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Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Islamic Caliph. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Aqidah (sometimes spelled Aqeeda, Aqidah or Aqida) (عقيدة is an Islamic term meaning Creed. Allah ( Arabic: الله, ʔalˤːɑːh) is the standard Arabic word for ' In Islam, God is believed to be the only real supreme being all-powerful and all knowing Creator Sustainer Ordainer and Judge of the universe Islam puts a heavy emphasis IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Muslims regard as Prophets of Islam ( Arabic: نبي) those non-divine humans chosen by Allah as Prophets The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic أركان الإسلام is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. The Shahada ( Arabic: ar الشهادة, from the verb ar شهد "to testify" is the Islamic Creed. Ṣalāt ( Arabic: صلاة, pl ṣalawāt, Qur'anic Arabic: صلوة ṣalawah) (also munz in Pashto and Sawm ( Arabic: صوم is an Arabic word for Fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. Zakaat ( زكاة zækæːh zakaat or zakāh, has the implied The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world Muslim history began in Arabia with the Muhammad 's first recitations of the Qur'an in the 7th century Caliph Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam There is much more to Muslim history than its military and political aspects this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political nature See also Muhammad's wives Ahl al-Bayt ( Arabic:ar أهل البيت is an Arabic phrase literally meaning People of the House, or family In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (الصحابة "Companions" were the companions of the Islamic prophet Muḥammad. The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( ar الخلفاء الراشدون) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first Imāmah (إمامة is the Shī‘ah doctrine of religious spiritual and political leadership of the Ummah. Qur'an Text Surahs ** Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Sunnah ar (سنة plural سنن Sunan literally means “trodden path” and therefore the sunnah of the prophet means “the way and the manners of the prophet” Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Kalām (علم الكلام is the Islamic philosophy of seeking Islamic theological principles through Dialectic. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Muslim Culture is a term primarily used in Secular Academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings This is a sub-article to Religious education, Academic discipline, and Islam. This article is about Animals in Islamic thought The Qur'an assigns an inferior status to animals in comparison with humans and has a tendency towards Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar ( Arabic: التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری The topic of Islam and children includes the rights of children in Islam children's duties towards their parents and parent's rights over their children both males and females Listing of Muslims by country Important note Population counts by religious affiliation like most demographic characteristics of a Population Muslim holidays are mostly based around the life of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Qur'an. A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger Islamic philosophy is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between Philosophy ( Reason) and the religious teachings See also Modern Islamic philosophy, Islamism, Islamic terrorism Political aspects of Islam are derived from the Quran, the Sunna Over the centuries of Islamic history, Muslim rulers Islamic scholars, and ordinary Muslims have held many different attitudes towards other religions The historical interaction between Christianity and Islam, in the field of Comparative religion, connects fundamental ideas in Christianity with similar ones in Islam Hinduism and Islam, from the of arrival of the Arabs as far back as the eighth century AD has had a checkered history Islam and Jainism came in close contact with each other following the Islamic conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh The historical interaction of Judaism and Islam started in the 7th century CE with the origin and spread of Islam in the Arabian peninsula. In Islam, Muhammad is the last and final Prophet of God Islam views Jews Christians and Muslims as " People of the Book Arguments critical to religion in general or specific to monotheism such as the Existence of God, are not dealt with here Islamophobia is a Neologism that refers to Prejudice or Discrimination against Islam or Muslims The term itself dates back to the The following list consists of Concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah He was called Ibn Hanafiyyah after his mother who was named Khawlah bint Ja`far. She was known as Hanafiyyah after her tribe Banu Hanifah. Banu Hanifa ( بنو حنيفة) were an ancient Arab tribe inhabiting the area of Al-Yamama in the central region of modern-day Saudi Arabia. The people of Yamamah were declared apostates by the Muslims for refusing to pay the zakat (religious tax) they were killed and the women were taken to Medina as slaves. al-Yamama ( اليمامة, lit " Dove " is an ancient district covering the eastern section of the plateau of Nejd in modern-day Saudi Arabia A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. Zakaat ( زكاة zækæːh zakaat or zakāh, has the implied Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as Khawlah bint Ja`far went to Medina with them. When her tribesmen found out they approached Ali ibn Abi Talib and asked him to save her from slavery and to protect her family’s honor and prestige. Consequently, Ali ibn Abi Talib set her free after purchasing her and marrying her.
