|Celtic music||Music of the United Kingdom|
|Brittany and Northern Spain||England|
|Celtic Canada and Celtic America||Caribbean and Indian|
Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music. Celtic music is a term utilised by artists record companies music stores and music magazines to describe a broad grouping of Musical genres that evolved out of the Folk Music from the United Kingdom has lost great popularity since the 1960s when a wave of musicians helped to popularise Rock and roll. Since the early 1970 Brittany has experienced a revival of its Folk music, modernizing and adapting it into Folk rock and other fusion genres The traditional music of Galicia and Asturias has some similarities with the neighbouring areas of Cantabria, León, Castile and northern Cornwall has been historically Celtic though Celtic-derived traditions had been Moribund for some time before being revived during a late 20th century Roots revival The Isle of Man is a small island nation in the Irish Sea, between Great Britain and Ireland. Wales has a strong and distinctive tradition of Folk music related to the Celtic music of countries such as Ireland and Scotland. The folk music of Ireland (also known as Irish traditional music, Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants is the generic term for music that has The folk music of Ireland (also known as Irish traditional music, Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants is the generic term for music that has Newfoundland See also Music of Newfoundland and Labrador There are very strong connections between Newfoundland folk music and Irish music however elements Irish and Scottish music have long been a major part of American music, at least as far back as the 19th century Music from Trinidad Large-scale Caribbean migration to England began in 1948 The music of India' includes multiple varieties of folk, popular, pop, and classical music. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Pop music as a genre features a noticeable rhythmic element catchy melodies and hooks, a mainstream style and conventional structure In spite of emigration and a well-developed connection to music imported from the rest of Europe and the United States, the music of Scotland has kept many of its traditional aspects; indeed, it has itself influenced many forms of music. The Scots people ( Scots Gaelic: Albannaich) are a Nation and an Ethnic group indigenous to Scotland. The music of the United States reflects the country's multi-ethnic population through a diverse array of styles
Scottish traditional music, although both influencing and being influenced by Irish traditional music, is very much a creature unto itself, and, despite the popularity of various international pop music forms, remains a vital and living tradition. The folk music of Ireland (also known as Irish traditional music, Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants is the generic term for music that has There are several Scottish record labels, music festival and a roots magazine, Living Tradition. In the Music industry, a record label can be a Brand and a Trademark associated with the Marketing of music recordings and Music A music festival is a Festival oriented towards Music that is sometimes presented with a theme such as Musical genre, Nationality or locality
Many outsiders associate Scottish folk music almost entirely with the Great Highland Bagpipe, which has indeed long played an important part of Scottish music. The Great Highland Bagpipe ( Gaelic: A' Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of Bagpipe. Although this particular form of bagpipe developed exclusively in Scotland, it is not the only Scottish bagpipe, and other bagpiping traditions remain across Europe. The earliest mention of bagpipes in Scotland date to the 1400s , but they could have been introduced to Scotland as early as the sixth century. The pìob mór, or Great Highland Bagpipe, was originally associated with both hereditary piping families and professional pipers to various clan chiefs; later, pipes were adopted for use in other venues, including military marching. The Great Highland Bagpipe ( Gaelic: A' Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of Bagpipe. Piping clans included the MacArthurs, MacDonalds, McKays and, especially, the MacCrimmon, who were hereditary pipers to the Clan MacLeod. Clan Arthur, ( Scottish Gaelic: Clann Artair) is a highland Scottish clan that once held lands on the shores of Loch Awe opposite Clan Donald is one of the largest Scottish clans The MacDonald clan has many separate branches These are The Clan Mackay ( Gaelic: Mac Aoidh) is an ancient and once powerful Scottish clan from the country's far north in the Scottish Highlands, but The MacCrimmons ( Gaelic: MacCruimein) were a Scottish family pipers to the chiefs of Clan Macleod for an unknown Clan MacLeod is a Highland Scottish clan. The Gaelic form is Clann Mhic Leòid.
Folk music takes many forms in a broad musical tradition, although the dividing lines are not rigid, and many artists work across the boundaries. Culturally, there is a split between the Gaelic tradition and the Scots tradition. 
The oldest forms of music in Scotland are theorized to be Gaelic singing and harp playing. The harp is a Stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. Although much of the harp tradition was lost through extinction, the harp is being revived by contemporary players. Later, the Great Highland Bagpipe appeared on the scene. The Great Highland Bagpipe ( Gaelic: A' Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of Bagpipe. Initially, pipers played traditional pieces called 'piobaireachd',' meaning 'piping' in Gaelic, which consist of a theme and a series of developments. Later, the style of 'light music,' including marches, strathspeys, reels, jigs, and hornpipes, became more popular. Mark from the Old English mearc and march (or various plural forms of these words derived from the Frankish word marka ("boundary" A strathspey is a type of Dance tune in 4/4 time It is similar to a Hornpipe but slower and more stately and contains many dot-cut 'snaps' A reel is an object around which lengths of another material (usually long and flexible are wound for storage The jig (port is a Folk dance type as well as the accompanying dance tune type popular in Ireland. The term hornpipe refers to any of several dance forms played and danced in Britain and elsewhere from the late 17th century until the present day The British army adopted piping and spread the idea of pipe bands throughout the British Empire. A pipe band is a musical ensemble consisting of pipers and Drummers The term used by military pipe bands Pipes and Drums, is also common The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Presently, piping is closely tied to band and individual competitions, although pipers are also experimenting with new possibilities for the instrument. Other forms of bagpipes also exist in the Scottish tradition; they are detailed in the piping section below.
