Bal'ami's 14th century Persian version of Universal History by Tabari
Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari
Amol, Tapuria, Persia
Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923 أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير الطبري) was one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian historians and exegetes of the Qur'an, most famous for his Tarikh al-Tabari (History of the Prophets and Kings) and Tafsir al-Tabari. Amol (ɒmol Persian: آمل) is a city in Mazandaran province, Iran, located on the Haraz river bank The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Events By Place Europe At Hingston Down, Egbert of Wessex beats the Danish and the West Welsh Events By Place Europe June 15 — Battle of Soissons: King Robert I of France is killed and King Charles the layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it Tafsir ( Arabic: تفسير, tafsīr, "interpretation" is the Arabic word for Exegesis The History of the Prophets and Kings (Persian تاریخ طبری, Arabic تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly known Tarikh al-Tabari The commentary on the Qur'an (Arabic Jāmi` al-bayān `an ta'wīl āy al-Qur'ān) popularly Tafsīr al-Ṭabarī ( تفسير الطبري)
Tabari (Persian: طبری), Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari, His name means "father of Jafar, named after the Prophet Muhammad, son of Jarir, from the province of Tabaristan". IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics
He was born in Amol, Tabaristan some twenty kilometres south of the Caspian Sea) in the winter of 838-9. Amol (ɒmol Persian: آمل) is a city in Mazandaran province, Iran, located on the Haraz river bank The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea.  He was precocious  He left home to study in A. H. 236  (850-1) when he was twelve. He retained close ties to his home town. He did return at least twice, the last time in A. H. 290 (903) when his outspokenness caused some uneasiness and led to his quick departure .
He first went to Ray (Rages), where he remained for some five years  . See Rayshahr for the Sassanid center of learning in Fars province A major teacher in Rayy was Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Humayd al-Razi already in his seventies . Ibn Humayd had taught in Baghdad and was now retired in his native city. Among other material, ibn Humayd taught Jarir Tabari the historical works of ibn Ishaq, especially al-Sirah, his life of Muhammad . TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar (محمد بن إسحاق بن يسار or simply Ibn Tabari was thus introduced in youth to pre-Islamic and early Islamic history. Tabari quotes ibn Humayd frequently. Beyond the names of at least two of them, we know little about Tabari's other teachers in Rayy .
Then he went to Baghdad to study from ibn Hanbal, who, however, had recently died . Ahmed ibn Hanbal ( Arabic: أحمد بن حنبل Ahmad bin Hanbal) (780 - This was in late 241  (late 855 or early 856). Tabari possibly made a pilgrimage prior to his first arrival in Baghdad . He left Baghdad probably in 242 (856-7) to travel through the southern cities of Basra, Kufah and Wasit. Basra ( BGN: AlBasrah also called Basorah Abillah and Uruk or IRAQ The name that British colony has adopted for Basra Kufa ( Arabic, ar الكوفة) is a city in modern Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. Wasit ( Arabic, واسط) is a place in Wasit Governorate, south east of Kut in eastern Iraq.  There he met a number of eminent and venerable scholars. 
On his return to Baghdad, he took a tutoring position from the vizier Ubaydallah b. Yahya b. Khaqan.  This would have been before A. H. 244 (858) since the vizier was out of office and in exile from 244 to 248 (858-9 to 862). There is an anecdote told that Tabari had agreed to tutor for ten dinars a month, but his teaching was so effective and the lad's writing so impressive that the teacher was offered a tray of dinars and dirhams. The ever ethical Tabari declined the offer saying he had undertaken to do his work at the specified amount and could not honourably take more . This is one of a number of stories about him declining gifts or giving gifts of equal or greater amount in return .
In his late twenties he travelled to Syria, Palestine and Egypt . In Beirut he made the highly significant connection of al-Abbas b. al-Walid b. Mazyad al-'Udhri al-Bayruti (c. 169-270/785-6 to 883-4) . Al-Abbas instructed Tabari in the Syrian school's variant readings of the Qur'an and transmitted through his father al-Walid the legal views of al-Awza'i, Beirut's prominent jurist from a century earlier . Abu Amr Abd al-Rahman ibn Amr al-Awzai (707 - 774 was the chief representative and eponym of the Awzai school of Islamic jurisprudence, which descended from the ancient
Some time after 256/870 Tabari returned to Baghdad , possibly making a pilgrimage on the way . If so, he did not stay long in the Hijaz . al-Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz; الحجاز al-Ḥiǧāz, literally "the barrier" is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia Tabari had a private income from his father while he was still living and then the inheritance . He took money for teaching. He never took a government or a judicial position .
