|Culture of Romania|
Romania is a European country whose population consists mainly (approx. Romania has a unique culture which is the product of its geography and of its distinct historical evolution Romanian literature is Literature written by Romanian authors although the term may also be used to refer to all literature written in the Romanian language. Romanian philosophy is a name covering either a the philosophy done in Romania or by Romanians, or b an ethnic philosophy which expresses at a high level the fundamental features Romania is a European country whose population consists mainly (approx The art of Romania describes the artists and artistic movements in Romania. The cinema of Romania is the art of motion-picture making within the nation of Romania or by Romanian filmmakers abroad Pre-Modern styles See also Brâncovenesc architecture During the Middle ages in Romania there were two types of construction that developed in parallel Romanian cuisine is diverse It blends different dishes from several traditions with which it has come into contact but it also maintains its own character A feature of Romanian culture is the special relationship between folklore and the learned culture determined by two factors Romanian dress refers to the traditional clothing worn by Romanians, who live primarily in Romania and Moldova, with smaller communities in Ukraine The art of Romania describes the artists and artistic movements in Romania. This is a list of Romanian actors, actresses playwrights and directors whether on stage or in film Anton Pann (1790s-1854 wrote Romania's national anthem Ciprian Porumbescu (1853–1883 19th century composer George Enescu The following is a list of famous or notable Romanian language Poets grouped by period of activity The beginnings Gheorghe This is a list of Romanian Writers Literature Old literature Neagoe Basarab Dosoftei Castles are declared hystoric monuments by the Ministry of culture of Romania. This is a very incomplete list of museums located in Romania In Bucharest See also List of buildings in Bucharest#Museums "Theodor Aman" Museum This is a list of Romanian Orthodox monasteries Agapia Monastery Antim Monastery Bistriţa Monastery UNESCO has included up until now 7 sites in Romania on the list of World Heritage Sites. Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance Reporters Without Borders ranks Romania 58th in its Worldwide Press Freedom Index the same level as Poland and Hong-Kong The Romanian Cultural Institute ( Romanian: Institutul Cultural Român, abbreviation ICR) is a state-funded institution that promotes Romanian culture and The most popular sport in Romania is Football (soccer. Other popular sports include Team handball, Basketball, Rugby union, Tennis Romania is a Secular state, thus having no National religion. Romanian humour, like all of Romanian culture, has many affinities with five other peoples the Latins ( Spanish and Italians) the Slavs, the Note: Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania 90%) of ethnic Romanians, as well as a variety of minorities such as German, Hungarian and Roma (Gypsy) populations. The Romanians (dated Rumanians or Roumanians; Romanian: români or historically and today rather seldom and only regional rumâni Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins This has resulted in a multicultural environment which includes active ethnic music scenes. Romania also has thriving scenes in the fields of pop music, hip hop, heavy metal and rock and roll. Pop music as a genre features a noticeable rhythmic element catchy melodies and hooks, a mainstream style and conventional structure Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African Traditional Romanian folk music (sometimes performed by tarafs, or bands of Gypsy musicians) remains popular, and some folk musicians have come to national (and even international) fame. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous The Romanian word Lăutar denotes a class of traditional music singers
Folk music is, on the one hand, the oldest form of Romanian musical creation, characterised by great vitality until our times, and on the other hand, a defining source of the cultured musical creation, both religious and lay. In the conservation of folk music an important role has been played, besides the permanence of the audience, by the great performers. One of them, Gheorghe Zamfir, is famous throughout the world today, having made known a typically Romanian folk instrument, the panpipes. Gheorghe Zamfir (ˈge̯orge zamˈfir in Romanian born April 6 1941) is a Romanian Pan flute musician who has received 120 golden and platinum disc awards The pan flute or pan pipe (also known as panflute or panpipes) is an ancient Musical instrument based on the principle of the Closed
The religious musical creation, born under the influence of Byzantine music adjusted to the intonations of the local folk music, saw a period of glory between the 15th-17th centuries, when reputed schools of liturgical music developed within Romanian monasteries. Byzantine music is the music of the Byzantine Empire composed to Greek texts as ceremonial festival or church music Liturgical music originated as a part of Religious Ceremony, and includes a number of traditions both ancient and modern This is a list of Romanian Orthodox monasteries Agapia Monastery Antim Monastery Bistriţa Monastery Russian and Western influences brought about the introduction of polyphony in religious music in the 18th century, a genre developed by a series of Romanian composers in the 19th and 20th centuries.
