Sumbawa topography where Tambora's caldera is visible at the northern peninsula.
|Elevation||2,850 metres (9,350 ft)|
|Location||Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia|
Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. In topography a summit is a point on a surface which is higher in Elevation than all points immediately adjacent to The Nusa Tenggara (lit Southeast Islands or Lesser Sunda Islands, are a group of Islands in the middle-south part of the Malay Archipelago. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Mountains can be characterized in several ways Some mountains are Volcanoes and can be characterized by the type of lava and eruptive history A stratovolcano, also called a composite volcano is a tall conical Volcano composed of many layers of hardened Lava, Tephra, and Volcanic Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the A stratovolcano, also called a composite volcano is a tall conical Volcano composed of many layers of hardened Lava, Tephra, and Volcanic A stratovolcano, also called a composite volcano is a tall conical Volcano composed of many layers of hardened Lava, Tephra, and Volcanic Sumbawa is an Indonesian Island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain with Lombok to the west Flores to the east The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Sumbawa is flanked both to the north and south by oceanic crust, and Tambora was formed by the active subduction zones beneath it. Oceanic crust is the part of Earth's Lithosphere that surfaces in the Ocean basins In Geology, a subduction zone is an area on Earth where two tectonic plates meet and move towards one another with one sliding underneath the other This raised Mount Tambora as high as 4,300 m (14,000 ft), making it one of the tallest peaks in the Indonesian archipelago, and drained off a large magma chamber inside the mountain. A magma chamber is a large underground pool of molten rock lying under the surface of the earth's crust It took centuries to refill the magma chamber, its volcanic activity reaching its peak in April 1815. 
Tambora erupted in 1815 with a rating of seven on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, making it the largest eruption since the Lake Taupo eruption in AD 181. Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI was devised by Chris Newhall of the U Lake Taupo is a Lake situated in the North Island of New Zealand. Events By place Roman Empire The Antonine Wall is overrun Roman cavalry general Lucius Artorius Castus (possible  The explosion was heard on Sumatra island (more than 2,000 km or 1,200 mi away). Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470000 km² and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two Heavy volcanic ash falls were observed as far away as Borneo, Sulawesi, Java and Maluku islands. Volcanic ash consists of small Tephra, which are bits of pulverized rock and glass created by volcanic eruptions less than in diameter Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. Sulawesi (formerly known as Celebes, ˈsɛlɛbiz is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. The Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas, Moluccan Islands, the Spice Islands or simply Maluku) are an Archipelago The death toll was at least 71,000 people (perhaps the most deadly eruption in history), of whom 11,000–12,000 were killed directly by the eruption; the often-cited figure of 92,000 people killed is believed to be an overestimate. For man-made disasters see List of wars and disasters by death toll A death toll is the number of dead as a result of War, Violence,  The eruption created global climate anomalies; 1816 became known as the Year Without a Summer because of the effect on North American and European weather. Year 1816 ( MDCCCXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The Year Without a Summer, also known as the Poverty Year, The Year There Was No Summer or Eighteen hundred and froze to death Agricultural crops failed and livestock died in much of the Northern Hemisphere, resulting in the worst famine of the 19th century. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food Northern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is North of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar 
During an excavation in 2004, a team of archaeologists discovered cultural remains buried by the 1815 eruption. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos  They were kept intact beneath the 3 m (10 ft) deep pyroclastic deposits. Pyroclastic rocks or pyroclastics (derived from the Greek πῦρ, meaning fire and κλαστός, meaning broken are Clastic rocks At the site, dubbed the Pompeii of the East, the artifacts were preserved in the positions they had occupied in 1815. Pompeii is a ruined and partially buried Roman town-city near modern Naples and Caserta in the Italian region of Campania, in
Mount Tambora is located on Sumbawa Island, part of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Sumbawa is an Indonesian Island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain with Lombok to the west Flores to the east The Nusa Tenggara (lit Southeast Islands or Lesser Sunda Islands, are a group of Islands in the middle-south part of the Malay Archipelago. It is a segment of the Sunda Arc, a string of volcanic islands that form the southern chain of the Indonesian archipelago. The Sunda Arc is a Volcanic arc that has produced the islands of Sumatra and Java and the Sunda Strait and the Lesser Sunda Islands An island (ˈaɪlənd or isle (/ˈaɪl/ is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water in two dimensions above high tide and isolated from other significant An archipelago (ɑrkəˈpɛləgoʊ is a chain or cluster of Islands The word archipelago literally means "chief Sea " from Italian  Tambora forms its own peninsula on Sumbawa, known as the Sanggar peninsula. A peninsula is a piece of land that is nearly surrounded by Water but connected to Mainland via an Isthmus. At the north of the peninsula is the Flores Sea, and at the south is the 86 km (53. The Flores Sea covers 93000 square miles (240000 square kilometres of water in Indonesia. 5 mi) long and 36 km (22 mi) wide Saleh Bay. At the mouth of Saleh Bay there is an islet called Mojo.
