू और कश्मीर Urdu: جموں و کشمیر is the northernmost state of India.
Some definitions would also include the sizable Muslim minorities in:
Part of a series on
|Sunni · Shi'a|
Culture & Society
|Christianity · Hinduism · Jainism|
Judaism · Sikhism
One fifth of the world population share Islam as an ethical tradition. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Singapore Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Guyana (ɡaɪˈænə or /ɡiːˈɑːnə/ officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana and previously known as British Guiana, is the only Nation state Suriname ( Dutch: Suriname; Sranan Tongo: Sranan) officially the Republic of Suriname (traditionally spelled Surinam by The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (ˈtrɪnɪdæd ən təˈbeɪgoʊ is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying northeast of the South American Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Aqidah (sometimes spelled Aqeeda, Aqidah or Aqida) (عقيدة is an Islamic term meaning Creed. Allah ( Arabic: الله, ʔalˤːɑːh) is the standard Arabic word for ' In Islam, God is believed to be the only real supreme being all-powerful and all knowing Creator Sustainer Ordainer and Judge of the universe Islam puts a heavy emphasis IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Muslims regard as Prophets of Islam ( Arabic: نبي) those non-divine humans chosen by Allah as Prophets The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic أركان الإسلام is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. The Shahada ( Arabic: ar الشهادة, from the verb ar شهد "to testify" is the Islamic Creed. Ṣalāt ( Arabic: صلاة, pl ṣalawāt, Qur'anic Arabic: صلوة ṣalawah) (also munz in Pashto and Sawm ( Arabic: صوم is an Arabic word for Fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. Zakaat ( زكاة zækæːh zakaat or zakāh, has the implied The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world Muslim history began in Arabia with the Muhammad 's first recitations of the Qur'an in the 7th century Caliph Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam There is much more to Muslim history than its military and political aspects this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political nature See also Muhammad's wives Ahl al-Bayt ( Arabic:ar أهل البيت is an Arabic phrase literally meaning People of the House, or family In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (الصحابة "Companions" were the companions of the Islamic prophet Muḥammad. The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( ar الخلفاء الراشدون) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first Imāmah (إمامة is the Shī‘ah doctrine of religious spiritual and political leadership of the Ummah. Qur'an Text Surahs ** Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Sunnah ar (سنة plural سنن Sunan literally means “trodden path” and therefore the sunnah of the prophet means “the way and the manners of the prophet” Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Kalām (علم الكلام is the Islamic philosophy of seeking Islamic theological principles through Dialectic. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Muslim Culture is a term primarily used in Secular Academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples This is a sub-article to Religious education, Academic discipline, and Islam. This article is about Animals in Islamic thought The Qur'an assigns an inferior status to animals in comparison with humans and has a tendency towards Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar ( Arabic: التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری The topic of Islam and children includes the rights of children in Islam children's duties towards their parents and parent's rights over their children both males and females Listing of Muslims by country Important note Population counts by religious affiliation like most demographic characteristics of a Population Muslim holidays are mostly based around the life of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Qur'an. A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger Islamic philosophy is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between Philosophy ( Reason) and the religious teachings See also Modern Islamic philosophy, Islamism, Islamic terrorism Political aspects of Islam are derived from the Quran, the Sunna Over the centuries of Islamic history, Muslim rulers Islamic scholars, and ordinary Muslims have held many different attitudes towards other religions The historical interaction between Christianity and Islam, in the field of Comparative religion, connects fundamental ideas in Christianity with similar ones in Islam Hinduism and Islam, from the of arrival of the Arabs as far back as the eighth century AD has had a checkered history Islam and Jainism came in close contact with each other following the Islamic conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh The historical interaction of Judaism and Islam started in the 7th century CE with the origin and spread of Islam in the Arabian peninsula. In Islam, Muhammad is the last and final Prophet of God Islam views Jews Christians and Muslims as " People of the Book Arguments critical to religion in general or specific to monotheism such as the Existence of God, are not dealt with here Islamophobia is a Neologism that refers to Prejudice or Discrimination against Islam or Muslims The term itself dates back to the The following list consists of Concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. Listing of Muslims by country Important note Population counts by religious affiliation like most demographic characteristics of a Population The following table analyzes the Demographics of Islam as of mid-year 2005 "The world " is a proper noun for the planet Earth envisioned from an Anthropocentric or Human Worldview, as a place Ethics is a branch of Philosophy dealing with right and wrong in human behavior Muslims are the majority in 57 nations. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. They speak about 60 languages and come from diverse ethnic backgrounds. There are over 1. 5 billion Muslims in total. See Islam by country and Demographics of Islam for more information. Listing of Muslims by country Important note Population counts by religious affiliation like most demographic characteristics of a Population The following table analyzes the Demographics of Islam as of mid-year 2005
The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization grouping fifty-seven States. The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. These States decided to pool their resources together, combine their efforts and speak with one voice to safeguard the interest and ensure the progress and well-being of their peoples and those of other Muslims in the world over.
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries includes many nations that are also in the Arab League. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries ( OPEC) is a Cartel of thirteen countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador The Arab League ( الجامعة العربية) officially called the League of Arab States ( جامعة الدول العربية
A politically motivated oil embargo in 1974 (to support Egypt and Syria in the 1973 Yom Kippur War against Israel after the US re-equipped Israel with armaments) had drastic economic and political consequences in the United States and Europe. The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17 1973 when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC consisting of the Arab members of Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War (מלחמת יום הכיפורים transliterated: Milkhemet Yom HaKipurim or מלחמת יום Operation Nickel Grass was an overt Strategic airlift operation conducted by the United States to deliver weapons and supplies to Israel during Recently Danish products faced a boycott by Muslim world after the 2005 Prophet Muhammad cartoons controversy, although that move was not supported by the Muslim governments, it demonstrates the power of the Muslim World acting in concert, and the key role of religion and ethnicity in the politics of oil regions, with which the Muslim world intersects.
Islamic law does not distinguish between "matters of church" and "matters of state"; the ulema function as both jurists and theologians. In practice, Islamic rulers frequently bypassed the Sharia courts with a parallel system of so-called "Grievance courts" over which they had sole control. As the Muslim world came into contact with Western secular ideals, Muslim societies responded in different ways. Turkey has been governed as a secular state ever since the reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 &ndash 10 November 1938 was an army officer revolutionary Statesman In contrast, the 1979 Iranian Revolution replaced a mostly secular regime with an Islamic republic led by the Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini. The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed Islamic Republic is the name given to several states in the Muslim world including the Islamic Republics of Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Mauritania Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( Persian:, pronounced muːsæviː-je xomejniː}}( September 24, 1902 – June 3 1989 
Many Muslim countries still have a strong belief in the religion of Islam, many have used Sharia law in the state where the law runs from the interpretations from the Quran and the Hadith in the society of politics, law, schools and others. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic Most countries in the Muslim world according to their constitution declare Islam as the state religion or Sharia law, but a very few who are Secular states compared with the western world. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law.
In some nations, Muslim ethnic groups enjoy considerable autonomy. Islamic ethics ( akhlāq) defined as "good character" historically took shape gradually from the 7th century and was finally established by the 11th Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the This is a sub-article of Fiqh and Law and economics. Islamic economics is Economics in accordance with Islamic law
In some places, Muslims implement a form of Islamic law, called shariah in Arabic. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. The Islamic law exists in many variations, but the main forms are the five (four Sunni and one Shia) schools of jurisprudence (fiqh):
All five are centuries old and many Muslim feel a new fiqh must be created for modern society. Madhhab or Mazhab ( Arabic مذهب mæðhæb pl مذاهب mæðæːhıb) is an Islamic school of thought, or Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the The Hanafi ( Arabic حنفي school is the oldest of the four schools of thought ( Madhhabs Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. The Maliki Madhhab ( Arabic مالكي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. The Shāfi‘ī Madhab ( ar شافعي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh, or religious law within For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The Horn of Africa (alternatively Northeast Africa, and sometimes Somali Peninsula; shortened to HOA) is a Peninsula in East Africa Hanbali ( حنبلى) is one of the four schools ( Madhhabs of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam (the other three being The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Twelvers. Jaʿfarī school of thought, Jaʿfarī jurisprudence or For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions Islam has a method for doing this, al-urf and ijtihad are the words to describe this method, but they have not been used in a long time by Sunni Muslims, and few people are trusted enough to use them to make new laws. Urf العرف is an Arabic Islamic term referring to the custom or 'knowledge' of a given society leading to change in the Fiqh فقه (Islamic Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد is a technical term of Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the legal sources The Shi'i Jaferi school of fiqh never ended the tradition of ijtihad.
Muslim women often dress extremely modestly, mostly by choice. Thus, in some countries an interpretation of the Islamic law requires women to cover either just legs, shoulders and head or the whole body apart from the face. In strictest forms, the face as well must be covered leaving just a mesh to see through. These rules for dressing are one of the things the cause tension between the Western World and the Muslim, concerning particularly Muslim living in western countries, since many in the Western World consider these restrictions both sexist and oppressive. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings Most Muslims oppose this charge, and instead declare that the media-fuelled world of the West is itself sexist and oppressive in that women are forced to reveal irrational amounts of flesh to be considered attractive.
Islamic economics bans interest or Riba (Usury) but in most Muslim countries Western banking is allowed. This is a sub-article of Fiqh and Law and economics. Islamic economics is Economics in accordance with Islamic law Interest is a fee paid on borrowed capital Assets lent include Money, Shares, Consumer goods through Hire purchase, major assets Usury (ˈjuːʒəri comes from the Medieval Latin usuria, "interest" or "excessive interest" from the Latin usura "interest" A banker or bank is a Financial institution whose primary activity is to act as a payment agent for customers and to borrow and lend money
Many people in Islamic countries also see Islam manifested politically as Islamism. Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only Political Islam is powerful in all Muslim-majority countries. Islamic parties in Turkey, Pakistan and Algeria have taken power at the provincial level. An Islamic party is a party that works for promoting Islam while an Islamic political party is a Political party that promotes Islam as a political movement Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Many in these movements call themselves Islamists, which also sometimes describes more militant Islamic groups. Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only The relationships between these groups (in democratic countries there is usually at least one Islamic party) and their views of democracy are complex. An Islamic party is a party that works for promoting Islam while an Islamic political party is a Political party that promotes Islam as a political movement
Some of these groups are accused of practicing terrorism. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion
Israel is subject to varying levels of hostility in the Muslim world due to the prolonged Arab-Israeli conflict and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Projects that work to foster peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs (including Palestinians fall into various categories The State of Israel joined the United Nations on May 11, 1949. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics.
Turkey was the first Muslim-majority state to recognize Israel, just one year after its founding, and they have the long shared close military and economic ties. Prior to the Iranian Revolution, Iran and Israel maintained a strong political friendship, however the current Iranian government is strongly anti-Israeli and has repeatedly called for Israel's destruction. The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. During his presidency Mahmoud Ahmadinejad 's speeches and statements have contributed to increased tensions between Iran and Israel, and between Iran and several Once at war, both Egypt and Jordan have established diplomatic relations and signed peace treaties with Israel, and attempts to resolve the conflict with Palestinians have produced a number of interim agreements. Israeli-Palestinian conflict The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles Nine non-Arab Muslim states maintain diplomatic ties with Israel, and since 1994, the Gulf states have lessened their enforcement of the Arab boycott, with Saudi Arabia even declaring its end in 2005, though it has yet to cancel its sanctions. See also Boycotts Boycotts of Israel are economic and political campaigns that seek a selective or total cutting of ties with the State of Israel The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi States like Morocco that have large Jewish populations have generally been less hostile relations with Israel. Moroccan Jews constitute an ancient community Before the founding of Israel in 1948, there were about 250000 Jews in the country but fewer
Pakistan is only declared nuclear nation in Muslim World. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and The nuclear program of Pakistan was carried out in response to India's nuclear test in 1971. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Pakistan conducted its nuclear tests in May 1998 to India's nuclear tests of May 1998. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar)
See also: Gulf War
See also: Nuclear program of Iran
1979 was a critical year in the Muslim world's relationship with the rest of the world. The nuclear program of Iran was launched in the 1950s with the help of the United States as part of the Atoms for Peace program Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) In that year, Egypt made peace with Israel, the government of Iran was overthrown in the Iranian Revolution, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan began. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed The Soviet war in Afghanistan, also known as the Soviet-Afghan War or just the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, was a nine-year conflict involving
Some of the events pivotal in the Muslim world's relationship with the outside world in the post-Soviet era were:
