This article is part
of the Fiddle & Violin series. The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member
|Basic physics of the violin|
|History of the violin|
|Making and maintenance|
|Playing the violin|
|Violin family of instruments|
Since the Baroque era the violin (Baroque violin) has been one of the most important of all instruments in classical music, for several reasons. The distinctive sound of a violin is the result of interactions between its many parts This list of notable fiddlers shows some crossover with the List of violinists since the instruments used are quite similar if not identical The violin first emerged in northern Italy in the early 16th century. Making an instrument of the Violin family may be done in different ways many of which have changed very little in nearly 500 years since the first violins were made Playing the violin entails holding the instrument under the chin supported by the left shoulder (see below for variations of this posture A Violin consists of a body or corpus a neck a bridge, a soundpost four strings, and various fittings The Violin family of Musical instruments was developed in Italy in the Sixteenth century. The following lists of violinists are available List of classical violinists, names of great violinist from baroque era till 20th century Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. A baroque violin is in common usage any Violin whose neck fingerboard bridge and tailpiece are of the type used during the Baroque period Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music The tone of the violin stands out above other instruments, making it appropriate for playing a melody line. In the hands of a good player, the violin is extremely agile, and can execute rapid and difficult sequences of notes. Indeed, the violin seems to lend itself to virtuosity more than any other instrument (its only possible rival is the piano), and top violinists have amazed their audiences with their skill since the 17th century. The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers
The violin is also considered a very expressive instrument, which is often felt to approximate the human voice. This may be due to the possibility of vibrato and of slight expressive adjustments in pitch and timbre. Many leading composers have contributed to the violin concerto and violin sonata repertories. A violin concerto is a Concerto for solo Violin (occasionally two or more violins and instrumental ensemble customarily Orchestra. A violin sonata is a musical composition for solo Violin, which is nearly always accompanied by a Piano or other keyboard instrument or by Figured bass
Violins make up a large part of an orchestra, and are usually divided into two sections, known as the first and second violins. An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well Composers often assign the melody to the first violins (who are often given more technically difficult music), while second violins play harmony, accompaniment patterns or the melody in a lower range than the first violins. A string quartet similarly has parts for first and second violins, as well as a viola part, and a bass instrument, such as the cello or, rarely, the double bass. A string quartet is a Musical ensemble of four String instruments &mdash usually two Violins a Viola and Cello &mdash or a piece The viola is a bowed String instrument. It is the middle voice of the Violin family, The violoncello (abbreviated to cello, or 'cello, plural cellos or celli —the c is tʃ The double bass is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed String instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra.
While the violin has had very little usage in rock music compared to its brethren the guitar and bass guitar, it is being increasingly absorbed into mainstream pop. Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The electric bass guitar (also called electric bass, or simply bass; ˈbeɪs as in "base" is a Stringed instrument played primarily with the Independent artists such as Final Fantasy and Andrew Bird have increased interest as well, creating a subcategory of indie rock that some have termed "violindie". Michael James Owen Pallett (born on September 7, 1979) is a Violinist and singer from Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and Andrew Bird (born July 11, 1973) is an American musician songwriter and Multi-instrumentalist. Indie rock is genre of Alternative rock that primarily exists in the independent Underground music scene
The violin is also used in mainstream pop acts like Vanessa-Mae, Bond, Miri Ben-Ari, Yellowcard, Nigel Kennedy, and Dave Matthews Band with Boyd Tinsley and Jean-Luc Ponty; U2 also frequently uses the violin, especially the electric violin. Vanessa-Mae Vanakorn Nicholson (born October 27 1978) known professionally as Vanessa-Mae (in Chinese: 陳美 Chén Měi is an internationally Bond (often typeset as bond in deference to the owners of the 007 Miri Ben-Ari ( hebrew: מירי בן ארי) (born December 4 1978 in Israel) is a Grammy Award -winning Israeli Yellowcard is a Pop punk band from Jacksonville Florida. Their music features a rare contribution to the genre incorporating the use of a Violin. Nigel Kennedy (born 28 December 1956 in Brighton England) is a Violinist and Violist. Dave Matthews Band (also known by the initials DMB) is a United States -based rock band originally formed in Charlottesville, Virginia Boyd Calvin Tinsley (b May 16, 1964, Charlottesville Virginia) is the Violinist, mandolinist and one of the backup singers in the Jean-Luc Ponty (born September 29, 1942, Avranches, France) is a virtuoso French Violinist and Jazz Composer An electric violin is a Violin equipped with an electronic output of its sound The violin is also a part of the huge phenomenon called cello rock. Cello rock and cello metal are subgenres of Rock music characterized by the use of Cellos (as well as sometimes also other bowed string instruments such The hugely popular Motown recordings of the 60's and 70's relied heavily on strings as part of the trademark texture. "Motown" redirects here For the city see Detroit Michigan. Earlier genres of pop music, at least those separate from the Rock 'n' Roll movement, tended to make use of fairly traditional Orchestras, sometimes large ones; examples include the American "Crooners" such as Bing Crosby. Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well
Though bowed strings were heavily popular and relied upon in almost all types of music genre recordings in the 60's and 70's, disco music, which surged aggressively onto the music scene in the early to mid 1970's, also relied heavily upon strings within its compositions; in fact, almost all disco/dance music of that era incorporated the use of strings within its compositions and arrangements. After the sudden decline of disco began in the late 70's and early 80's, the use of strings not only dwindled in disco music, but ceased in almost all types of popular music during that time and more so immediately after disco's death. The 1980's saw an insurgence of electronic music mimicking strings with little or no use of traditional strings in music compositions. Now strings are making a comeback in pop music.