Besides the seismologists and vulcanologists who monitor the mountain's activity, Mount Tambora is an area of scientific studies for archaeologists and biologists. Seismology (from Greek grc σεισμός seismos, "earthquake" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of Earthquakes Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of Volcanoes, Lava, Magma, and related geological and Geophysical phenomena Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles The mountain also attracts tourists for hiking and wildlife activities. The word 'hiking' is understood in all English-speaking countries but there are differences in usage  The two nearest cities are Dompu and Bima. There are three concentrations of villages around the mountain slope. At the east is Sanggar village, to the northwest are Doro Peti and Pesanggrahan villages, and to the west is Calabai village.
There are two ascent routes to reach the caldera. A caldera is a cauldron-like volcanic feature formed by the collapse of land following a volcanic eruption The first route starts from Doro Mboha village at the southeast of the mountain. This route follows a paved road through a cashew plantation until it reaches 1,150 m (3,800 ft) above sea level. The cashew ( Anacardium occidentale; Syn Anacardium curatellifolium A The term above mean sea level ( AMSL) refers to the Elevation (on the ground or Altitude (in the Air) of any object relative to the The end of this route is the southern part of the caldera at 1,950 m (6,400 ft), reachable by means of a hiking track.  This location is usually used as a base camp to monitor the volcanic activity, because it only takes one hour to reach the caldera. The second route starts from Pancasila village at the northwest of the mountain. Using the second route, the caldera is accessible only by foot. 
Tambora lies 340 km (211 mi) north of the Java Trench system and 180–190 km (112–118 mi) above the upper surface of the active north-dipping subduction zone. The Java Trench, also called Sunda Trench, located in the northeastern Indian Ocean, with a length of 2600 km and a maximum depth of 7725 meters (at 10°19'S 109°58'E In Geology, a subduction zone is an area on Earth where two tectonic plates meet and move towards one another with one sliding underneath the other Sumbawa island is flanked to both the north and south by the oceanic crust. Oceanic crust is the part of Earth's Lithosphere that surfaces in the Ocean basins  The convergence rate is 7. 8 cm/year (3 in/year).  The existence of Tambora is estimated to have begun around 57,000 years ago.  Its ascent has drained off a large magma chamber inside the mountain. A magma chamber is a large underground pool of molten rock lying under the surface of the earth's crust The Mojo islet was formed as part of this geological process in which Saleh Bay, collapsing into the caldera of the drained magma chamber, first appeared as a sea basin, about 25,000 years ago. Hydrologically an oceanic basin may be anywhere on Earth that is covered by Seawater, but geologically ocean basins are large geologic basins 
According to a geological survey, a high volcanic cone with a single central vent was formed before the 1815 eruption, which follows a stratovolcano shape. A stratovolcano, also called a composite volcano is a tall conical Volcano composed of many layers of hardened Lava, Tephra, and Volcanic  The diameter at the base is 60 km (37 mi).  The central vent emitted lava frequently, which cascaded down a steep slope.
Since the 1815 eruption, the lowermost portion contains deposits of interlayered sequences of lava and pyroclastic materials. Lava is molten rock expelled by a Volcano during an eruption When first expelled from a volcanic vent it is a Liquid at Temperatures Pyroclastic rocks or pyroclastics (derived from the Greek πῦρ, meaning fire and κλαστός, meaning broken are Clastic rocks Approximately 40% of the layers are represented in the 1–4 m (3. 3–13. 1 ft) thick lava flows.  Thick scoria beds were produced by the fragmentation of lava flows. Scoria is a textural term for macrovesicular Volcanic rock. It is commonly but not exclusively Basaltic or andesitic in composition Within the upper section, the lava is interbedded with scoria, tuffs and pyroclastic flows and falls. Tuff (from the Italian "tufo" is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption  There are at least 20 parasitic cones. Satellite cone (or parasitic cone) is a geographical feature found around a Volcano.  Some of them have names: Tahe (877 m), Molo (602 m), Kadiendinae, Kubah (1648 m) and Doro Api Toi. Most of these parasitic cones have produced basaltic lavas. Basalt (bəˈsɔːlt ˈbeisɔːlt ˈbæsɔːlt is a common Extrusive Volcanic rock. Lava is molten rock expelled by a Volcano during an eruption When first expelled from a volcanic vent it is a Liquid at Temperatures
Using radiocarbon dating technique, it has been established that Mount Tambora had erupted three times before the 1815 eruption, but the magnitudes of these eruptions are unknown. Radiocarbon dating is a Radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring Radioisotope Carbon-14 (14C to determine the age of  Their estimated dates are 3910 BC ± 200 years, 3050 BC and AD 740 ± 150 years. They were all explosive central vent eruptions with similar characteristics, except the lattermost eruption had no pyroclastic flows. A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclastic density current) is a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions.
In 1812, Mount Tambora became highly active, with its eruptive peak in the catastrophic explosive event of April 1815.  The magnitude was seven on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) scale, with a total tephra ejecta volume of 1. The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI was devised by Chris Newhall of the U Tephra is air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size 6 × 1011 cubic metres.  It was an explosive central vent eruption with pyroclastic flows and a caldera collapse, causing tsunamis and extensive land and property damage. A caldera is a cauldron-like volcanic feature formed by the collapse of land following a volcanic eruption A tsunami ((tsuːˈnɑːmi is a series of waves created when It created a long-term effect on global climate. This activity ceased on 15 July 1815.  Follow-up activity was recorded in August 1819 consisting of a small eruption (VEI = 2) with flames and rumbling aftershocks, and was considered to be part of the 1815 eruption. An aftershock is an Earthquake that occurs after a previous earthquake (the main shock  Around 1880 ± 30 years, Tambora went into eruption again, but only inside the caldera.  It created small lava flows and lava dome extrusions. Extrusive refers to the mode of Igneous Volcanic rock formation in which hot Magma from inside the Earth flows out (extrudes onto the surface This eruption (VEI = 2) created the Doro Api Toi parasitic cone inside the caldera. 
Mount Tambora is still active. Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the Minor lava domes and flows have been extruded on the caldera floor during the 19th and 20th centuries.  The last eruption was recorded in 1967.  However, it was a very small, non-explosive eruption (VEI = 0).
Mount Tambora experienced several centuries of inactivity before 1815, known as dormancy, as the result of the gradual cooling of hydrous magma in a closed magma chamber.  Inside the chamber at depths between 1. 5–4. 5 km (5,000–15,000 ft), the exsolution of a high pressure magma fluid formed during cooling and crystallisation of the magma. A solid solution is a Solid - state Solution of one or more solutes in a Solvent. Crystallization is the (natural or artificial process of formation of solid Crystals precipitating from a homogeneous --> identical Solution Overpressure of the chamber of about 4–5 kbar was generated and the temperature ranged from 700 °C–850 °C (1,300–1,500 °F). The bar (symbol bar) decibar (symbol dbar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb are units of Pressure. 