In Banat, the violin is the most common folk instrument, now played alongside imported woodwind instruments; other instruments include the taragot (today often the saxophone plays the taragot role in bands), which was imported in the 1920s from Hungary. The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe currently divided between three countries the eastern part lies in Romania (the counties The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member Types of woodwind instruments See also List of woodwind instruments Single-reed instruments use a reed, which is a thin cut The saxophone (commonly referred to simply as sax) is a conical- bored transposing Musical instrument considered a member of the Woodwind The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Efta Botoca is among the most renowned violinists from Banat.
Bucovina is a remote province, and its traditions include some of the most ancient Romanian instruments, including the ţilincă and the cobza. Bukovina (Bucovina Буковина/ Bukovyna; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the The term kobza refers to various musical instruments in eastern Europe Pipes (fluieraş or fluier mare) are also played, usually with accompaniment by a cobza (more recently, the accordion). The accordion is a portable box-shaped Musical instrument of the hand-held Bellows -driven free-reed aerophone family sometimes referred to as a Squeezebox Violins and brass instruments have been imported in modern times. A brass instrument is a Musical instrument whose tone is produced by vibration of the lips as the player blows into a tubular Resonator.
Crişana has an ancient tradition of using violins, often in duos. Crişana is also a local newspaper in Oradea, Romania. Crişana ( Hungarian: Körösvidék, This format is also found in Transylvania but is an older tradition. Petrică Paşca has recently helped popularize the taragot in the region.
Dobrogea's population is especially diverse, and there exist elements of traditional Tartar, Ukrainian, Turkish and Bulgarian music among those populations. Tatarstan is a region of Russia, where largest ethnic group are the Tatars Their traditional music is a mixture of Turkic and Finno-Ugric elements The music of Turkey includes diverse elements ranging from Central Asian folk music and music from Ottoman Empire dominions such as Persian music, Bulgarian music is part of the Balkan tradition which stretches across Southeastern Europe, and has its own distinctive sound The most popular dance from Dobrogea is the geamparale, which is very different from the other traditional dances of Romania. In fact, Dobrujan music is characterized by Balkan and Turkish rhythms.
The typical folk ensemble from Maramureş is zongora and violin, often with drums. The zongora is an instrument typical of Maramureş, a region of Romania. Taragot, saxophone and accordion have more recently been introduced.
In Oaş, a violin adapted to be shriller is used, accompanied by the zongora. The singing in this region is also unique, shrill with archaic melodic elements.
Violin and ţambal are the modern format most common in Moldavian dance music. The cimbalom (most common English spelling is a concert Hammer dulcimer. Moldavia (Moldova is a geographic and historical region and former Principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between Eastern Carpathians This article is about music for dancing in general You may also be looking for Electronic dance music. Prior to the 20th century, however, the violin was usually accompanied by the cobza. Brass ensembles are now found in the central part of the county. Among the most renowned violinists from this region is Ion Drăgoi. There are also many musicians among the Csango, ethnic Hungarians who live in the Siret Valley. Moldavia is also known for brass bands similar to those in Serbia. Moldavia (Moldova is a geographic and historical region and former Principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between Eastern Carpathians A brass band is a Musical group generally consisting entirely of Brass instruments, most often with a percussion section Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country
Main article: Music of Transylvania
Transylvania has been historically and culturally more linked to Central European countries than Southeastern Europe, and its music reflects those influences. Transylvania, a historical province of Romania, has been historically and culturally linked to both Central Europe and Southeastern Europe, and its music Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian Inhabited by Romanians, Szeklers, Hungarians, Germans, Serbs, Slovaks, Roma (Gypsies) and others, Transylvania has long been a center for folk music, which was preserved here stronger than in the rest of Romania. The Romanians (dated Rumanians or Roumanians; Romanian: români or historically and today rather seldom and only regional rumâni For the village in northeastern Hungary see Székely (village The Székely ( pronounced) or Szekler people (Székely Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, } The Slovaks or Slovakians are a western Slavic People that primarily inhabit Slovakia and speak the Slovak language, which is The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins Bartók and Kodály collected many folk songs from Transylvania early in the 20th century. Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25 1881&ndashSeptember 26 1945 was a Hungarian Composer and Pianist, considered to be one of the greatest Zoltán Kodály ( Hungarian: Kodály Zoltán, ˈkodaːj ˈzoltaːn December 16 1882 &ndash March 6 1967 was a Hungarian Composer, Ethnomusicologist The twentieth century of the Common Era began on In our days, Deep Forest included folk songs from Transylvania on their albums. Deep Forest is a musical group consisting of two French musicians Eric Mouquet and Michel Sanchez.