Indian and Arabic pop music is filled with the sound of violins, both soloists and ensembles.
The earliest references to jazz performance using the violin as a solo instrument are documented during the first decades of the 20th century. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States The first great jazz violinist was Joe Venuti who is best known for his work with guitarist Eddie Lang during the 1920s. Giuseppe (Joe Venuti ( September 16 1903 &ndash August 14, 1978) was a U Eddie Lang ( October 25, 1902 &ndash March 26, 1933) was an American Jazz Guitarist, considered by many to be the finest The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada
In the swing and post-war eras there were many superb improvising violinists including Stéphane Grappelli, Stuff Smith, Ray Perry, Ray Nance and Claude "Fiddler" Williams. Stéphane Grappelli ( January 26 1908 &ndash December 1 1997) was a French Jazz Violinist who founded the Hezekiah Leroy Gordon Smith ( August 14, 1909 - September 25, 1967) better known as Stuff Smith, was a Jazz Violinist Ray Perry ( February 25, 1915 - 1950 was an American Jazz Violinist and Saxophonist. Ray Willis Nance ( December 10, 1913 Chicago - January 28 1976 in New York City) was a Jazz Trumpeter Claude "The Fiddler" Williams ( February 22, 1908 – April 26, 2004) was an American Jazz Violinist
Noteworthy modern jazz violinists who joined the scene between 1960 and 1990 and usually played in an avant-garde vein include Leroy Jenkins, Billy Bang, Malcolm Goldstein, Michael White, and John Blake, Jr.. Avant-garde (avɑ̃gaʁd in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard Billy Bang (b William Vincent Walker, Mobile, Alabama, September 20, 1947) is an American Free jazz Violinist Malcolm Goldstein (b Brooklyn, New York, United States, March 27, 1936) is a Violinist and Composer specializing Michael Walter White (born 24 May 1933) is an American Jazz Violinist White was born in Houston Texas, and grew up John Blake Jr (b South Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 3, 1947) is an American Jazz Violinist He has performed Younger performers include Mat Maneri and Regina Carter. Mat Maneri, born on October 4, 1969 in Brooklyn New York is an American composer improviser and Jazz Violin and Viola Regina Carter (born August 6 1966) is an American Jazz Violinist Carter was born in Detroit, Michigan, and began
Jazz fusion violinists include Jean-Luc Ponty and Michal Urbaniak. Fusion or more specifically jazz fusion or jazz rock, is a Musical genre that merges Jazz with elements of other styles of music particularly Jean-Luc Ponty (born September 29, 1942, Avranches, France) is a virtuoso French Violinist and Jazz Composer Michał Urbaniak (born June 22, 1943) is a Polish jazz musician and composer born in Warsaw, playing mainly the Violin,
Like many other instruments of classical music, the violin descends from remote ancestors, cruder in form, that were used for folk music. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous Following a stage of intensive development in the late Renaissance, largely in Italy, the violin had improved (in volume, tone, and agility), to the point that it not only became a very important instrument in art music, but proved highly appealing to folk musicians as well. As a folk instrument, the violin ultimately spread very widely, sometimes displacing earlier bowed instruments, and ethnomusicologists have observed its use in many locations throughout Europe, Asia, and the Americas. This article is about the concept For the society and academic journal see Society for Ethnomusicology.