The piping tradition is strongly connected to Gaelic singing (some piping ornaments mimic the Gaelic consonants of the songs), stepdance (the traditional dance meters determine the rhythm of the tunes), and fiddle, which appeared in Scotland in the 17th century. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar These components are part of the dance music which is played across Scotland at country dances, ceilidhs, Highland balls and frequently at weddings. This article is about music for dancing in general You may also be looking for Electronic dance music. A céilidh ( (in modern usage is a traditional Gaelic social Dance originating in Ireland and Scotland, but now common throughout the A wedding is the Ceremony in which two people are united in Marriage. Group dances are performed to music provided typically by an ensemble, or dance band, which may include fiddle, bagpipe, accordion, tin whistle, cello, keyboard and percussion. Dansband ("Dance band" is a term in Swedish which describes bands playing a kind of Popular music, dansbandsmusik ("Dance Bagpipes are a class of Musical instrument, Aerophones using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag The accordion is a portable box-shaped Musical instrument of the hand-held Bellows -driven free-reed aerophone family sometimes referred to as a Squeezebox The tin whistle, also called the tinwhistle, whistle, pennywhistle or Irish whistle, is a simple six-holed Woodwind instrument The violoncello (abbreviated to cello, or 'cello, plural cellos or celli —the c is tʃ A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a Musical keyboard. Many modern Scottish dance bands are becoming more lively and innovative, with influences from other types of music (most notably jazz chord structures) becoming noticeable.
Vocal music is also popular in the Scottish musical tradition. There are ballads and laments, generally sung by a lone singer with backing, or played on traditional instruments such as harp, fiddle, accordion or bagpipes. A ballad is a Poem usually set to Music; thus it often is a story told in a Song. A lament or lamentation is a Song, Poem or piece of music expressing Grief, Regret or Mourning. The harp is a Stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. The accordion is a portable box-shaped Musical instrument of the hand-held Bellows -driven free-reed aerophone family sometimes referred to as a Squeezebox Bagpipes are a class of Musical instrument, Aerophones using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag There are many traditional folk songs, which are generally melodic, haunting or rousing. These are often very specific to certain regions, and are performed today by a burgeoning variety of folk groups. Popular songs were originally produced by music hall performers such as Harry Lauder and Will Fyffe for the stage. Music hall is a form of British theatrical Entertainment which was popular between 1850 and 1960 Sir Henry Lauder ( 4 August 1870 - 26 February 1950) known professionally as Harry Lauder, was a notable Scottish Will Fyffe ( February 16, 1885, Dundee, Scotland &ndash December 14 1947) was a popular Music-hall entertainer More modern exponents of the style have included Andy Stewart, Glen Daly, Moira Anderson, Kenneth McKellar, Calum Kennedy and the Alexander Brothers. Andy Stewart ( 30 December 1933 - 11 October 1993) was a Scottish Singer and Entertainer. Kenneth McKellar (1927 -) is a Scottish singer ( Tenor) McKellar was born in Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland. Calum Kennedy (born as Malcolm Martin Kennedy on 2 June 1928, Isle of Lewis &ndash died 15 April 2006, Aberdeen The Alexander Brothers are an easy-listening folk-music duo from Scotland, who have been performing since the 1950s
The earliest printed collection of secular music in Scotland was by publisher John Forbes in Aberdeen in 1662. Aberdeen ( pronounced; Aiberdeen Obar Dheathain is Scotland 's third most populous city and one of Scotland's 32 local government council Songs and Fancies: to Thre, Foure, or Five Partes, both Apt for Voices and Viols, printed three times in the next twenty years, contained 77 songs, of which 25 were of Scottish origin. Most are anonymous. The other songs in the book are mostly in English, and include works by John Dowland. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States John Dowland (1563 &ndash buried February 20, 1626) was an English Composer, singer and Lutenist He is best known today for his
While ballads had been written for centuries, and had begun to be printed in the seventeenth century, the 18th century brought a number of collections of Scots songs and tunes. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system Examples include Playford's Original Scotch Tunes 1700, Sinkler's MS. 1710, James Watson's Choice Collection of Comic and Serious Scots Poems both Ancient and Modern 1711, William Thomson's Orpheus caledonius: or, A collection of Scots songs 1733, James Oswald's The Caledonian Pocket Companion 1751, and David Herd's Ancient and modern Scottish songs, heroic ballads, etc. James Oswald (1711-1769 was a Scots Composer and music publisher David Herd (1732 - 1810 was a Scottish anthologist. The son of a farmer in Kincardineshire, he became clerk to an accountant in Edinburgh : collected from memory, tradition and ancient authors 1776. These were drawn on for the most influential collection, The Scots Musical Museum published in six volumes from 1787 to 1803 by James Johnson and Robert Burns, which also included new words by Burns. The Scots Musical Museum was a major publication that had a pivotal role in the collecting and tradition of Music of Scotland. Robert Burns (25 January 1759 – 21 July 1796 (also known as Rabbie Burns, Scotland's favourite son, the Ploughman Poet, the Bard of Ayrshire The Select Scottish Airs collected by George Thomson and published between 1799 and 1818 included contributions from Burns and Walter Scott. George Thomson (1757&ndash1851 born at Limekilns, Fife, Scotland, was a noted collector of the Music of Scotland and a friend of Sir Walter Scott 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 &ndash 21 September 1832 was a prolific Scottish Historical novelist and Poet popular throughout
Though often derided as Scottish kitsch, the accordion has long been a part of Scottish music. The accordion is a portable box-shaped Musical instrument of the hand-held Bellows -driven free-reed aerophone family sometimes referred to as a Squeezebox Country dance bands, such as that led by the renowned Jimmy Shand, have helped to dispel this image. Scottish country dancing ("SCD" for short or "reeling" is a form of Social dance involving groups of mixed couples of dancers tracing progressive patterns Sir James Shand MBE ( January 28, 1908 &mdash December 23, 2000) was a Scottish musician who played traditional Scottish In the early twentieth century, the melodeon (a variety of accordion) was popular among rural folk, and was part of the bothy band tradition. A bothy band is a musical group which comes from the farming culture of nineteenth century Scotland. More recently, performers like Phil Cunningham (of Silly Wizard) have helped popularize the accordion in Scottish music. Phil Cunningham, MBE (born 1960 in Edinburgh, Scotland is a Scottish folk musician and composer Silly Wizard were a highly acclaimed Scottish Folk band forming around a nucleus of musicians in 1971 in Edinburgh.