He is described as having a dark complexion, large eyes and a long beard. He was tall and slender  and his hair and beard remained black until he was very old. He was attentive to his health, avoiding red meat, fats and other unhealthy foods . He was seldom sick before his last decade when he suffered from bouts of pleurisy . When he was ill, he could treat himself to the approval of physicians. He had a sense of humour, though serious subjects he treated seriously. He had studied poetry when young and enjoyed writing, reciting and participating in poetic exchanges. It is said that he was asked in Egypt about al-Tirimmah and was able to recite this seventh century poet's work for Egyptians who had merely heard al-Tirimmah's name.
He was witty and urbane, clean and well mannered . He avoided coarse speech, instead displaying refined eloquence . He had a good grounding in grammar, lexicography and philology. Such were considered essential for Qur'anic commentary. He knew Persian and was acquainted with the origins of various foreign loan words in Arabic from a number of other languages.
Tabari never married . There is a description of his normal day: rising early for prayer, studying till early afternoon, publicly praying the afternoon prayer, reciting Qur'an and teaching Qur'an, and then teaching law, etc. until late.
At Tabari wrote history, theology and Qur'anic commentary. History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran His legal writings were published first and then continued to appear throughout his life. Next were his commentaries on the Qur'an. Lastly, his history was published. Despite a style that makes it seem he drew largely on oral sources, written material (both published and unpublished) provided him with the bulk of his information. His biographers stress his reverence for scholarship and his keen intent to offer his readers hard fact.
He didn't hesitate to express his independent judgement (ijtihad) . Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد is a technical term of Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the legal sources He stated his assessment as to which of the sources he cited was accurate . This was more understandably an aspect of his theology than of his history. This does not mean he saw himself as innovative. On the contrary, he was very much opposed to religious innovation. The story goes that when he was near death ibn Kamil suggested he forgive his enemies. He said he was willing to do so, except for the person who had described him as an innovator . In general Tabari's approach was conciliatory and moderate, seeking harmonious agreement between conflicting opinions .
Initially he identified as a Shafi'ite in law and Shafi'ites were happy to have him so considered. The Shāfi‘ī Madhab ( ar شافعي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh, or religious law within He later was seen as one establishing his own school. Although he had come to Baghdad in youth to study from Hanbal, he incurred the vehement wrath of the Hanbalites . Hanbali ( حنبلى) is one of the four schools ( Madhhabs of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam (the other three being Tabari's madhhab is usually designated by the name Jariri after his patronymic . Madhhab or Mazhab ( Arabic مذهب mæðhæb pl مذاهب mæðæːhıb) is an Islamic school of thought, or Jariri is the name given to the short-lived school of Islamic jurisprudence which was derived from the work of Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, the ninth and tenth-century Muslim scholar A patronym, is a component of a Personal name based on the name of one's father However, in the keenly competitive atmosphere of the times, his school failed to endure .
His wrote extensively; his voluminous corpus containing two main titles:
The first of the two large works, generally known as the Annals (Arabic Tarikh al-Tabari). The History of the Prophets and Kings (Persian تاریخ طبری, Arabic تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly known Tarikh al-Tabari The History of the Prophets and Kings (Persian تاریخ طبری, Arabic تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly known Tarikh al-Tabari The History of the Prophets and Kings (Persian تاریخ طبری, Arabic تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly known Tarikh al-Tabari This is a universal history from the time of Qur'anic Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Muslim and Middle Eastern history. A creation myth is a supernatural mytho-[[religion religious]] story or explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, Earth, life, and Events By Place Europe Battle of Garigliano: The Christian League defeats the Saracens A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Tabari's work is a major primary source for the Zanj Revolt. Note The Zanj Rebellion was not a single revolt but a series of small revolts that eventually culminated to a large revolt
His second great work was the commentary on the Qur'an, (Arabic Tafsir al-Tabari), which was marked by the same fullness of detail as the Annals. The commentary on the Qur'an (Arabic Jāmi` al-bayān `an ta'wīl āy al-Qur'ān) popularly Tafsīr al-Ṭabarī ( تفسير الطبري) The commentary on the Qur'an (Arabic Jāmi` al-bayān `an ta'wīl āy al-Qur'ān) popularly Tafsīr al-Ṭabarī ( تفسير الطبري) The commentary on the Qur'an (Arabic Jāmi` al-bayān `an ta'wīl āy al-Qur'ān) popularly Tafsīr al-Ṭabarī ( تفسير الطبري) The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran The size of the work and the independence of judgment in it seem to have prevented it from having a large circulation, but scholars such as Baghawi and Suyuti used it largely. Abu Muhammad Husayn b Mas'ud ibn Muhammad al-Farra' Baghawi (435-516H/1043-1122 is the Shafiite latter-day authority whose position is agreed upon as verified by Imam Subki and Imam TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Imam Jalaluddin Al-Suyuti (c It was used in compiling the Tafsir ibn Kathir. Tafsir al-Qur'an al-Azim, popularly Tafsir ibn Kathir, is a classic Sunni Islam