In many traditions of folk music, the tunes are not written but are memorized by successive generations of musicians and passed on in what is known as the oral tradition. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous Oral tradition, oral culture and oral lore is a way for a society to transmit history, literature, law and other Knowledges
When played as a folk instrument, the violin is ordinarily referred to in English as a fiddle.
One very slight difference between "fiddles" and ordinary violins may be seen in American (e. g. , bluegrass and old-time music) fiddling: in these styles, the bridge is often shaved down so that it is less curved. Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music, and is a sub-genre of Country music. Old-time music is a form of North American Folk music, with roots in the Folk musics of many countries including England, Scotland, This makes it easier to play double stops, and often makes triple stops possible, allowing one to play chords. A double stop, in music terminology, is the act of playing two notes simultaneously on a melodic percussion instrument (like a Marimba) or stringed A double stop, in music terminology, is the act of playing two notes simultaneously on a melodic percussion instrument (like a Marimba) or stringed This article describes musical chords in traditional Western styles
There is quite often only a single fiddle playing in any given venue, although twin fiddling is represented in some styles. By contrast, violins often play in sections, since sound reinforcement (before electronic amplification) was only possible by adding instruments. The Italian ripieno may be translated as "filling" (or "stuffing" in the culinary sense) since many instruments "fill out" the sound. Ripieno ( Italian for stuffing) or tutti (Italian for everybody)can refer to- the larger of the two ensembles in the Concerto grosso
The Carnatic violin, while essentially the same instrument as that used in Western music, is different in some senses. The instrument is tuned so that the IV and III strings (G and D on a western-tuned violin) and the II and I (A and E) strings are sa-pa (do-sol) pairs and sound the same but are offset by an octave, resembling common scordatura or fiddle cross-tunings such as GDGD or AEAE. A scordatura (literally Italian for "mistuning" also called cross-tuning, is an alternative Tuning used for the open strings of a String The tonic sa (do) is not fixed, but variably tuned to accommodate the vocalist or lead player.
The way the the musician holds the instrument varies from Western to Carnatic music. In Carnatic music the musician sits on the floor "pretzel style" with the right foot out in front of them. The scroll of the instrument rests on the foot. This position is essential to playing well due to the nature of Carnatic music. The hand can move all over the fingerboard and there is no set position for the left hand, so it is important for the violin to be in a steady, unmoving position.
The violin is a very important part of South Indian classical music (Carnatic music). It is believed to have been introduced to the South Indian tradition by Baluswamy Dikshitar. The violin is primarily used as support for a vocalist, as the sound of a violin complements that of the singer, but is also largely played solo. The masters of Carnatic violin include Thirukodikaval Krishna Iyer, Govindaswamy Pillai, Mysore T. Chowdiah, Dwaram Venkataswami Naidu, T. Malaikkottai Govindaswamy Pillai was a noted exponent of violin in the Carnatic music system who lived and performed between 1850 and 1925 in South India. Tirumakudalu Chowdiah ( Kannada: ಸಂಗೀತ ರತ್ನ ತಿರುಮಕೂಡಲು ಚೌಡಯ್ಯ) ( 1895 - 19 January, 1967 N. Krishnan, Lalgudi Jayaraman, and M. S. Gopalakrishnan. Sri Lalgudi Jayarama Iyer (லால்குடி ஜயராம ஐயர்(born September 17th 1930 India MS Gopalakrishnan (b June 10 1931 is one of the well known Violinists of the 20th Century in the field of Carnatic music. The children of the last three are also successful violinists in their own right. The next generation of violinists includes M. Chandrasekhar, V. V. Subramaniam, Mysore Nagaraj, Dr. Mysore Manjunath and Ganesh-Kumaresh.
In solo violin concerts, the violinist is accompanied by percussion instruments, usually the mridangam and the ghatam. The mridangam (மிருதங்கம் is a Percussion instrument from India, especially South India. The ghatam is a Percussion instrument, used in the Carnatic music of South India.
The violin is also a principal instrument for South Indian film music. South India is the area encompassing India 's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union V. S. Narasimhan is among the leading players in the South Indian film industry, with many hits in the film world. .