Though bagpipes are closely associated with Scotland by many outsiders, the instrument (or, more precisely, family of instruments) is found throughout large swathes of Europe, North Africa and South Asia. The Tannahill Weavers are a popular band who perform traditional Scottish music. Bagpipes are a class of Musical instrument, Aerophones using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag The most common bagpipe heard in modern Scottish music is the Great Highland Bagpipe, which was spread by the Highland regiments of the British Army. The Great Highland Bagpipe ( Gaelic: A' Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of Bagpipe. Historically, numerous other bagpipes existed, and many of them have been recreated in the last half-century.
The classical music of the Great Highland Bagpipe is called Pìobaireachd, which consists of a first movement called the urlar (in English, the 'ground' movement,) which establishes a theme. The Great Highland Bagpipe ( Gaelic: A' Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of Bagpipe. A pibroch (IPA) is a classical music form native to the Scottish Highlands and performed on the Great Highland Bagpipe. The theme is then developed in a series of movements, growing increasingly complex each time. After the urlar comes the taorluath movement and variation and the crunluath movement, continuing with the underlying theme. This is usually followed by the crunluath a mach; the piece closes with a return to the urlar.
Bagpipe competitions are common in Scotland, for both solo pipers and pipe bands. Competitive solo piping is currently popular among many aspiring pipers, some of whom travel from as far as Australia to attend Scottish competitions. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Other pipers have chosen to explore more creative usages of the instrument. Different types of bagpipes have also seen a resurgence since the 70s, as the historical border pipes and Scottish smallpipes have been resuscitated and now attract a thriving alternative piping community. Year 70 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The border pipes are a Musical instrument that is a close cousin of the Great Highland Bagpipe. The Scottish smallpipe, in its modern form is a bellows-blown Bagpipe developed from the Northumbrian smallpipes by Colin Ross and others to be playable according 
The pipe band is another common format for highland piping, with top competitive bands including the Victoria Police Pipe Band from Australia (formerly), Northern Ireland's Field Marshal Montgomery, Canada's 78th Fraser Highlanders Pipe Band and Simon Fraser University Pipe Band, and Scottish bands like Shotts and Dykehead Pipe Band and Strathclyde Police Pipe Band. A pipe band is a musical ensemble consisting of pipers and Drummers The term used by military pipe bands Pipes and Drums, is also common The Victoria Police Pipe Band is a past grade one Pipe band champion based in Melbourne, Australia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC, (məntˈgʌmərɪ əv ˈæləmeɪn The Scottish Lion 78th Fraser Highlanders Pipe Band, is a Pipe band from Toronto Ontario, Canada. The Simon Fraser University Pipe Band (SFUPB is a grade one Pipe band affiliated with Simon Fraser University in Burnaby British Columbia, Canada The House of Edgar Shotts and Dykehead Pipe Band, also known as Shotts and Dykehead or simply "Shotts" is a grade one Pipe band from Shotts The Strathclyde Police Pipe Band is a grade one Pipe band from Glasgow, Scotland. These bands, as well as many others, compete in numerous pipe band competitions, often the World Pipe Band Championships, and sometimes perform in public concerts. The World Pipe Band Championships is a Pipe band competition currently held in Glasgow, Scotland every August
Scottish traditional fiddling encompasses a number of regional styles, including the bagpipe-inflected west Highlands, the upbeat and lively style of Norse-influenced Shetland Islands and the Strathspey and slow airs of the North-East. Scottish fiddling, even to many an untrained ear can be distinguished from other Celtic and folk fiddling styles by its particular precision of execution Bagpipes are a class of Musical instrument, Aerophones using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag Shetland (formerly spelled Zetland, from etland; Old Norse non Hjaltland; Sealtainn is an Archipelago off the northeast coast of The instrument arrived late in the 17th century, and is first mentioned in 1680 in a document from Newbattle Abbey in Midlothian, Lessones For Ye Violin. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Newbattle Abbey was a Cistercian monastery near the village of Newbattle in Midlothian, Scotland, which has subsequently become a stately Midlothian ( Meadhan Lodainn in Gaelic) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and a lieutenancy area.
In the 18th century, Scottish fiddling is said to have reached new heights. Fiddlers like William Marshall and Niel Gow were legends across Scotland, and the first collections of fiddle tunes were published in mid-century. William Marshall ( December 27, 1748 &ndash May 29, 1833) is regarded as one of the greatest composers of Scottish Fiddle music The most famous and useful of these collections was a series published by Nathaniel Gow, one of Niel's sons, and a fine fiddler and composer in his own right. Nathaniel Gow (1766-1831 was the fourth son of Niel Gow, and a celebrated composer of songs and other pieces on his own right Classical composers such as Charles McLean, James Oswald and William McGibbon used Scottish fiddling traditions in their Baroque compositions. James Oswald (1711-1769 was a Scots Composer and music publisher William McGibbon (born 1690 died 1756) was a Scottish Composer and Violinist Born and died in Edinburgh, he was the principal Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc
Scottish fiddling is the root of much American folk music, such as Appalachian fiddling, but is most directly represented in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, an island on the east coast of Canada, which received some 25,000 emigrants from the Scottish Highlands during the Highland Clearances of 1780-1850. Cape Breton musicians such as Natalie MacMaster, Ashley MacIsaac, and Jerry Holland have brought their music to a worldwide audience, building on the traditions of master fiddlers such as Buddy MacMaster and Winston Scotty Fitzgerald. Natalie MacMaster CM (born June 13, 1972) is an award-winning Fiddler from the rural community of Troy in Inverness County Ashley Dwayne MacIsaac (born February 24, 1975 in Creignish Nova Scotia) is a Canadian professional Fiddler While MacIsaac's Jerry Holland (born February 23, 1955) is a noted Fiddler who lives on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia Hugh Alan "Buddy" MacMaster CM, ONS, LLD (born October 18, 1924) is one of the most renowned artists in the tradition Winston "Scotty" Fitzgerald (1914-1987 was a renowned Cape Breton fiddler.
Among native Scots, Alasdair Fraser and Aly Bain are two of the most accomplished, following in the footsteps of influential twentieth century players such as James Scott Skinner, John McCusker, Hector MacAndrew, Angus Grant and Tom Anderson. Alasdair Fraser (born 14 May 1955 Clackmannan, Scotland) is a Scottish fiddler. Aly Bain MBE (born 15 May 1946 in Lerwick, Shetland) is a Shetland Fiddler who learned his instrument from James Scott Skinner ( August 5, 1843 - March 17, 1927) was a Scottish dancing master Violinist and Fiddler Skinner was John McCusker is a Scottish Folk musician He was born in 1974 and began playing the Fiddle at the age 7 Dr Tom (Tammie Anderson MBE (1910-1991 was a renowned Shetland Fiddler and teacher The growing number of young professional Scottish fiddlers makes a complete list impossible.
The history of the guitar in traditional music is recent, as is that of the cittern and bouzouki, which in the forms used in Scottish and Irish music only date to the late 1960s. The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The cittern (occasionally spelled " cithern " is a stringed instrument of the Lute / Guitar family dating from the Renaissance. The bouzouki ( gr το μπουζούκι pl. τα μπουζούκια (plural sometimes transliterated as bouzoukia) is the mainstay of modern The guitar featured prominently in the folk revival of the early 1960s with the likes of Archie Fisher, the Corries, Hamish Imlach, Robin Hall and Jimmie MacGregor. Archie Fisher MBE is a Scottish folk singer The early years Archie Fisher was born in Glasgow on 23 October, 1939 into a large The Corries were a Scottish Folk group that emerged from the Scottish folk revival of the early 1960s Hamish Imlach ( 10 February 1940 - 1 January 1996) was a folksinger. Robin Hall ( June 27 1936 - November 18 1998) was a Scottish folksinger. Jimmie MacGregor (born March 10 1930) is a Scottish folksinger and broadcaster The virtuoso playing of Bert Jansch was widely influential, and the range of instruments was widened by the Incredible String Band. Herbert Jansch (born 3 November 1943 known as Bert Jansch, is a Scottish Folk musician and founding member of the band Pentangle. The Incredible String Band (abbreviated as ISB were a psychedelic folk band formed in Scotland in 1965 Notable artists include Tony McManus, Dave MacIsaac, and Dick Gaughan. Tony McManus (born 1965 Paisley) is a Scottish acoustic Celtic folk Guitarist of Irish descent Dave MacIsaac (born 1955 is a Canadian musician from Nova Scotia who plays the fiddle and Guitar, specialising in the Celtic music Richard Peter Gaughan (born 17 May 1948 is a Scottish Musician, Singer, and Songwriter. Other notable guitarists in Scottish music scene include Kris Drever of Fine Friday and Lau, and Ross Martin of Cliar, Daimh and Harem Scarem.
The harp, or clarsach, has a long and ancient history in Scotland, and was regarded as the national instrument until it was replaced with the Highland bagpipes in the 15th century. The harp is a Stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. Clàrsach ( Scots Gaelic) Cláirseach ( Middle Irish) are the Gaelic words for 'a Harp '  Stone carvings in the East of Scotland support the theory that the harp was present in Pictish Scotland well before the 9th century and may have been the original ancestor of the modern European harp and even formed the basis for Scottish pibroch, the folk bagpipe tradition. The Picts were a Confederation of tribes in what was later to become eastern and northern Scotland from Roman times until the 10th century
Only thirteen depictions exist in Europe of any triangular chordophone harp pre-11th century, and all thirteen of them come from Scotland. Pictish harps were strung from horsehair. The instruments apparently spread south to the Anglo-Saxons, who commonly used gut strings, and then west to the Gaels of the Highlands and to Ireland. The earliest Irish word for a harp is in fact Cruit, a word which strongly suggests a Pictish provenance for the instrument. Pictish is a term used for the Extinct language or languages thought to have been spoken by the Picts, the people of northern and central Scotland The surname MacWhirter, mac a' chruiteir, means son of the harpist, and is common throughout Scotland, but particularly in Carrick and Galloway. Carrick ( Gaelic: A' Charraig, əˈxar̴ɛg̊ʲ is a former comital district of Scotland which today forms part of South Ayrshire. Galloway ( Gaelic: Gall-Ghaidhealaibh, əŋ ɡauɫ̪ɣəɫ̪əv or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern
The Clàrsach (Gd.) or Cláirseach (Ga.) is the name given to the wire-strung harp of either Scotland or Ireland. Scottish Gaelic ( Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. The harp is a Stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The word begins to appear by the end of the 14th century. Until the end of the Middle Ages it was the most popular musical instrument in Scotland, and harpers were among the most prestigious cultural figures in the courts of Irish/Scottish chieftains and Scottish kings and earls. In both countries, harpers enjoyed special rights and played a crucial part in ceremonial occasions such as coronations and poetic bardic recitals. Etymology The word is a Loanword from descendant languages of Proto-Celtic *bardos, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *gwerh2 The Kings of Scotland employed harpers until the end of the Middle Ages, and they feature prominently in royal iconography. The monarch of Scotland was the Head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. Iconography is the branch of Art history which studies the identification description and the interpretation of the content of images Several Clarsach players were noted at the Battle of the Standard (1138), and when Alexander III (d. 1286) visited London in 1278, his court minstrels were with him, payments were made to Elyas the "King of Scotland's harper. "
Three medieval Gaelic harps survived into the modern period, two from Scotland (the Queen Mary Harp and the Lamont Harp) and one in Ireland (the Brian Boru harp), although artistic evidence suggests that all three were probably made in the western Highlands.
The playing of this Gaelic harp with wire strings died out in Scotland in the 18th century and in Ireland in the early 19th century. As part of the late 19th century Gaelic revival, the instruments used differed greatly from the old wire-strung harps. The new instruments had gut strings, and their construction and playing style was based on the larger orchestral pedal harp. Nonetheless the name "clàrsach" was and is still used in Scotland today to describe these new instruments. The modern gut-strung clàrsach has thousands of players, both in Scotland and Ireland, as well as North America and elsewhere. The 1931 formation of the Clarsach Society kickstarted the modern harp renaissance. Recent harp players include Savourna Stevenson, Maggie MacInnis, and the band Sileas. Sileas is a Scottish Harp duo Patsy Seddon plays Electric harp and gut -strung Harp, and Mary Macmaster plays Notable events include the Edinburgh International Harp Festival, which recently staged the world record for the largest number of harpists to play at the same time.