The U. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The War in Afghanistan, which began on October 7 2001 as the U The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia The humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was prompted by one of the worst Natural disasters of modern times The Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy arose from a lecture delivered on 12 September 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI at the University of Regensburg Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger The War in Darfur is a military conflict in the Darfur region of western Sudan. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The nuclear program of Iran was launched in the 1950s with the help of the United States as part of the Atoms for Peace program The Second Chechen War, in a later phase better known as the War in the North Caucasus, was launched by the Russian Federation starting August 26 The 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence was an act of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government Assembly of Kosovo, adopted on 17 February 2008 which declared S. -led War on Terrorism has been criticized as a War on Islam by Hizb ut-Tahrir and other Islamist organizations. The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the military political and legal, and ideological conflict and specifically for U War against Islam (also War on Islam, or Attack on Islam) is a critical term used to describe a perceived campaign to harm weaken or even annihilate the religion Hizb ut-Tahrir (حزب التحرير Party of Liberation is an international Pan-Islamist, Sunni, vanguard political party whose goal is to combine all Muslim Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only
In Pakistan, a prominent U. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and S. ally, Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal - an Islamic political party - won local elections in two out of four of the country's provinces and became in mid-2003 the third largest party in the national parliament, their strongest showing up to that point. Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal ( MMA) (متحدہ مجلس عمل ( United Council of Action) is a coalition between religious-political parties in Pakistan. They had support from urban areas for the first time. See also: Politics of Pakistan
In Kuwait elections in July 2003 returned Islamic traditionalists and supporters of the royal family, while liberals suffered a severe defeat. In recent history the Pakistani political processes have taken place in the framework of a Federal republic, where the system of government has at times been Parliamentary The State of Kuwait ( دولة الكويت IPA [dawlatt̪ alkuwajt̪]) is a sovereign Arab Emirate on the coast of the Persian Gulf, enclosed See also: Elections in Kuwait
In Indonesia, the growth of various groups allied to those considered responsible for the Bali Bombing most of which have previously been invisible, has been marked. Elections in Kuwait are held for both the National Assembly ( Majlis al-Umma) and for the Municipality The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia.
In Iran in 1979, a popular revolution saw the exile of the Shah and the rule going to Ayatollah Khomeini, a cleric from the Shia school of thought. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Shah is an Iranian term for a Monarch (leader that has been adopted in many other languages Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( Persian:, pronounced muːsæviː-je xomejniː}}( September 24, 1902 – June 3 1989 The country has what it claims is a theocratic democracy, and has kept the "revolution" as part of the state's survival and growth. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system
In Kosovo in 2008, it declared independence from Serbia.
The two main denominations of Islam are the Sunni and Shia sects. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic The difference between them is primarily in terms of how the life of the ummah ("faithful") should be governed, and the role of the imam. An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community These two main differences stem from the understanding of which hadith are to interpret the Quran. Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran The Shia minority believes that the Family of the Prophet's traditions are exclusively to be followed, whereas the Sunni majority believes in traditions from the Companions of the Prophet and other common people to be followed. See also Muhammad's wives Ahl al-Bayt ( Arabic:ar أهل البيت is an Arabic phrase literally meaning People of the House, or family In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (الصحابة "Companions" were the companions of the Islamic prophet Muḥammad.
The overwhelming majority of Muslims in the world, approximately 85%, are Sunni. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic
Shias and others (Ibadiyyas, Ahmadis, Druze) make up the rest, about 15% of overall Muslim population. Among the countries with Shi'a majority of Muslim population are Iran (90%), Iraq (65%), Azerbaijan (75%), Bahrain (60%), and Lebanon (35%). For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South The Kingdom of Bahrain (in مملكة البحرين,, literally Kingdom of the Two Seas) is an Island country in the Persian Gulf Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية
The Kharijite Muslims, who are less known, have their own stronghold in the country of Oman holding about 75% of the population. The Ibadi movement or Ibadiyya (Arabic الاباضية al-Ibāḍiyyah is a form of Islam distinct from the Shi'a and Sunni denominations Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is an Arab Country in Southwest Asia on the southeast The rest of the population being 10% Sunni and the rest Shi'a. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic
Countries in the Muslim world sorted by state religion:
|“||"According to the majority of the historians al-Haytham was the pioneer of the modern scientific method. With his book he changed the meaning of the term optics and established experiments as the norm of proof in the field. His investigations are based not on abstract theories, but on experimental evidences and his experiments were systematic and repeatable. "||”|
|“||"What we call science arose as a result of new methods of experiment, observation, and measurement, which were introduced into Europe by the Arabs. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding [. . . ] Science is the most momentous contribution of Arab civilization to the modern world, but its fruits were slow in ripening. The term modern period or modern era (sometimes also modern times) is the period of history that followed the Middle Ages between c [. . . ] The debt of our science to that of the Arabs does not consist in startling discoveries or revolutionary theories; science owes a great deal more to Arab culture, it owes its existence. . . . The ancient world was, as we saw, pre-scientific. [. . . ] The Greeks systematized, generalized and theorized, but the patient ways of investigations, the accumulation of positive knowledge, the minute methods of science, detailed and prolonged observation and experimental inquiry were altogether alien to the Greek temperament. "||”|