Violin, viola and double bass, sometimes with a cimbalom, are the most integral ensemble unit. The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member The viola is a bowed String instrument. It is the middle voice of the Violin family, The double bass is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed String instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra. The cimbalom (most common English spelling is a concert Hammer dulcimer. They are used to played a wide variety of songs, including numerous kinds of specific wedding songs. Wedding music applies to vocal and/or instrumental Music performed at wedding rehearsals rehearsal dinners wedding Ceremonies, and receptions (post-wedding party
Hungarians from Transylvania are known for their vibrant musical cultures, especially around Hunedoara and other areas, which are famous for hajnali songs and legényes (young men's dance). Hunedoara ( German: Eisenmarkt; Hungarian: Vajdahunyad) is a city in Hunedoara County, Transylvania, Romania A legényes is a men's solo dance done by the ethnic Hungarian people living in the Kalotaszeg region of Transylvania. The Csángós have a distinct Hungarian dialect and ancient music. They are known for a unique primitive stringed percussion instrument called an ütögardon (literally, "beaten 'cello"). This heavy instrument, crudely carved out of a solid block of wood, has four gut strings, all tuned to D, which are struck with a stout stick.
Drum, guitar and violin make up the typical band in Maramureş, and virtuoso fiddlers are also popular in the area. The drum is a member of the percussion group technically classified as a Membranophone. The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member In the end of the 1990s, the Maramuzical music festival was organized to draw attention to the indigenous music of the area. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 A music festival is a Festival oriented towards Music that is sometimes presented with a theme such as Musical genre, Nationality or locality
Main article: Music of Wallachia
Wallachia is home to the taraf bands, which are perhaps the best-known expression of Romanian folk culture. This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania Dances associated with tarafs include brâu, geamparale, sârba and hora. A Sîrba or Sârba (meaning " Serbian " in Romanian) is a Romanian dance normally played in 2/3 or 2/4 time The fiddle leads the music, with the cimbalom and double bass accompanying it. The cimbalom (most common English spelling is a concert Hammer dulcimer. The double bass is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed String instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra. Lyrics are often about heroes like the Haidouks. Hajduk (or haiduk, haiduc, hayduck, hayduk) is a term most commonly referring to Outlaws highwaymen or Freedom fighters Taraf de Haidouks is an especially famous taraf, and have achieved international attention since their 1988 debut with the label Ocora. Taraf de Haïdouks are a troupe of Romanian Roma musicians from the town of Clejani, the most prominent such group in Romania in the post-Communist Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) In the Music industry, a record label can be a Brand and a Trademark associated with the Marketing of music recordings and Music Ocora is a French Record label specializing in authentic recordings of World music. The Haidouks first attained visibility as lăutari, traditional entertainers at weddings and other celebratory occasions. The Romanian word Lăutar denotes a class of traditional music singers
Long the capital region of Romania, Muntenia have a more diverse set of instrumentation. Muntenia (or Greater Wallachia) is a historical province of Romania, usually considered Wallachia -proper ( Muntenia, Ţara Românească The fluier and violin are the traditional melodic element, but now clarinets and accordions are more often used. The clarinet is a Musical instrument in the Woodwind family The name derives from adding the suffix -et meaning little to the Italian word Accordionists include the renowned performers Vasile Pandelescu and Ilie Udilă.
Oltenia's folk music and dance is similar to Muntenia. Oltenia ( Lesser Wallachia in antiquated versions with the alternate Latin names Wallachia Minor, Wallachia Alutana, Wallachia Caesarea Violins and pipes are used, as are ţambal and guitar, replacing the cobza as the rhythmic backing for tarafs. The cimpoi (bagpipe) is also popular in this region. Cimpoi, the Romanian Bagpipe, has a single drone and straight bore Chanter and is less strident than its Balkan relatives
The most widespread form of Romanian folk music is the doina. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous The Doina ('dojna is a Romanian musical tune style having its roots in the music-laments of the Romanian Shepherds ( Vlachs. There are other styles of folk music. These include the bocet ("lament"), cântec batrânesc (traditional epic ballads; literally "song of the elders") and the când ciobanu şi-a pierdut oile ("when the shepherd has lost the sheep"). Bocet is a form of Romanian Folk music. Bocet is a lament in free rhythm Cântec batrânesc is a traditional form of ballad which originates from Romania. An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation A ballad is a Poem usually set to Music; thus it often is a story told in a Song.
Doina is poetic and often melancholic, sometimes compared to the blues for that reason. The Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of Music based on the use of the Blue notes It emerged as an accessible form of self-expression Doinas are often played with a slow, free rhythm melody against a fast accompaniment pattern in fixed tempo, giving an overall feeling of rhythmic tension. Melodies are sometimes repeated in differing songs, and typically follow a descending pattern. In Music, a melody (from Greek μελῳδία - melōidía, "singing chanting" also tune, voice, or
Regional styles of doina:
Other styles of doina:
Some of the most prominent contemporary musicians of Romania:
Main article: Romanian hip hop
|Music of Southeastern Europe|