In 1812, the caldera began to rumble and generated a dark cloud.  On April 5 1815, a moderate-sized eruption occurred, followed by thunderous detonation sounds, heard in Makassar on Sulawesi (380 km or 236 mi), Batavia (now Jakarta) on Java (1,260 km or 783 mi), and Ternate on the Molucca Islands (1400 km or 870 mi). Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Thunder is the sound made by Lightning. Depending on the nature of the lightning and distance of the listener it can range from a sharp Makassar, ( Macassar, Mangkasar) is the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, and the largest city on Sulawesi Island Sulawesi (formerly known as Celebes, ˈsɛlɛbiz is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. Ternate is an island and town in the Maluku Islands (Moluccas of eastern Indonesia, located off the west coast of the larger island of Halmahera. The Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas, Moluccan Islands, the Spice Islands or simply Maluku) are an Archipelago What was first thought to be sound of firing guns was heard on 10–11 April on Sumatra island (more than 2,600 km or 1,615 mi away). Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470000 km² and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two  On the morning of 6 April, volcanic ash began to fall in East Java with faint detonation sounds lasting until 10 April. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Volcanic ash consists of small Tephra, which are bits of pulverized rock and glass created by volcanic eruptions less than in diameter East Java (Jawa Timur is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and also includes neighboring Madura Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama
At about 7 p. m. on 10 April, the eruptions intensified. Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama  Three columns of flame rose up and merged.  The whole mountain was turned into a flowing mass of "liquid fire".  Pumice stones of up to 20 cm (8 inches) in diameter started to rain down at approximately 8 p. Pumice is a textural term for a volcanic rock that is a solidified frothy lava composed of highly microvesicular glass Pyroclastic with very thin translucent m. , followed by ash at around 9–10 p. m. Hot pyroclastic flows cascaded down the mountain to the sea on all sides of the peninsula, wiping out the village of Tambora. A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclastic density current) is a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. Loud explosions were heard until the next evening, 11 April. Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. The ash veil had spread as far as West Java and South Sulawesi. West Java (Jawa Barat with population around 3572 million is the most populous province of Indonesia, located on Java Island. South Sulawesi ( Sulawesi Selatan) is a province of Indonesia, located on the western southern peninsula of Sulawesi island A "nitrous" odor was noticeable in Batavia and heavy tephra-tinged rain fell, finally receding between 11 and 17 April. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. Tephra is air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size 
The first explosions were heard on this Island in the evening of the 5th of April, they were noticed in every quarter, and continued at intervals until the following day. The noise was, in the first instance, almost universally attributed to distant cannon; so much so, that a detachment of troops were marched from Djocjocarta, in the expectation that a neighbouring post was attacked, and along the coast boats were in two instances dispatched in quest of a supposed ship in distress. The Special Region of Yogyakarta ( Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY) is the smallest province of Indonesia (excluding
The explosion is estimated to have been at scale seven on the Volcanic Explosivity Index. The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI was devised by Chris Newhall of the U  It had roughly four times the energy of the 1883 Krakatoa eruption. Krakatoa ( Indonesian: Krakatau) also spelled Krakatao or Krakatowa, is a volcanic island in the Sunda Strait An estimated 100 km³ (38. 6 mi³) of pyroclastic trachyandesite was ejected, weighing approximately 1. Trachyandesite is an Extrusive Igneous rock. It has little or no free Quartz, but is dominated by alkali Feldspar and sodic Plagioclase 4×1014 kg.  This has left a caldera measuring 6–7 km (4–5 mi) across and 600–700 m (2,000–2,300 ft) deep.  The density of fallen ash in Makassar was 636 kg/m². Makassar, ( Macassar, Mangkasar) is the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, and the largest city on Sulawesi Island  Before the explosion, Mount Tambora was approximately 4,300 m (14,000 ft) high, one of the tallest peaks in the Indonesian archipelago. After the explosion, it now measures only 2,851 m (9,300 ft). 
The 1815 Tambora eruption is the largest observed eruption in recorded history (see Table I, for comparison).  The explosion was heard 2,600 km (1,600 mi) away, and ash fell at least 1,300 km (800 mi) away.  Pitch darkness was observed as far away as 600 km (370 mi) from the mountain summit for up to two days. Pyroclastic flows spread at least 20 km (12. 5 mi) from the summit.
All vegetation on the island was destroyed. Uprooted trees, mixed with pumice ash, washed into the sea and formed rafts of up to 5 km (3 mi) across.  One pumice raft was found in the Indian Ocean, near Calcutta on 1 and 3 October 1815. The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface  Clouds of thick ash still covered the summit on 23 April. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Explosions ceased on 15 July, although smoke emissions were still observed as late as 23 August. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final Events 79 - Mount Vesuvius begins stirring on the feast day of Vulcan the Roman god of fire Flames and rumbling aftershocks were reported in August 1819, four years after the event.
On my trip towards the western part of the island, I passed through nearly the whole of Dompo and a considerable part of Bima. The extreme misery to which the inhabitants have been reduced is shocking to behold. There were still on the road side the remains of several corpses, and the marks of where many others had been interred: the villages almost entirely deserted and the houses fallen down, the surviving inhabitants having dispersed in search of food.
. . .
Since the eruption, a violent diarrhoea has prevailed in Bima, Dompo, and Sang’ir, which has carried off a great number of people. In Medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences) is frequent loose or liquid Bowel movements Acute diarrhea It is supposed by the natives to have been caused by drinking water which has been impregnated with ashes; and horses have also died, in great numbers, from a similar complaint.
—Lt. Philips, ordered by Sir Stamford Raffles to go to Sumbawa. Sumbawa is an Indonesian Island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain with Lombok to the west Flores to the east 
A moderate-sized tsunami struck the shores of various islands in the Indonesian archipelago on 10 April, with a height of up to 4 m (13 ft) in Sanggar at around 10 p. A tsunami ((tsuːˈnɑːmi is a series of waves created when Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama m.  A tsunami of 1–2 m (3–6 ft) in height was reported in Besuki, East Java, before midnight, and one of 2 m (6 ft) in height in the Molucca Islands. East Java (Jawa Timur is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and also includes neighboring Madura The Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas, Moluccan Islands, the Spice Islands or simply Maluku) are an Archipelago
The eruption column reached the stratosphere, an altitude of more than 43 km (140,000 ft). The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the Troposphere, and below the Mesosphere.  The coarser ash particles fell 1 to 2 weeks after the eruptions, but the finer ash particles stayed in the atmosphere from a few months up to a few years at an altitude of 10–30 km (33,000–100,000 ft). Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five  Longitudinal winds spread these fine particles around the globe, creating optical phenomena. Prolonged and brilliantly colored sunsets and twilights were frequently seen in London, England between 28 June and 2 July 1815 and 3 September and 7 October 1815. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year  The glow of the twilight sky typically appeared orange or red near the horizon and purple or pink above.
The estimated number of deaths varies depending on the source. Zollinger (1855) puts the number of direct deaths at 10,000, probably caused by pyroclastic flows. On Sumbawa island, there were 38,000 deaths due to starvation, and another 10,000 deaths occurred due to disease and hunger on Lombok island. Lombok (population 2950105 in 2005) is an Island in West Nusa Tenggara province Indonesia.  Petroeschevsky (1949) estimated about 48,000 and 44,000 people were killed on Sumbawa and Lombok, respectively.  Several authors use Petroeschevsky's figures, such as Stothers (1984), who cites 88,000 deaths in total.  However, Tanguy et al. (1998) claimed Petroeschevsky's figures to be unfounded and based on untraceable references.  Tanguy revised the number solely based on two credible sources, i. e. , Zollinger, who himself spent several months on Sumbawa after the eruption, and Raffles's notes.  Tanguy pointed out that there may have been additional victims on Bali and East Java because of famine and disease. Bali is an Indonesian Island located at, the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to East Java (Jawa Timur is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and also includes neighboring Madura A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation Their estimate was 11,000 deaths from direct volcanic effects and 49,000 by post-eruption famine and epidemic diseases.  Oppenheimer (2003) stated a modified number of at least 71,000 deaths in total, as seen in Table I below. 
|VEI||N. The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI was devised by Chris Newhall of the U hemisphere|
summer anomaly (°C)
|Kuwae||1452||?||6||−0. Mount Vesuvius (in Italian Monte Vesuvio and in Latin Mons Vesuvius) is an active Stratovolcano east of Naples The Hatepe eruption (named for the Hatepe Plinian Pumice fall deposit sometimes imprecisely referred to as the Taupo eruption) around 180 CE was Lake Baekdu Mountain, also known as Changbai Mountain in China, is a volcanic Mountain on the border between China and North Korea Kueae also called Karua is a Submarine volcano between Epi and Tongoa islands one of the most active volcanoes of Vanuatu. 5||?|
|Huaynaputina||1600||46||6||−0. Huaynaputina (New Volcano is a Stratovolcano located in a volcanic upland in southern Peru. 8||≈1400|
|Tambora||1815||43||7||−0. 5||> 71,000|
|Krakatau||1883||25||6||−0. Krakatoa ( Indonesian: Krakatau) also spelled Krakatao or Krakatowa, is a volcanic island in the Sunda Strait 3||36,600|
|Katmai||1912||32||6||−0. Volcán Santa María is a large active Volcano in the Western Highlands of Guatemala, close to the city of Quetzaltenango. Mount Katmai is a large Stratovolcano (composite volcano on the Alaska Peninsula in southern Alaska, located within Katmai National Park and 4||2|
|Mt. St. Helens||1980||19||5||no anomaly||57|
|El Chichón||1982||32||4–5||?||> 2,000|
|Nevado del Ruiz||1985||27||3||no anomaly||23,000|
|Pinatubo||1991||34||6||−0. Mount St Helens is an active Stratovolcano located in Skamania County, Washington, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States El Chichón is an active Volcano in northwestern Chiapas, Mexico. Nevado del Ruiz, also known as Mount Ruiz, is an Andean Stratovolcano in Caldas Department, Colombia. Mount Pinatubo is an active Stratovolcano located on the island of Luzon 5||1202|
|Source: Oppenheimer (2003), and Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program for VEI. |
The 1815 eruption released sulfur into the stratosphere, causing a global climate anomaly. Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the Troposphere, and below the Mesosphere. Different methods have estimated the ejected sulfur mass during the eruption: the petrological method; an optical depth measurement based on anatomical observations; and the polar ice core sulfate concentration method, using cores from Greenland and Antarctica. In Geology, petrology (from Greek πέτρα petra, rock and λόγος logos, knowledge is the study of rocks and the conditions on which Anatomy (from the Greek anatomia, from ana separate apart from and temnein, to cut up cut open is a branch of Biology that is the consideration Earth's polar regions are the areas of the globe surrounding the poles also known as frigid zones. An ice core is a Core sample from the accumulation of snow and ice over many years that have re-crystallized and have trapped air bubbles from previous time periods Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the The figures vary depending on the method, ranging from 10 Tg S to 120 Tg S. 
In the spring and summer of 1816, a persistent dry fog was observed in the northeastern U. S. The fog reddened and dimmed the sunlight, such that sunspots were visible to the naked eye. Neither wind nor rainfall dispersed the "fog". It was identified as a stratospheric sulfate aerosol veil.  In summer 1816, countries in the Northern Hemisphere suffered extreme weather conditions, dubbed the Year Without a Summer. Northern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is North of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' The Year Without a Summer, also known as the Poverty Year, The Year There Was No Summer or Eighteen hundred and froze to death Average global temperatures decreased about 0. 4–0. 7 °C (0. 7–1. 3 °F), enough to cause significant agricultural problems around the globe. On 4 June 1816, frosts were reported in Connecticut, and by the following day, most of New England was gripped by the cold front. Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Year 1816 ( MDCCCXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the On 6 June 1816, snow fell in Albany, New York, and Dennysville, Maine. Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year Year 1816 ( MDCCCXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Albany is the Capital of the State of New York and the County seat of Albany County. Dennysville is a town in Washington County, Maine, United States.  Such conditions occurred for at least three months and ruined most agricultural crops in North America. Canada experienced extreme cold during that summer. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Snow 30 cm (12 in) deep accumulated near Quebec City from 6 to 10 June 1816. Quebec City ( French: Ville de Québec, or simply Québec) (kwɨˈbɛk or /keˈbɛk/ is the Capital of the Canadian province
1816 was the second coldest year in the northern hemisphere since AD 1400, after 1601 following the 1600 Huaynaputina eruption in Peru. Huaynaputina (New Volcano is a Stratovolcano located in a volcanic upland in southern Peru. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America.  The 1810s are the coldest decade on record, a result of Tambora's 1815 eruption and other suspected eruptions somewhere between 1809 and 1810 (see sulfate concentration figure from ice core data). An ice core is a Core sample from the accumulation of snow and ice over many years that have re-crystallized and have trapped air bubbles from previous time periods The surface temperature anomalies during the summer of 1816, 1817 and 1818 were −0. 51, −0. 44 and −0. 29 °C, respectively.  As well as a cooler summer, parts of Europe experienced a stormier winter.
This pattern of climate anomaly has been blamed for the severity of typhus epidemic in southeast Europe and the eastern Mediterranean between 1816 and 1819. Typhus is any of several similar diseases caused by Louse -borne bacteria In Epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people is a classification of a disease that appears as new cases in a  Much livestock died in New England during the winter of 1816–1817. Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food Cool temperatures and heavy rains resulted in failed harvests in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Families in Wales traveled long distances as refugees, begging for food. Famine was prevalent in north and southwest Ireland, following the failure of wheat, oat and potato harvests. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Oats redirects here It may mean either the common cereal oat discussed here or any cultivated or wild species of the Genus Avena. The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae The crisis was severe in Germany, where food prices rose sharply. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Due to the unknown cause of the problems, demonstrations in front of grain markets and bakeries, followed by riots, arson and looting, took place in many European cities. Riots are a form of Civil disorders characterized by disorganized groups lashing out in a sudden and intense rash of Violence, Vandalism or other Looting ( Hindi lūṭ akin to Sanskrit luṭhati steals also Latin latro, latronis It was the worst famine of the 19th century. 
In summer 2004, a team from the University of Rhode Island, the University of North Carolina at Wilmington, and the Indonesian Directorate of Volcanology, led by Haraldur Sigurdsson, began an archaeological dig in Tambora. The University of Rhode Island, commonly abbreviated as URI, is the principal public research university in the State of Rhode Island, with its main campus in The University of North Carolina Wilmington is a public University located in Wilmington North Carolina. Haraldur Sigurdsson was born May 31, 1939  Over six weeks, the team unearthed the first evidence of a lost culture that had been obliterated by the Tambora eruption. Tambora is a lost village and culture on Sumbawa Island buried by ash and Pyroclastic flows from the massive 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora The site is located about 25 km (15. 5 mi) west of the caldera, deep in the jungle, 5 km (3 mi) from the shore. The team had to cut through a deposit of volcanic pumice and ash 3 m (10 ft) thick.
The team used a ground-penetrating radar to locate a small buried house. Ground-penetrating radar ( GPR) is a geophysical method that uses Radar pulses to image the subsurface They excavated the house, where they found the remains of two adults, as well as bronze bowls, ceramic pots, iron tools and other artifacts. The design and decoration of the artifacts have similarities with artifacts from Vietnam and Cambodia. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East  Tests conducted using a carbonization technique revealed they were composed of charcoal formed by the heat of the magma. Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation Magma (Plurals magmas and magmata) is molten rock that sometimes forms beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other Terrestrial planet The people and the house are preserved as they were in 1815. Sigurdsson dubbed it the Pompeii of the East. Pompeii is a ruined and partially buried Roman town-city near modern Naples and Caserta in the Italian region of Campania, in  Based on the artifacts found, which were mainly bronze objects, the team concluded that the people were not poor. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Historical evidence indicates that people on Sumbawa island were known in the East Indies for their honey, horses, sappan wood for producing red dye, and sandalwood used for incense and medications. The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term often used to refer to the islands of SE Asia, especially the Malay Archipelago Honey is a sweet and Viscous fluid produced by Honey bees (and some other species and derived from the nectar of Flowers According to the The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. Sappanwood or Sapanwood ( Caesalpinia sappan, Japanese suou is a sort of Brazilwood that is related to legumes found in tropical Southeast A dye can generally be described as a Colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied for the film industry in India see Cinema of Karnataka Sandalwood is the name for several fragrant Woods and their Essential Incense is composed of Aromatic biotic materials It releases fragrant Smoke when burned  The area was thought to be highly productive agriculturally.
