|Younghusband, South Australia, with a houseboat on the right and an Australian pelican in the foregroundCliffs along the Murray River, near|
|Mouth||Goolwa, South Australia|
|Length||2,575 km (1,600 mi)|
|Avg. Younghusband is a small settlement on the lower Murray River in South Australia near Mannum. A houseboat is a Boat that has been designed or modified to be used primarily as a Human Dwelling. The Australian Pelican ( Pelecanus conspicillatus) is a large water Bird, widespread on the inland and coastal waters of Australia and New Guinea The Australian Alps are the highest Mountain ranges of mainland Australia. Murray Mouth ( is the point at which the River Murray meets the Southern Ocean. A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River, The Murray-Darling Basin is 3375km long drains one-seventh of the Australian land mass and is currently by far the most significant agricultural area in Australia discharge||767 m³/s|
|Basin area||1,061,469 km²|
The Murray River, or River Murray and sometimes informally referred to as the "Mighty Murray", is Australia's largest river in its own right. In Hydrology, the discharge or outflow of a River is the volume of Water transported by it in a certain amount of time For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. "Riverine" redirects here For the use of that term in Maritime geography, see there At 2,575 kilometres (1,600 miles) in length, the Murray rises in the Australian Alps, draining the western side of Australia's highest mountains and, for most of its length, meanders across Australia's inland plains, forming the border between New South Wales and Victoria as it flows to the northwest, before turning south for its final 500 kilometres or so into South Australia then ends at the mouth at Lake Alexandrina. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States The Australian Alps are the highest Mountain ranges of mainland Australia. South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country Lake Alexandrina is a Lake in South Australia, Australia, adjacent to the coast of the Southern Ocean, about 100 kilometres south-east of
The waters of the Murray flow through several lakes that fluctuate in salinity (and were often fresh until recent decades) including Lake Alexandrina and The Coorong before emptying through the Murray Mouth into the southeastern portion of the Indian Ocean, often referenced on Australian maps as the Southern Ocean, near Goolwa. Salinity is the Saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of Water. Lake Alexandrina is a Lake in South Australia, Australia, adjacent to the coast of the Southern Ocean, about 100 kilometres south-east of Coorong is a national park and lagoon ecosystem in South Australia ( Australia) 156 km southeast of Adelaide. Murray Mouth ( is the point at which the River Murray meets the Southern Ocean. The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of Goolwa is a historic river port on the Murray River near the Murray Mouth in South Australia, and joined by a bridge to Hindmarsh Island.  Despite discharging considerable volumes of water at times, particularly before the advent of large scale river regulation, the Mouth has always been comparatively small and shallow.
The Murray River forms part of the 3,750 kilometre (2,300 miles) long combined Murray-Darling river system which drains most of inland Victoria, New South Wales, and southern Queensland. The Murray-Darling Basin is 3375km long drains one-seventh of the Australian land mass and is currently by far the most significant agricultural area in Australia Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern corner of the mainland continent Overall the catchment area is one seventh of Australia's land mass. The Murray carries only a small fraction of the water of comparably-sized rivers in other parts of the world, and with a great annual variability of its flow. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In its natural state it has even been known to dry up completely in extreme drought, although that is extremely rare, with only two or three instances of this occurring since official record keeping began. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply
The Murray makes up much of the border of the Australian states of Victoria and New South Wales. The border is generally agreed upon to be the southern high water mark of the river (ie, none of the river itself is actually in Victoria). This boundary definition can be ambiguous, as the river has changed its course slightly since the boundary was defined in 1851. 1851 ( MDCCCLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year
West of the 141°E line of longitude, the river continues as the Victoria - South Australia border for 3. Longitude (ˈlɒndʒɪˌtjuːd or ˈlɒŋgɪˌtjuːd symbolized by the Greek character Lambda (λ is the east-west Geographic coordinate measurement 6 km, this being the only stretch where a state border runs down the middle of the river. This was due to a miscalculation in the 1840s when the border was originally surveyed. Events and trends Technology First use of General anesthesia in an operation by Crawford Long. Past this point, the Murray River is entirely within the state of South Australia.
The Murray River (and associated tributaries) support a variety of unique river life adapted to its vagaries. This includes a variety of native fish such as the famous Murray cod, trout cod, golden perch, Macquarie perch, silver perch, eel-tailed catfish, Australian smelt and western carp gudgeon, to name a few, and other aquatic species like the Murray short-necked turtle, Murray River crayfish, broad-clawed yabbies and the large clawed Macrobrachium shrimp, as well as aquatic species more widely distributed through south-eastern Australia such as common long-necked turtles, common yabbies, the small claw-less Parataya shrimp, water rats and Platypus. This article is about the Australian freshwater fish For other uses see Cod (disambiguation and Murray (disambiguation The Murray cod The trout cod, Maccullochella macquariensis, is a large and striking predatory freshwater fish of the Maccullochella genus and the Percichthyidae The golden perch, Macquaria ambigua, is an Australian native freshwater Fish, primarily of the Murray - Darling river system The Macquarie perch ( Macquaria australasica) is an Australian native freshwater Fish of the Murray-Darling river system. Silver perch ( Bidyanus bidyanus) are a medium sized freshwater fish endemic to the Murray-Darling river system in south-eastern Australia The eel-tailed catfish, Tandanus tandanus, is a Species of Catfish ( order Siluriformes of the family Plotosidae. Australian smelt, Retropinna semoni, are a small Pelagic silvery Freshwater Fish found in large numbers in waters of the south eastern The western carp gudgeon, Hypseleotris klunzingeri, is a carp gudgeon of the Eleotridae family The Murray crayfish, Euastacus armatus, is a Species of Freshwater crayfish endemic to Australia that belongs to the family The common yabby, Cherax destructor, is an Australian freshwater Crustacean in the Parastacidae family. The Platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is a semi- aquatic Mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania. The Murray River also supports fringing corridors and forests of the famous river red gum. The River Red Gum ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is a tree of the genus Eucalyptus.
The health of the Murray River has declined significantly since European settlement, particularly due to river regulation, and much of its aquatic life including native fish are now declining, rare or endangered. Recent extreme droughts (2000–2007) have put significant stress on river red gum forests, with mounting concern over their long term survival. The Murray has also flooded on occasion, the most significant of which was the 1956 flood which inundated many towns on the lower Murray and lasted for up to six months. The 1956 Murray River flood involved the rising of waters in the Murray River and Flooding of many towns in three states of Australia including the towns of Colignan
Introduced fish species such as Carp, Gambusia, weather loach, redfin perch and brown trout and rainbow trout have also had serious negative effects on native fish, while Carp have contributed to environmental degradation of the Murray River and tributaries by destroying aquatic plants and permanently raising turbidity. The Common carp or European carp ( Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater Fish related to the common Goldfish ( Carassius auratus Gambusia is a genus of Fish in family Poeciliidae (order Cyprinodontiformes) The European perch ( Perca fluviatilis) is a highly predatory species of Perch found in Europe and Asia. The brown trout ( Salmo trutta morpha fario and S trutta morpha lacustris) and the sea trout ( S The rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a species of Salmonid native to tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America The Common carp or European carp ( Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater Fish related to the common Goldfish ( Carassius auratus In some segments of the Murray, carp have been the only species found.
Between 2. 5 and 0. 5 million years ago the Murray River terminated in a vast freshwater lake called Lake Bungunia. Lake Bungunia was formed by earth movement that blocked the Murray River near Swan Reach during this period of time. Swan Reach is a river port in South Australia located 127 km north east of Adelaide on the Murray River between Blanchetown and Mannum At its maximum extent Lake Bungunia covered 33,000 square kilometres, extending to near the Menindee Lakes in the north and to near Boundary Bend on the Murray in south. Boundary Bend is a small town in the state of Victoria, Australia.  The draining of Lake Bungunia approximately 0. 5 million years ago must have been a dramatic event. Deep clays deposited by the lake are evident in cliffs around Chowilla in South Australia. South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country Considerably higher rainfall would have been required to keep such a lake full; the draining of Lake Bungunia appears to mark the end of a wet phase in the history of the Murray-Darling Basin and the onset of widespread arid conditions similar to today. The Murray-Darling Basin is 3375km long drains one-seventh of the Australian land mass and is currently by far the most significant agricultural area in Australia A species of Neoceratodus lungfish existed in Lake Bungunia (McKay & Eastburn, 1990); today Neoceratodus lungfish are only found in several Queensland rivers. General The Queensland lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri (also known as the Australian lungfish, Burnett salmon, and barramunda) is the sole Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern corner of the mainland continent
The famous Barmah Red Gum Forests owe their existence to the Cadell Fault. About 25,000 years BP, displacement occurred along the Cadell fault, raising the eastern edge of the fault (which runs north-south) 8-12 metres above the floodplain. This created a complex series of events. A section of the original Murray River channel immediately behind the fault was abandoned, and exists today as an empty channel known as Green Gully. The Goulburn River was dammed by the southern end of the fault to create a natural lake. The Murray River flowed to the north around the Cadell Fault, creating the channel of the Edward River which exists today and through which much of the Murray River's waters still flow. The Edward River is a river in the south west Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. Then the natural dam on the Goulburn River failed, the lake drained, and the Murray River avulsed to the south and started to flow through the smaller Goulburn River channel, creating "The Barmah Choke" and "The Narrows" (where the river channel is unusually narrow), before entering into the proper Murray River channel again.
This complex series of events however divert attention from the primary result of the Cadell Fault. The primary result of the Cadell Fault is that the west-flowing water of the Murray River strikes the north-south running fault and diverts both north and south around the fault in the two main channels (Edward and ancestral Goulburn) as well as a fan of small streams, and regularly floods a large amount of low-lying country in the area. These conditions are perfect for River Red Gums, which rapidly formed forests in the area. Thus the displacement of the Cadell Fault 25,000 BP lead directly to the formation of the famous Barmah River Red Gum Forests
The Barmah Choke and The Narrows mean the amount of water that can travel down this part of the Murray River is restricted. In times of flood and high irrigation flows the majority of the water, in addition to flooding the Red Gum forests, actually travels through the Edward River channel. The Murray River has not had enough flow power to naturally enlarge The Barmah Choke and The Narrows to increase the amount of water they can carry.
The town of Barmah, Victoria is unusual in that it is north of part of New South Wales, although everywhere else Victoria is south of New South Wales. Barmah is a town in Victoria, with the distinction of being located north of the southerly border with New South Wales. Echuca on the map above is very close to Barmah.
The Cadell Fault is quite noticeable as a continuous, low, earthen embankment as one drives into Barmah from the west, although to the untrained eye it may appear man-made.
The Murray Mouth is the point at which the Murray River empties into the sea. Confluence, in Geography, describes the meeting of two or more Bodies of water. The Darling River is the third longest river in Australia, flowing 1390 km from northern New South Wales to its confluence with the Murray River at Wentworth is a small border town in the far south west of the state of New South Wales, Australia. Murray Mouth ( is the point at which the River Murray meets the Southern Ocean.  Since the early 2000s, dredging machines have operated at the Murray Mouth, moving sand from the channel to maintain a minimal flow from the sea and into the Coorong's lagoon system. Dredging is an Excavation activity or operation usually carried out at least partly underwater in shallow seas or Fresh water areas with the purpose of Coorong is a national park and lagoon ecosystem in South Australia ( Australia) 156 km southeast of Adelaide. Without the 24 hour dredging, the Mouth would silt up and close, cutting the supply of fresh sea-water into the Coorong, which would then warm up, stagnate and die. Coorong is a national park and lagoon ecosystem in South Australia ( Australia) 156 km southeast of Adelaide.
Being one of the major river systems in one of the driest continents of Earth, the Murray has significant cultural relevance to Indigenous Australians. Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. According to the peoples of Lake Alexandrina, the Murray was created by the tracks of the Great Ancestor, Ngurunderi, as he pursued Pondi, the Murray Cod. Lake Alexandrina is a Lake in South Australia, Australia, adjacent to the coast of the Southern Ocean, about 100 kilometres south-east of This article is about the Australian freshwater fish For other uses see Cod (disambiguation and Murray (disambiguation The Murray cod The chase originated in the interior of New South Wales. Ngurunderi pursued the fish (who, like many totem animals in Aboriginal myths, is often portrayed as a man) on rafts (or lala) made from red gums and continually launched spears at his target. Eucalyptus (From Greek ευκάλυπτος meaning "well covered" is a diverse Genus of Trees (and a few shrubs the members of which But Pondi was a wily prey and carved a weaving path, carving out the river's various tributaries. Ngurundi was forced to beach his rafts, and often create new ones as he changed from reach to reach of the river.
At Kobathatang, Ngurunderi finally got lucky, and struck Pondi in the tail with a spear. However, the shock to the fish was so great it launched him forward in a straight line to a place called Peindjalang, near Tailem Bend. Tailem Bend is a town on the Murray River in South Australia. Eager to rectify his failure to catch his prey, the hunter and his two wives (sometimes the escaped sibling wives of Waku and Kanu) hurried on, and took positions high on the cliff on which Tailem Bend now stands. They sprung an ambush on Pondi only to fail again. Ngurunderi set off in pursuit again, but lost his prey as Pondi dived into Lake Alexandrina. Ngurunderi and his women settled on the shore, only to suffer bad luck with fishing, being plagued by a water fiend known as Muldjewangk. The Muldjewangk is a water-creature in Australian Aboriginal mythology that inhabitated the Murray River, particularly Lake Alexandrina. They later moved to a more suitable spot at the site of present-day Ashville. The twin summits of Mount Misery are supposed to be the remnants of his rafts, they are known as Lalangengall or the two watercraft.
Remarkably, this story of a hunter pursuing a Murray cod that carved out the Murray persists in numerous forms in various language groups that inhabit the enormous area spanned by the Murray system. This article is about the Australian freshwater fish For other uses see Cod (disambiguation and Murray (disambiguation The Murray cod The Wotojobaluk people of Victoria tell of Totyerguil from the area now known as Swan Hill who ran out of spears while chasing Otchtout the cod. Swan Hill is a city in the north west of Victoria Australia. It is located on the Murray Valley Highway, on the south bank of the Murray River
The first Europeans to explore the river were Hamilton Hume and William Hovell, who crossed the river where Albury now stands in 1824: Hume named it the Hume River after his father. The Hume and Hovell expedition was one of the most important journeys of explorations undertaken in eastern Australia. Albury is a city in New South Wales, Australia, located on the Hume Highway on the northern side of the Murray River. Year 1824 ( MDCCCXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Hamilton Hume ( 19 June 1797 &ndash 19 April 1873) was the first Australian born explorer In 1830 Captain Charles Sturt reached the river after travelling down its tributary the Murrumbidgee River and named it the Murray River in honour of the then British Secretary of State for War and the Colonies Sir George Murray, not realising it was the same river that Hume and Hovell had encountered further upstream. For the game see 1830 (board game. Year 1830 ( MDCCCXXX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display Captain Charles Napier Sturt (28 April 1795 – 16 June 1869 was an English explorer of Australia, part of the European Exploration of Australia The Murrumbidgee River is a major river in the state of New South Wales, Australia, and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT The Secretary of State for War and the Colonies was a British cabinet level position responsible for the army and the British colonies (other than India Sturt continued down the remaining length of the Murray to finally reach Lake Alexandrina and the river's mouth. Lake Alexandrina is a Lake in South Australia, Australia, adjacent to the coast of the Southern Ocean, about 100 kilometres south-east of The area of the Murray Mouth was explored more thoroughly by Captain Collet Barker in 1831. Murray Mouth ( is the point at which the River Murray meets the Southern Ocean. Collet Barker ( 31 December 1784 - 30 April 1831) was a military officer and explorer explored areas of South Australia, Western Year 1831 ( MDCCCXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a In 1852 Francis Cadell built a canoe and set off to become the first European to travel the whole length of the river. Francis Cadell ( 9 February 1822 – 1879 was a European explorer of Australia.