One of the oldest tin whistles still in existence is the Tusculum whistle, found with pottery dating to the 14th and 15th centuries; it is currently in the collection of the Museum of Scotland. The tin whistle, also called the tinwhistle, whistle, pennywhistle or Irish whistle, is a simple six-holed Woodwind instrument The Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland, is a building which together with the adjacent Royal Museum, comprises the National Museum of Scotland Today the whistle is a very common instrument in recorded Scottish music. Although few well-known performers choose the tin whistle as their principal instrument, it is quite common for pipers, flute players, and other musicians to play the whistle as well.
In the twentieth century, collections like Last Leaves of Traditional Ballads and Ballad Airs, collected by Reverend James Duncan and Gavin Greig, helped inspire the ensuing folk revival. Gavin Greig (1856-1914 was a Folksong collector and Teacher. He was jointly responsible for compiling The Greig-Duncan Folk Song Collection with the Rev These were followed by collectors like Hamish Henderson and Calum McLean, both of whom worked with American musicologist Alan Lomax. Hamish Scott Henderson, ( 11 November 1919 - March 8 2002; Scottish Gaelic: Seamas MacEanraig ( Seamas Mòr Alan Lomax ( January 15, 1915 &ndash July 19, 2002) was an American folklorist and musicologist. Earlier, the first Celtic music international star, James Scott Skinner, a fiddler known as the "Strathspey King", had gained fame with some very early recordings.
Among the folk performers discovered by Henderson, McLean and Lomax was Jeannie Robertson, who was brought to sing at the People's Festival in Edinburgh in 1953. Jeannie Robertson ( 1908 - 13 March 1975) was a Scottish folk singer. The Edinburgh Folk Festival has had a shadowy existence since about 1951 Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. Across the Atlantic, in the United States, pop-folk groups like The Weavers, Pete Seeger and Woody Guthrie were leading a folk revival; the singers at the 1951 People's Festival, John Strachan (singer), Flora Macneill, Jimmy MacBeath and others, began the Scottish revival. The Weavers were an influential American Folk music quartet based in the Greenwich Village area of New York City. Peter "Pete" Seeger (born May 3 1919 is an American folk singer political Activist, and a key figure in the mid-20th century American Woodrow Wilson "Woody" Guthrie (July 14 1912–October 3 1967 was an American Singer-songwriter and Folk musician Guthrie's musical legacy John Strachan (1875 - 1958 was a Scottish farmer and singer of Bothy Ballads. Jimmy MacBeath (1894- 1972 was an itinerant worker and singer of Bothy Ballads.
Like many countries, Scotland underwent a roots revival in the 1960s. A roots revival ( folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors Folk music had declined somewhat in popularity during the preceding generation, although performers like Jimmy Shand, Kenneth McKellar, and Moira Anderson still maintained an international following and mass market record sales, but numerous young Scots thought themselves separated from their country's culture. This new wave of Scottish folk performers were inspired by American traditionalists like Pete Seeger, but soon found their own heroes, including young singers Ray and Archie Fisher and Hamish Imlach, and from the tradition Jeannie Robertson and Jimmy MacBeath.
Scottish folk singing was revived by artists including Ewan MacColl, who founded one of the first folk clubs in Britain, singers Alex Campbell, Jean Redpath, Hamish Imlach, and Dick Gaughan and groups like The Gaugers, The Corries, The McCalmans and the Ian Campbell Folk Group. Ewan MacColl ( 25 January, 1915 - 22 October, 1989) was a British Folk singer, Songwriter, Socialist Alex Campbell (1925 - 1987 was a Scottish folk singer Described by Colin Harper as a "melancholic hard-travelling Glaswegian" he was influential in the British Hamish Imlach ( 10 February 1940 - 1 January 1996) was a folksinger. The Corries were a Scottish Folk group that emerged from the Scottish folk revival of the early 1960s The McCalmans are a Folk song trio from Scotland. Formed in 1964 they have continued to record and tour without interruption Folk clubs boomed, with a strong Irish influence from The Dubliners. The Dubliners are an Irish folk band founded in 1962. Formation and history The Dubliners formed in 1962 With Irish folk bands like The Chieftains finding widespread popularity, 60s Scottish musicians played in pipe bands and Strathspey and Reel Societies. The Chieftains are a Grammy -winning Irish musical group founded in 1962 best known for being the first band to make Irish traditional music popular Musicologist Frances Collinson published The Traditional and National Music of Scotland in 1966 to surprising popular acclaim, as part of the burgeoning Scottish folk revival. Still though, until the end of the 60s, Scottish music was rarely heard in pubs or on the radio, though Irish traditional music was widespread. The Corries had established a fan-base, while the English band Fairport Convention has created a British folk rock scene that spread north in the form of JSD Band and Contraband. Folk rock is a musical genre combining elements of Folk music and rock music. The JSD Band were one of the leading folk-rock bands of the early seventies Contraband was a short-lived supergroup / Side project that included members of several famous rock bands from the 80s like Ratt, Vixen A more conventional approach was taken by Andy Stewart, Glen Daly and The Alexander Brothers. Andy Stewart ( 30 December 1933 - 11 October 1993) was a Scottish Singer and Entertainer. The Alexander Brothers are an easy-listening folk-music duo from Scotland, who have been performing since the 1950s