Most historians have written his surname as Abu'l-Qasim (meaning father of Al-Qasim). Thus, the author of al-Isti`ab (vol. 3, pp. 1366, 1367-1368, 1370, 1371-1372) has narrated the opinion of Abu Rashid ibn Hafs az-Zuhri, that from among the sons of the companions of Muhammad he came across four individuals everyone of whom were named Muhammad and surnamed Abu'l-Qasim, namely:
After this he writes that Muhammad ibn Talhah's name and surname was given by Muhammad. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ( محمد بن أبي بكر) (631–658 was the son of the first Sunni Caliph, Abu Bakr and Asma bint Umais. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Al-Waqidi writes that the name and surname of Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was suggested by A'ishah. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abu `Abdullah Muhammad Ibn ‘Omar Ibn Waqid al-Aslami ( Arabic ar ' أبو Aisha bint Abu Bakr (died 678 (Arabic ar عائشة Transliteration ʿāʾisha, ʕaːʔɪʃæh "she who lives" also transcribed as A'ishah, Ayesha Apparently, Muhammad giving the name of Muhammad ibn Talhah seems incorrect since from some traditions it appears that Muhammad had reserved it for a son of Ali.
As regards his surname it is said that Muhammad had particularized it and that he had told Ali ibn Abi Talib that a son would be born to you after me and I have given him my name and surname and after that it is not permissible for anyone in my people to have this name and surname together.
Some people have recorded the surname of Ibn Talhah as Abu Sulayman instead of Abu'l-Qasim. If Aisha had suggested it along with the name how could Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr tolerate it later on since having been brought up under the care of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammads saying could not remain concealed from him. Aisha bint Abu Bakr (died 678 (Arabic ar عائشة Transliteration ʿāʾisha, ʕaːʔɪʃæh "she who lives" also transcribed as A'ishah, Ayesha Moreover, most people have recorded his surname as Abu `Abd ar-Rahman, which weakens the view of Abu Rashid.
Let alone these people's surname being Abu'l-Qasim, even for Ibn al-Hanafiyyah this surname is not proved. Although Ibn Khallikan (in Wafayat al-a`yan, vol. Abu-l ‘Abbas Ahmad ibn Khallikan (أبو العباس أحمد بن خلكان ( September 22, 1211 &ndash October 30, 1282) was a Kurdish 4, p. 170) has taken that son of Ali ibn Abu Talib for whom Muhammad had particularized this surname to be Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, yet al-`Allamah al-Mamaqani (in Tanqih al-maqal, vol. 3, Part 1, p. 112) writes:
He was born during Umar's era.
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah was prominent in righteousness and piety, sublime in renunciation and worship, lofty in knowledge and achievements and heir of his father in bravery. His performance in the battles of Jamal and Siffin had created such impression among the Arabs that even warriors of consequence trembled at his name. "Battle of Basra" redirects here For other battles of Basra see Battle of Basra (1914, Battle of Basra (2003 and Battle of Basra (2008 The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE occurred during the First Fitna, or First Muslim civil war with the main engagement taking place from July 26 to July 28 Ali ibn Abu Talib too was proud of his courage and valor, and always placed him forward in encounters.
It is narrated in a Shia hadith that Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah fought in the front line in the Battle of Siffin. The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE occurred during the First Fitna, or First Muslim civil war with the main engagement taking place from July 26 to July 28 The enemy, in order to make him feel envious said to him: 'Your father, Ali values Hasan and Husayn more than you. That is why he put you in the front line and them in the back line'. Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah replied saying: 'My brothers Hasan and Husayn are the eyes of my father and I am the hand of my father. The reason he put me in the is because he wants his hand to protect his eyes. If an arrow is heading towards your eye you do not put your hand behind your eye, you put your hand in front to protect your eye. That is why my father wants me ahead in line of my brothers Hasan and Husayn'.