In 1858 the Government Zoologist, William Blandowski, along with Gerard Krefft, explored the lower reaches of the Murray and Darling rivers, compiling a list of birds and mammals. Year 1858 ( MDCCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Zoology (from Greek ζῷον, zoon, "animal" + λόγος, " Logos " "knowledge" is the branch of Wilhelm (William Blandowski ( January 21 1822 - December 18 1878) a German zoologist and mining engineer was born in Gleiwitz Johann Ludwig (Louis Gerard Krefft ( 17 February 1830 – 19 February 1881) one of Australia 's first and greatest zoologists Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands During the expedition they accumulated 17,400 specimens and described several new species. The Blandowski Expedition was a scientific expedition that travelled from Melbourne to the area of the junction of the Darling and Murray Rivers in north-western
The lack of an estuary means that shipping cannot enter the Murray from the sea. An estuary is a semi-enclosed Coastal body of Water with one or more Rivers or Streams flowing into it and with a free connection to the open However in the 19th century the river used to support a substantial commercial trade using shallow-draft steamboats, the first trips being made by two boats from South Australia on the spring flood of 1853. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving a Propeller Year 1853 ( MDCCCLIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common One vessel, Lady Augusta reached Swan Hill while another, Mary Ann made it as far as Moama (near Echuca). Swan Hill is a city in the north west of Victoria Australia. It is located on the Murray Valley Highway, on the south bank of the Murray River Moama is a town in the Riverina district of southern New South Wales, Australia, in the Murray Shire Local Government Area. Echuca is a town located on the banks of the Murray River in Victoria, Australia. In 1855 a steamer carrying gold-mining supplies reached Albury but Echuca was the usual turn-around point though small boats continued to link with up-river ports such as Tocumwal, Wahgunya and Albury. Year 1855 ( MDCCCLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year Tocumwal is a town in the southern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia in the Berrigan Shire Local Government Area, near Wahgunyah is a small town in northeastern Victoria, Australia.
The arrival of steamboat transport was welcomed by pastoralists who had been suffering from a shortage of transport due to the demands of the gold fields. By 1860 a dozen steamers were operating in the high water season along the Murray and its tributaries. Year 1860 ( MDCCLX) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year starting Once the railway reached Echuca in 1864, the bulk of the woolclip from the Riverina was transported via river to Echuca and then south to Melbourne. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Year 1864 ( MDCCCLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species The Riverina is an agricultural region of south-western New South Wales (NSW Australia The Murray was plagued by "snags", fallen trees submerged in the water, and considerable efforts were made to clear the river of these threats to shipping by using barges equipped with steam-driven winches. BARGE, the Big August RecGambling Excursion is a yearly convention held in Las Vegas during the first weekend of August A winch is a mechanical device that is used to pull in (wind up or let out (wind out or otherwise adjust the " Tension " of a Rope or Wire rope In recent times, efforts have been made to restore many of these "snags" by placing dead gum trees back into the river. The primary purpose of this is to provide habitat for fish species whose breeding grounds and shelter were eradicated by the removal of "snags".
The volume and value of river trade made Echuca Victoria's second port and in the decade from 1874 it underwent considerable expansion. Year 1880 ( MDCCCLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Year 1874 ( MDCCCLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common By this time up to thirty steamers and a similar number of barges were working the river in season. River transport began to decline once the railways touched the Murray at numerous points. The unreliable levels made it impossible for boats to compete with the rail and later road transport. Road transport ( British English) or road transportation ( American English) is Transport on Roads of passengers or goods However, the river still carries pleasure boats along its entire length.
Today, most traffic on the river is recreational. Small private boats are used for water skiing and fishing. Water skiing is a Sport where an individual (or more than one individual is pulled behind a Motor boat or a cable ski installation on a body of water wearing Houseboats are common, both commercial for hire and privately owned. A houseboat is a Boat that has been designed or modified to be used primarily as a Human Dwelling. There are a number of both historic paddle steamers and newer boats offering cruises ranging from a half-hour to 5 days. A paddle steamer is a ship or boat driven by a Steam engine that uses one or more Paddle wheels to develop thrust for propulsion.
The Murray River has been a significant barrier to land-based travel and trade. The Murray River in south-eastern Australia has been a significant barrier to land-based travel and trade Many of the ports for transport of goods along the Murray have also developed as places to cross the river, either by bridge or ferry.
Small-scale pumping plants began drawing water from the Murray in the 1850s and the first large-volume plant was constructed at Mildura in 1887. Howlong is a town 28 kilometres west of Albury, and is situated on the Murray River which separates the Australian states of New South Wales and Events and Trends Industry Production of Steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman Year 1887 ( MDCCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The introduction of pumping stations along the river promoted an expansion of farming and led ultimately to the development of irrigation areas (including the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area). Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops The Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (MIA is geographically located within the Riverina area of New South Wales was created to control and divert the flow of local river In 1915 the three Murray states — New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia — signed the River Murray Agreement which proposed the construction of storage reservoirs in the river's headwaters as well as at Lake Victoria near the South Australian border. Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Lake Victoria is in the extreme south-west corner of New South Wales, next to the Murray River. Along the intervening stretch of the river a series of locks and weirs were built. A lock is a device for raising and lowering boats between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal Waterways. WEIR (1430 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a News Talk Information format These were originally proposed to support navigation even in times of low water, but river-borne transport was already declining due to improved road and rail systems.
In 2006 the state government of South Australia revealed their plan to investigate the construction of the controversial Wellington Weir. South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country Wellington Weir is a proposed Weir on the River Murray at or near the town of Wellington South Australia, not far upstream from where the river flows into
Lock 1 was completed near Blanchetown in 1922. Blanchetown is a small township in South Australia, on the (west bank of the Murray River, 130 km northeast of Adelaide. Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Torrumbarry Weir downstream of Echuca began operating in December 1923. Echuca is a town located on the banks of the Murray River in Victoria, Australia. Year 1923 ( MCMXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Of the numerous locks that were proposed, only thirteen were completed; Locks 1 to 11 on the stretch downstream of Mildura, Lock 15 at Euston and Lock 26 at Torrumbarry. Mildura is a regional city in northwestern Victoria, Australia, part of the Rural City of Mildura. Euston is a small town on the banks of the Murray River, southern New South Wales, Australia in Balranald Shire. Construction of the remaining weirs purely for navigation purposes was abandoned in 1934. Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The last lock to be completed was Lock 15, in 1937. Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Lock 11, just downstream of Mildura, creates a 100 kilometre long lock pool which aided irrigation pumping from Mildura and Red Cliffs. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand Red Cliffs is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located on the Calder Highway, 16 km south of Mildura and 544 km north-west of Melbourne Each lock has a navigable passage next to it through the weir, which is opened during periods of high river flow, when there is too much water for the lock. The weirs can be completely removed, and the locks completely covered by water during flood conditions. Lock 11 is unique in that the lock was built inside a bend of the river, with the weir in the bend itself. A Channel was dug to the lock, creating an island between it and the weir. The weir is also of a different design, being dragged out of the river during high flow, rather than lifted out.
Four large reservoirs were built along the Murray; in addition to Lake Victoria (completed late 1920s) is Lake Hume near Albury-Wodonga (completed 1936), Lake Mulwala at Yarrawonga (completed 1939) and Lake Dartmouth, which is actually on the Mitta Mitta River upstream of Lake Hume (completed 1979). The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada Lake Hume is an artificial Lake in Australia formed by the Hume Weir east of Albury-Wodonga on the Murray River just downstream of Albury-Wodonga is the broad settlement incorporating the twin Australian cities of Albury and Wodonga, which are separated geographically by the Murray Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Lake Mulwala ( was created in 1939 by building a dam across the Murray River between Yarrawonga in Victoria and Mulwala in New South Wales Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Dartmouth Dam is a large Dam on the Mitta Mitta River in the north-eastern portion of the Australian State of Victoria. The Mitta Mitta River is a major Tributary of the Murray River in Australia and the source of approximately 40% of the Murray's flow Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) The Murray also receives water from the complex dam and pipeline system of the Snowy Mountains Scheme. The Snowy Mountains Scheme is a Hydroelectricity and irrigation complex in south-east Australia
These dams inverted the patterns of the river's natural flow from the original winter-spring flood and summer-autumn dry to the present low level through winter and higher during summer. These changes ensured the availability of water for irrigation and made the Murray Valley Australia's most productive agricultural region, but have seriously disrupted the life cycles of many ecosystems both inside and outside the river, and the irrigation has led to dryland salinity that now threatens the agricultural industries. Soil salinity and Dryland salinity are two problems degrading the Environment of Australia.
The disruption of the river's natural flow, run-off from agriculture, and the introduction of pest species like the European Carp has led to serious environmental damage along the river's length and to concerns that the river will be unusably salty in the medium to long term — a serious problem given that the Murray supplies 40% of Adelaide's domestic water. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture The Common carp or European carp ( Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater Fish related to the common Goldfish ( Carassius auratus Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia with a Efforts to alleviate the problems proceed but disagreement between interested groups stalls progress.