Music had long been primarily a solo affair, until The Clutha, a Glasgow-based group, began solidifying the idea of a Celtic band, which eventually consisted of fiddle or pipes leading the melody, and bouzouki and guitar along with the vocals. The Clutha were a traditional Scottish band Early years In 1957 Norman Buchan was a teacher at Rutherglen Academy Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom Bagpipes are a class of Musical instrument, Aerophones using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag In Music, a melody (from Greek μελῳδία - melōidía, "singing chanting" also tune, voice, or The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles Though The Clutha were the first modern band, earlier groups like The Exiles (with Bobby Campbell) had forged in that direction, adding instruments like the fiddle to vocal groups. For the 1961 film The Exiles by Kent MacKenzie see The Exiles (1961 film. Robert Campbell, Bobby Campbell or Bob Campbell may refer to Politicians Robert Campbell (politician (1808-1870 New York Alongside The Clutha were other pioneering Glasgow bands, including The Whistlebinkies and Aly Bain's The Boys of the Lough, both largely instrumental. The Whistlebinkies is a traditional music ensemble based in the city of Glasgow, Scotland The Boys of the Lough is one of the longest-surviving Celtic bands The Whistlebinkies were notable, along with Alba and The Clutha, for experimenting with different varieties of bagpipies; Alba used Highland pipes, The Whistlebinkies used reconstructed Border pipes and The Clutha used Scottish smallpipes alongside Highlands. Alba is the Scottish Gaelic name (ˈalˠ̪əpə for Scotland. The Great Highland Bagpipe ( Gaelic: A' Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of Bagpipe. The border pipes are a Musical instrument that is a close cousin of the Great Highland Bagpipe. The Scottish smallpipe, in its modern form is a bellows-blown Bagpipe developed from the Northumbrian smallpipes by Colin Ross and others to be playable according
Bert Jansch and Davy Graham took blues guitar and eastern influences into their music, and in the mid-1960s, the most popular group of the Scottish folk scene, the Incredible String Band, began their career in Clive's Incredible Folk Club in Glasgow taking these influences a stage further. Herbert Jansch (born 3 November 1943 known as Bert Jansch, is a Scottish Folk musician and founding member of the band Pentangle. David Michael Gordon Graham, known as Davey Graham (originally Davy Graham) b The Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of Music based on the use of the Blue notes It emerged as an accessible form of self-expression
The next wave of bands, including Silly Wizard, The Tannahill Weavers, Battlefield Band, Ossian and Alba, featured prominent bagpipers, a trend which climaxed in the 1980s, when Robin Morton's A Controversy of Pipers was released to great acclaim. Silly Wizard were a highly acclaimed Scottish Folk band forming around a nucleus of musicians in 1971 in Edinburgh. The Tannahill Weavers are a popular band who perform traditional Scottish music. Battlefield Band is a Scottish traditional music group Founded in Glasgow in the 1970s it has undergone several changes of lineup though founder member Alan Ossian are a Scottish Traditional music group formed in 1976. Bagpipes are a class of Musical instrument, Aerophones using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag Robin Dundas Weir Morton was a successful Advertising executive in the City of London and he was Mayor of Tunbridge Wells in 1999/2000 By the end of the 1970s, lyrics in the Scottish Gaelic language were appearing in songs by Nah-Oganaich and Ossian, with Runrig's Play Gaelic in 1978 being the first major success for Gaelic-language Scottish folk. Runrig is a six-piece Folk rock band from Scotland. The group was founded in 1973 and as of 2008 Runrig has released 13 Studio albums. Play Gaelic is the first release by folk band Runrig. It was released in 1978.
Pop and rock were slow to get started in Scotland and produced few bands of note in the 1950s or 1960s. However, by the 1970s bands such as the Average White Band, Nazareth, and the Sensational Alex Harvey Band began to have international success. Nazareth are a Scottish rock band that had several Hard rock hits, as well as scoring with the Felice and Boudleaux Bryant -penned Ballad This article is about the Scottish rock singer Alex Harvey not to be confused with American songwriter Alex Harvey who wrote for Kenny Rogers, or Canadian The biggest Scottish pop act of the 1970s however (at least in terms of sales) were undoubtedly the Bay City Rollers. The Bay City Rollers were a Scottish Pop/rock band of the 1970s
Scotland produced a few punk bands of note, such as The Exploited, The Vaselines, The Rezillos, The Skids, The Fire Engines, and the Scars. The Exploited is a punk band from the second wave of UK punk, formed in 1979 The Vaselines were an Indie rock and punk band from Glasgow Scotland. The Rezillos are a punk / new wave band, who formed in Edinburgh in 1976 and are still playing gigs around the world in a reformed The Skids were an Art-punk / Punk rock and new wave band from Dunfermline, Scotland, founded in 1977 by Stuart Fire Engines are a Post-punk band from Edinburgh, Scotland. The band was a part of the same literary art-punk scene as the Scars and their most Scars (originally known as The Scars) were a Post-punk band that hailed from Edinburgh, Scotland, and were a part of that city's bustling However, it was not until the post-punk era of the early 1980s, that Scotland really came into its own, with bands like Orange Juice, The Associates, Simple Minds, Maggie Reilly, Annie Lennox (Eurythmics) and Josef K achieved critical acclaim. Post-punk was a popular musical movement in the mid to late 1970s following on the heels of the initial Punk rock explosion of the early 1970s Orange juice is a Fruit juice obtained by squeezing pressing or otherwise crushing the interior of an orange. Simple Minds are a rock band from Scotland, who had their greatest worldwide popularity from the mid-1980s to the early 1990s Maggie Reilly (born September 15 1956 in Glasgow) is a Scottish vocalist best known for her collaborations with the composer Mike Oldfield between 1980 and 1984 Eurythmics (often incorrectly referred to as The Eurythmics) is a British Musical duo, formed in 1980 by Annie Lennox and Dave Josef K was a Scottish Post-punk band active in the early 1980s who released singles on record label Postcard Records. Since the 1980s Scotland has produced a more or less constant stream of important rock and alternative rock acts. Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative; known primarily in the UK as indie) is a genre of
In the 1980s, Edinburgh saw the emergence of Jock Tamson's Bairns with a style called Scots swing. "We're a' Jock Tamson's Bairns " ( Lowland Scots for we're all John Thomson's children) is a popular Saying in Scotland and the far north The 1980s also saw the rise of Scottish progressive rock/metal, with bands such as Citizen Cain and Marillion receiving worldwide recognition. Marillion are a British rock group Formed in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, England in 1979 their recorded studio output comprises Bands such as these have given inspiration to countless hundreds of 21st century Scottish rock bands resulting in the fruitful and diverse underground music culture present in Scotland today.
Most recently, Scottish piping has included a renaissance for cauldwind pipes such as smallpipes and border pipes, which use cold, dry air as opposed to the moist air of mouth-blown pipes. Other pipers such as Gordon Duncan and Fred Morrison began to explore new musical genres on many kinds of pipes. Gordon Duncan (1964-2005 was one of a young generation of Scottish pipers who opened up the piping scene to a more innovative approach Fred Morrison is one of the world's leading Pipers and is a globally renowned composer of music for the Bagpipes. The accordion also gained in popularity during the 1970s due to the renown of Phil Cunningham, whose distinctive piano accordion style was an integral part of the band Silly Wizard. The accordion is a portable box-shaped Musical instrument of the hand-held Bellows -driven free-reed aerophone family sometimes referred to as a Squeezebox Phil Cunningham may refer to Phil Cunningham (folk musician, Scottish accordionist with the folk group Silly Wizard Phil Cunningham (rock musician Silly Wizard were a highly acclaimed Scottish Folk band forming around a nucleus of musicians in 1971 in Edinburgh. Numerous musicians continued to follow more traditional styles including Alex Beaton. Alex Beaton is a Scottish guitar-playing folksinger who currently makes more than 20 concert appearances annually at various events across the United States (primarily
More modern musicians include Shooglenifty, innovators of the house fusion acid croft, The Easy Club, a jazz fusion band, Talitha MacKenzie and Martin Swan, puirt a' bhèil mouth musicians, pioneering singers Savourna Stevenson, Heather Heywood and Christine Primrose. Shooglenifty are an Edinburgh -based six-piece Celtic fusion band that tours internationally House music is a style of Electronic dance music initially popularized in mid-1980s Discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Talitha MacKenzie (born on Long Island New York) is a world music recording artist who became known for her work as part of the duo Mouth Music. Puirt a beul (puirt à beul literally "tunes from a mouth" is a traditional form of song native to Scotland, Ireland, and Cape Breton Island Other modern musicians include the late techno-piper Martyn Bennett (who used hip hop beats and sampling), Hamish Moore and Gordon Mooney. Martyn Bennett ( February 17 1971 &ndash January 30 2005) was a Scottish musician who was born in St Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with In Music, sampling is the act of taking a portion or sample, of one Sound recording and reusing it as an instrument or element of a new recording
Scotland produced many indie bands in the 1980s, Primal Scream, The Jesus and Mary Chain, Teenage Fanclub, 18 Wheeler, The Pastels and BMX Bandits being some of the best examples. Primal Scream are a Brit-nominated Scottish Alternative rock group formed in 1982 in Glasgow by Bobby Gillespie ( vocals The Jesus and Mary Chain are an Alternative rock band formed in East Kilbride, Scotland in 1984 Teenage Fanclub are an acclaimed Scottish Alternative rock band from Bellshill. 18 Wheeler were a Scottish Rock band active in the early 1990s, consisting of Sean Jackson The Pastels are a group from Glasgow, Scotland, UK. They have been described as an 'almost pop' group BMX Bandits are a Scottish 1960s-influenced guitar pop band who have been making music from 1986 to the present day The following decade also saw a burgeoning scene in Glasgow, with the likes of Belle & Sebastian, The Delgados and Mogwai . Belle and Sebastian are an Indie pop band formed in Glasgow, Scotland in January 1996 The Delgados were an Indie rock band who formed in Hamilton South Lanarkshire, in 1994 and disbanded in 2005 Mogwai are a Scottish rock group from Glasgow, Scotland. Formed by Stuart Braithwaite and Dominic Aitchison in 1995 The late 1990s and 2000s has also seen Scottish guitar bands continue to achieve critical or commercial success, examples include Franz Ferdinand, Biffy Clyro, Travis, KT Tunstall, Amy Macdonald, Paolo Nutini, The View, El Presidente, Idlewild, Snow Patrol,Glasvegas, Northern Irish and The Fratellis. Franz Ferdinand is a rock band that formed in Glasgow, Scotland in 2001 Biffy Clyro are a Scottish rock group from Ayrshire, composed of Simon Neil (vocals guitar James Johnston (bass vocals and Travis are a Scottish Alternative rock band from Glasgow, comprising Fran Healy ( lead vocals, Guitar, Piano, Kate Victoria "KT" Tunstall (born 23 June 1975 is a Scottish Singer-songwriter. Amy Macdonald may refer to Amy Macdonald (singer, Scottish singer/songwriter Amy MacDonald (writer, American author Paolo Giovanni Nutini (born 9 January 1987) is a Scottish Singer/songwriter from Paisley. The View are an Indie rock band from Dundee They also include styles such as punk and pop in their music El Presidente (also written El Pres!dente) are a Pop rock band from Glasgow, Scotland. Idlewild are a Scottish rock band originally based in Edinburgh. Snow Patrol are a Northern Irish / Scottish Alternative rock band which formed in Dundee Scotland, The band achieved worldwide success due to Glasvegas are a Scottish band from Dalmarnock in the east end of Glasgow. The Fratellis are an Alternative rock band from Glasgow, Scotland.