Ash-Shaykh al-Baha'i has written in al-Kashkul, that Ali ibn Abu Talib kept him abreast in the battles and did not allow the second Shi’a Imam (Hassan ibn Ali) and the third Shi’a Imam (Husayn ibn Ali) to go ahead, and used to say, "He is my son while these two are sons of the Prophet of Allah. Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib ( ar الحسن بن علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب) (Fifteenth of Ramadhān, 3 AH – Seventh or Twenty-eighth of Safar Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib ( ar حسين بن علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب) (third of Shaban 4 AH / 8th January 626 AD at Medina "
When a Kharijite said to Ibn al-Hanafiyyah that `Ali thrust him into the flames of war but saved away Hassan ibn Ali and Hussain ibn Ali he replied that he himself was like the right hand and Hassan ibn Ali and Hussain ibn Ali like `Ali's two eyes and that `Ali protected his eyes with his right hand. Kharijites (Arabic Khawārij خوارج literally "Those who Went Out" is a general term embracing various Muslims who while initially supporting the But al-`Allamah al-Mamaqani has written in Tanqih al-Maqal that this was not the reply of Ibn al-Hanafiyyah but of Ali ibn Abu Talib himself. When during the battle of Siffin Muhammad mentioned this matter to Ali ibn Abu Talib in complaining tone he replied, "You are my right hand whereas they are my eyes, and the hand should protect the eyes. "
Apparently it seems that first Ali ibn Abu Talib must have given this reply and thereafter someone might have mentioned it to Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah and he must have repeated the same reply as there could be no more eloquent reply than this one and its eloquence confirms the view that it was originally the outcome of the eloquent tongue of Ali ibn Abu Talib and was later appropriated by Muhammad al-Hanafiyyah. Consequently, both these views can be held to be correct and there is no incongruity between them.
When in the Battle of Jamal Ali ibn Abu Talib sent Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah to the battle-field, he told him that he should fix himself before the enemy like the mountain of determination and resoluteness so that the onslaught of the army should not be able to displace him, and should charge the enemy with closed teeth because by pressing teeth over the teeth tension occurs in the nerves of the skull as a result of which the stroke of the sword goes amiss, as he said at another place also viz. "Press together the teeth. It sends amiss the edge of the sword. " Then he says, "My child, lend your head to Allah in order that you may be able to achieve eternal life in place of this one, because for a lent article there is the right to get it back. Therefore, you should fight being heedless of your life, otherwise also if your mind clings to life you will hesitate to advance towards deathly encounters and that would tell upon your reputation of bravery. Look, don't let your steps falter because the enemy is emboldened at the faltering of steps, and faltering steps fastens the feet of the enemy. Keep the last lines of the enemy as your aim so that the enemy may be overawed with loftiness of your intentions and you may feel ease in tearing through their lives, and their movement should also not remain concealed from you. Look, do not pay heed to their superiority in numbers, otherwise your valor and courage would suffer. " This sentence can also mean that one should not wide open the eyes to be dazzled by the shining of weapons, and the enemy may make an attack by taking advantage of the situation. Also, always bear it in mind that victory is from Allah. "If Allah helps you no one can overpower you. " Therefore, instead of relying on material means seek His support and succor.
He was the largely passive titular head of a Shi'ah rebellion against the Umayyid caliphs. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah This rebellion, which was led by Al-Mukhtar, broke out in Kufa (now in Iraq), in 686 CE. Al-Mukhtar ibn Abi Ubayd al Thaqafi was an early Islamic revolutionary who led an abortive rebellion against the Umayyid Caliphs who ruled the Muslim world Kufa ( Arabic, ar الكوفة) is a city in modern Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf.
The significance of Mukhtar's rebellion lies mainly in the fact that it began the early Shi'ah tradition of looking to Ali's family for leadership against what was seen as the autocratic, unjust rule of the Umayyid caliphs. The unsuccessful rebellion set the stage for his half-brother Hussain ibn Ali’s abortive attempt to overthrow the Umayyids, which led to his own death at Karbala.
He died in the reign of `Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan at the age of sixty-five years. Some writers have recorded the year of his death as 80 A. H. and others as 81 A. H. There is a difference about the place of his death as well. Some have put it as Medina, some Aylah and some Ta'if. Ta’if ( ar الطائف) is a city in the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of 1700 metres on the slopes of the Al-Sarawat He died in 700 CE
Among his children:
Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj traces his lineage to Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
Ibn al-Hanifiya is not considered an Imam by Shi'ahs, but he is nevertheless important in early Shi'ah history. Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (Arabic الحسن بن محمد بن علي بن أبي طالب (died 100 AH was one of the Salaf and a narrator of hadith Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, also known as Abu Hashim, was one of the Salaf and a Narrator of hadith. Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Qushayri al-Nisapuri ( Arabic: أبو الحسين مسلم بن الحجاج القشيري النيشابوري (lived c
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah is respected as a righteous Muslim and a brave son of Ali ibn Abi Talib. ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH