In agriculture and gardening, mulch is a protective cover placed over the soil, primarily to modify the effects of the local climate. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Gardening is the practice of growing Plants for their attractive flowers or foliage and Vegetables or Fruits for consumption Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of A wide variety of natural and synthetic materials are used. Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by Scientists to improve upon naturally occurring Animal and plant
Shredded wood used as mulch. This type of mulch is often dyed to improve its appearance in the landscape.
Pine needles used as mulch. Also called "pinestraw" in the southern U. S.
Mulch is used for various purposes:
- to adjust temperature by helping soil retain more heat in spring and fall, and by keeping soil cool and even out temperature swings during hot and variable summer conditions
- to control weeds by blocking the sunlight
- to retain water by slowing evaporation
- to add organic matter and nutrients to the soil through the gradual breakdown of the mulch material
- to repel insects
- to incrementally improve growing conditions by reflecting sunlight upwards to the plants, and by providing a clean, dry surface for ground-lying fruit such as squash and melons. Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature Spring is one of the four Temperate Seasons Spring marks the transition from Winter into Summer. Autumn (also known as fall in North American English) is one of the four Temperate Seasons Autumn marks the transition from Summer Summer is one of the four Temperate Seasons Summer marks the warmest time of year with the longest days WEED (1390 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Spanish format Sunlight, in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the Electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Evaporation is the process by which Molecules in a Liquid state (e A nutrient is food or chemicals that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organism's metabolism which must be taken in from its environment Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described Sunlight, in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the Electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. Squashes generally refer to four species of the genus Cucurbita native to the Mexico and Central America, also called marrows depending Melon is a term used for various members of the Cucurbitaceae family with fleshy fruit
- for erosion control - protects soil from rain and preserves moisture
- for sediment control - slows runoff velocity
- organic residues (cow manure) - grass clippings, leaves, hay, straw, shredded bark, whole bark nuggets, sawdust, shells, wood chips, shredded newspaper, cardboard, wool, etc. Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water Erosion in Agriculture, Land development and Construction. Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel Rain is Liquid precipitation. On Earth it is the condensation of atmospheric Water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall often making it to Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of Surface runoff is a term used to describe when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess Water, from Rain, Snowmelt, or other sources flows In Physics, velocity is defined as the rate of change of Position. Organic matter (or organic material) is Matter that has come from a once-living Organism; is capable of Grass is the common word that generally describes Monocotyledonous green Plants The family Gramineae ( Poaceae) are the "true grasses" and include In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. Hay is a generic term for grass or Legumes that have been cut dried and stored for use as animal feed, particularly for grazing animals like Straw is an agricultural By-product, the dry stalk of a Cereal plant after the Grain or Seed has been removed Bark, also known as periderm is the outermost layer of stems and Roots of Woody plants such as Trees It overlays the Wood and consists Sawdust is composed of fine particles of Wood. This material is produced from cutting with a Saw, hence its name The gastropod shell is a shell which is part of the body of a gastropod or Snail. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. Cardboard is a generic non-specific term for a heavy duty Paper based product Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species Many of these materials also act as a direct composting system, such as the mulched clippings of a mulching lawn mower. Compost (ˈkɒmpɒst or US /ˈkɒmpoʊst/ also known as brown manure is the aerobically decomposed remnants of Organic matter. A lawn mower or lawnmower is a machine that has one or more revolving blades to cut a Lawn at an even length There are many differing opinions on what to use.
- compost - This relies on fully composted material, where potential weed seed has been eliminated, or else the mulch will actually produce weed cover. Compost (ˈkɒmpɒst or US /ˈkɒmpoʊst/ also known as brown manure is the aerobically decomposed remnants of Organic matter.
- Rubber mulch - Made from recycled tire rubber. Rubber mulch is a type of Mulch that is made from 100% Recycled rubber
- plastic mulch - Crops grow through slits or holes in thin plastic sheeting. Plastic mulch is a product used in a similar fashion to Mulch, to suppress Weeds and conserve Water in crop production and landscaping This method is predominant in large-scale vegetable growing, with millions of acres cultivated under plastic mulch worldwide each year (disposal of plastic mulch is cited as an environmental problem).
- organic sheet mulch - Various products developed as a biodegradable alternative to plastic mulch. Sheet composting is the process of Composting organic matter directly onto the Soil as a Mulch and letting it decay thererather than in a heap Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by the enzymes produced by living organisms
- rock and gravel can also be used a mulch. Gravel is rock that is of a specific Particle size range In Geology, gravel is any loose rock that is larger than two millimeters (2mm In northern climates the heat retained by rocks will extend the growing season. In Agriculture, the growing season is the period of each Year when crops can be grown
The way a particular organic mulch decomposes, and reacts to wetting by rain and dew, determine in great degree its effectiveness. Organic mulches can rot rapidly rather than slowly break down, require nitrogen to decompose, can mat into a barrier that blocks water and air, can wick water from the soil to the surface due to its porocity, all conditions that can be detrimental to crops and ornamental plants. The Aviation term ROT stands for rate one turn, also known as a standard rate turn.
Living mulch may also be considered a type of mulch, or as a mulch-like cover crop. In Agriculture, a living mulch is a Cover crop interplanted or undersown with a main crop, and intended to serve the functions of a Mulch Broadly defined a cover crop is any annual, biennial, or Perennial plant grown as a Monoculture (one crop type grown together or Polyculture This technique involves undersowing a main crop with a fast-growing cover crop that will provide weed suppression and other benefits associated with mulch.
Mulching is an important part of any no-dig gardening regime, such as practiced within permaculture systems. No-dig gardening is a Cultivation method favored by many Organic gardeners Japanese Masanobu Fukuoka started his pioneering research work in this domain The word permaculture, coined by Australians Bill Mollison and David Holmgren during the 1970s is a Portmanteau of perma nent agri'
Mulch is usually applied towards the beginning of the growing season, and may be reapplied as necessary. In Agriculture, the growing season is the period of each Year when crops can be grown It serves initially to warm the soil by helping it retain heat. This allows early seeding and transplanting of certain crops, and encourages faster growth. As the season progresses, the mulch stabilizes temperature and moisture, and prevents sunlight from germinating weed seed.
Plastic mulch used in large-scale commercial production is laid down with a tractor-drawn or standalone plastic mulch layer. A tractor is a Vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high Tractive effort at slow speeds for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used This is usually part of a sophisticated mechanical process, where raised beds are formed, plastic is rolled out on top, and seedlings are transplanted through it. Raised bed gardening is a form of Gardening in which the soil is formed in 3–4 foot (1 A seedling is a young plant Sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a Seed. In Agriculture and Gardening, transplanting or replanting is the technique of moving a plant from one location to another Drip irrigation is often required, with drip tape laid under the plastic, as plastic mulch is impermeable to water. See also Irrigation Drip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation or microirrigation is an Irrigation method which minimizes the use
In home gardens and smaller farming operations, organic mulch is usually spread by hand around emerged plants. For materials like straw and hay, a shredder may be used to chop up the material. Organic mulches are usually piled quite high, six inches or more, and settle over the season. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches.
In some areas of the United States such as central Pennsylvania, northern California, more specifically mulch is often referred to as "tanbark", even by manufacturers and distributors. In these areas, the word "mulch" is used specifically to refer to very fine tanbark or peat moss. Sphagnum is a Genus of between 151-350 species of Mosses commonly called peat moss, due to its prevalence in Peat bogs
Mulch made with wood can contain or feed termites, so care must be taken about not placing mulch too close to houses or building that can be damaged by those insects. Some mulch manufacturers recommend putting mulch several inches away from buildings.
Mulch should normally smell like freshly cut wood, but sometimes will develop a toxicity that will cause it to smell like vinegar, ammonia, sulfur or silage. This happens if the material is not rotated often enough and it forms pockets where no air is circulating. When this occurs, the decomposition process become anaerobic and produces these toxic materials in small quantities. Once exposed to the air, the process quickly reverts to an aerobic decomposition, but these toxic materials will be present for a period of time. If the mulch is placed around plants before the toxicity has had a chance to dissipate, then the plants could very likely be severely damaged or killed depending on their hardiness. Plants that are predominantly low to the ground or freshly planted are the most susceptible.
If sour mulch is applied and there is plant kill, the best thing to do is just water the mulch heavily. Water will help the chemicals to dissipate more quickly and refresh the plants. By the time plant kill is noticed, most of the toxicity will have already disappeared anyway, so removing the offending mulch will have little effect. While testing after plant kill will not likely turn up anything since the toxicity will have dissipated, a simple pH check may reveal a highly acid content, perhaps in the 1. 8 to 3. 6 range instead of the normal 6. 0 to 7. 2 range. Finally, placing a bit of the offending mulch around another plant to check for plant kill will verify if the toxicity has departed. If the new plant is also killed, then sour mulch is probably not the problem.
Mulch made from straw is generally lighter and easier to use than bark mulches, with the added advantages of being biodegradable and neutral in pH. Straw mulch tends to additionally have higher moisture retention and weed controlling properties than other mulches.
Living mulches differ from cover crops in that plants continue growing with the main crops whereas cover crops are incorporated into the soil or killed with herbicides. In Agriculture, a living mulch is a Cover crop interplanted or undersown with a main crop, and intended to serve the functions of a Mulch Broadly defined a cover crop is any annual, biennial, or Perennial plant grown as a Monoculture (one crop type grown together or Polyculture However, living mulches might need to be mechanically or chemically killed at some point to prevent competition with the main crop (Brandsaeter et al. 1998, Tharp and Kells, 2001).
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- (uncountable, agriculture) Shredded vegetable (or occasionally mineral) matter used to cover the top layer of soil to protect, insulate, or decorate it, or to discourage weeds or retain moisture.
- (countable, agriculture) A material used as mulch, as a decorative redwood bark mulch.
- (agriculture) To apply mulch.
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