Perhaps the first notable Scottish composer was Robert Carver. Robert Carver (ca1485 &ndash ca1570 was a Scottish Renaissance Monk and composer of Christian sacred music However, despite this promising start, few Scottish composers since then have achieved international renown. Thomas Erskine, 6th Earl of Kellie was well known in the 18th century, but his work was quickly forgotten (although there are now signs of a revival). Thomas Alexander Erskine 6th Earl of Kellie ( 1 September 1732 &ndash 9 October 1781) styled Viscount Fentoun and Lord Pittenweem until 1756 Scotland produced little of note in the 19th century, although the violin concerto of Alexander Mackenzie was much prized by Sarasate). Sir Alexander Campbell Mackenzie ( 22 August 1847 &ndash 28 April 1935) was a Scottish Composer best known for his oratorios Pablo Martín Melitón de Sarasate y Navascués ( March 10 1844 &ndash September 20 1908, pronounced Sah-ra-SAH-teh was a Spanish
At the beginning of the 20th century there were signs of a revival, with composers such as Hamish MacCunn and William Wallace. Hamish MacCunn ( 22 March 1868 &ndash 2 August 1916) Scottish romantic composer was born in Greenock, Sir William Wallace (1860-1940 was a Scottish Classical composer. However it is notable that many of these modernist composers (such as Francis George Scott or J. Murdoch Henderson) tended to concentrate on shorter forms (such as songs) rather than the more conventional fields of symphonies or operas. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Francis George Scott ( January 25, 1880 – November 6, 1958) was a Scottish composer J Murdoch Henderson (1902-1970 was a Scottish Fiddler composer and music critic Since World War II, however, there has been something of a renaissance in Scottish music, with Robin Orr, Thomas Wilson, Thea Musgrave, Edward McGuire, James MacMillan, James Dillon, John McLeod, James Douglas and Judith Weir attracting international attention. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Robert Kelmsley (Robin Orr CBE ( 2 June 1909 - 9 April 2006) was a Scottish composer Thomas Wilson ( October 10, 1927 – June 12, 2001) was a Scottish Composer. Thea Musgrave (b 27 May 1928, Barnton Edinburgh) is a Scottish -born American -based Composer of Opera and Edward McGuire may refer to Eddie McGuire, Australian television personality Edward McGuire, a fictional character from James Dillon (born October 29, 1950 in Glasgow Scotland) is a Scottish composer often regarded as belonging to the New Complexity school John McLeod (b 1934 Aberdeen, Scotland) is a contemporary composer based in Edinburgh, who writes music in many media including film and television James Douglas (born 1932 is a Scottish Composer. Douglas was born in Dumbarton. Judith Weir CBE, (born 11 May 1954 in Cambridge England of Scottish parents is a British composer currently resident In the field of movie soundtracks Craig Armstrong has achieved international renown. Craig Armstrong may refer to Craig Armstrong (composer Craig Armstrong (footballer The English composer Sir Peter Maxwell Davies currently lives in Orkney and runs a music festival there. Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, CBE (b 8 September 1934 is an English Composer and conductor. Orkney (also known as the Orkney Islands or incorrectly the Orkneys) is an Archipelago in northern Scotland, situated 10 miles (16 km north The Edinburgh Festival each year brings some of the best musicians in the world to Scotland. Edinburgh Festival is a collective term for several simultaneous arts and cultural Festivals which take place during August each year in Edinburgh,
Scotland has provided the inspiration for international composers, most notably Felix Mendelssohn, Benjamin Britten and Sir Malcolm Arnold. Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3 1809 &ndash November 4 1847 was a German Composer Edward Benjamin Britten Baron Britten, OM CH (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976 was an English Composer, conductor, Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006 was an English Composer and symphonist. Britten in particular arranged several Scottish folk songs for voice and piano as well as the orchestral Scottish Ballad, a reworking of the old hymn tune Dundee. A hymn tune is a musical composition to which a hymn text is sung
Scotland has produced several notable performers of classical music, including the percussionist Evelyn Glennie, the pianist Murray McLachlan, the violinist Nicola Benedetti, the violist William Primrose, singers Isobel Baillie, Henry Herford, Margaret Marshall, and Kenneth McKellar, classical guitarist Paul Galbraith, and conductors Bryden Thomson, Donald Runnicles and Sir Alexander Gibson. Dame Evelyn Elizabeth Ann Glennie, DBE (born July 19 1965 in Aberdeen) is a Scottish virtuoso Percussionist. Murray McLachlan, OStJ (born 6 January 1965, Dundee, Scotland) is a British concert Pianist. Nicola Benedetti (born July 1987 West Kilbride, North Ayrshire) is a Scottish Violinist. William Primrose CBE ( August 23, 1904 - May 1, 1982) was a Scottish violist and teacher probably the best Dame Isobel Baillie, DBE ( 9 March, 1895, Hawick, Scottish Borders - 24 September, 1983 – Manchester Margaret Anne Marshall OBE (born January 4, 1949, Stirling) is a Scottish Soprano. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Bryden Thomson ( 16 July 1928, died 14 November Donald Runnicles (born November 16, 1954 in Edinburgh, Scotland) is a Scottish conductor, the son of a choirmaster and Alexander Gibson may refer to Alexander Gibson (botanist (1800-1867 botanist and forester in India Alexander Gibson (conductor (1926-1995
Scotland has three international standard orchestras: Royal Scottish National Orchestra, BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra and the Scottish Chamber Orchestra. The Royal Scottish National Orchestra is Scotland 's national Symphony orchestra. The BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra (BBC SSO is the BBC 's classical music Radio orchestra in Scotland. The Scottish Chamber Orchestra (SCO is Scotland 's national Chamber orchestra, based in Edinburgh. Scottish Opera is the national opera company whose home venue is the Theatre Royal, Glasgow. Scottish Opera is a Scottish opera company Founded in 1962 and based in Glasgow, it is Scotland ’s national Opera company and the The Theatre Royal is located in Glasgow, Scotland. There have been three Theatres on the present site although the external walls of the current theatre
The independent classical record label Linn Records is based in Glasgow. Linn Records is a Glasgow -based Record label which specialises in classical, Jazz and Scottish music.
Scotland has a strong jazz tradition and has produced many world class musicians since the 1950s, notably Jimmy Deuchar, Bobby Wellins and Joe Temperley. James 'Jimmy' Deuchar (b 26 June 1930, d 9 September 1993, in Dundee) was a Jazz Trumpeter and big band arranger Bobby Wellins (born Glasgow on 24 January 1936) is a Scottish tenor saxophonist best known for his collaboration with Stan Tracey Joe Temperley (born Lochgelly, Scotland, 20 September 1929) is a Scottish saxophonist. A long-standing problem was the lack of opportunities within Scotland to play with international musicians. Since the 1970s this has been addressed by enthusiast-run organisations such as Platform and then Assembly Direct, which have provided improved performance opportunities.
Perhaps the best known contemporary Scottish jazz musician is Tommy Smith. Dr Tommy Smith (born April 27, 1967 in Edinburgh, Scotland) is a Jazz saxophonist, Composer and Educator Again, the Edinburgh Jazz and Blues Festival brings some of the best jazz musicians in the world to Scotland every year, although, increasingly, other cities (such as Glasgow and Dundee) also run international jazz festivals. Glasgow International Jazz Festival is a jazz festival in Glasgow, Scotland. Dundee (Dùn Dèagh is the fourth-largest city in Scotland and fully named as Dundee City, one of Scotland's 32 local government council