The archaeological findings suggest that there was a culture on Sumbawa that was wiped out by the 1815 eruption. The title Lost Kingdom of Tambora was coined by media.  With this discovery, Sigurdsson intends to return to Tambora in 2007 to search for the rest of the villages, and hopefully to find a palace. 
A scientific team led by a Swiss botanist, Heinrich Zollinger, arrived on Sumbawa in 1847. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Botany, plant science(s, phytology, or plant biology is a branch of Biology and is the scientific study of plant Life  Zollinger's mission was to study the eruption scene and its effects on the local ecosystem. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( He was the first person to climb to the summit after the eruption. It was still covered by smoke. As Zollinger climbed up, his feet sank several times through a thin surface crust into a warm layer of powder-like sulfur. Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Some vegetation had re-established itself and a few trees were observed on the lower slope. A Casuarina forest was noted at 2,200–2,550 m (7,200–8,400 ft). Casuarina is a Genus of 17 species in the family Casuarinaceae, native to Australasia, southeastern Asia, and islands of the  Several Imperata cylindrica grasslands were also found. Imperata cylindrica is a species of grass in the genus Imperata. Grasslands (also called greenswards) are areas where the Vegetation is dominated by Grasses ( Poaceae) and other Herbaceous (non-woody
Rehabitation of the mountain began in 1907. A coffee plantation was started in the 1930s on the northwestern slope of the mountain, in the village of Pekat. CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom  A dense rain forest, dominated by the pioneering tree, Duabanga moluccana, had grown at an altitude of 1,000–2,800 m (3,300–9,000 ft). Rainforests are Forests characterized by high Rainfall with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1750–2000 mm (68-78 inches  It covers an area up to 80,000 hectares (800 km²). The rain forest was explored by a Dutch team, led by Koster and de Voogd in 1933.  From their accounts, they started their journey in a "fairly barren, dry and hot country", and then they entered "a mighty jungle" with "huge, majestic forest giants". At 1,100 m (3,600 ft), they entered a montane forest. Montane is a biogeographic term which refers to highland areas located below the Subalpine zone Above 1,800 m (6,000 ft), they found Dodonaea viscosa dominated by Casuarina trees. Dodonaea viscosa is a species in the family Sapindaceae with a Cosmopolitan distribution in tropical subtropical and warm temperate regions of On the summit, they found sparse Anaphalis viscida and Wahlenbergia. Anaphalis ( A-ná-pha-lis) is a genus within the composite family whose members are commonly known by the name Pearly everlasting Wahlenbergia is a genus of between 150-270 species of Flowering plants in the family Campanulaceae, with a Cosmopolitan distribution except
In 1896, 56 species of birds were found, including the Crested White-eye. UserPolbot. -->The Crested White-eye ( Lophozosterops dohertyi) is a species of Bird in the Zosteropidae  Twelve further species were found in 1981. Several other zoological surveys followed, and found other bird species on the mountain, resulting in over 90 bird species discovered on Mount Tambora. Yellow-crested Cockatoos, Zoothera thrushes, Hill Mynas, Green Junglefowl and Rainbow Lorikeets are hunted for the cagebird trade by the local people. The Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea, aka Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, is a medium-sized (up to 35cm long Cockatoo with all-white Feathers The Asian thrushes are medium-sized mostly insectivorous or omnivorous Birds in the genus Zoothera of the thrush family Turdidae. The Hill Myna ( Gracula religiosa) (commonly known in the pet trade as the Myna Bird) is a member of the Starling family resident in hill regions The Green Junglefowl, Gallus varius also known as Javan Junglefowl, Forktail or Green Javanese Junglefowl is a medium-sized up to 75cm long The Rainbow Lorikeet, Trichoglossus haematodus is a species of Australasian Parrot found in Australia, eastern Indonesia, Papua Orange-footed Scrubfowl are hunted for food. The Orange-footed Scrubfowl, Megapodius reinwardt, is a small Megapode of the family Megapodiidae This bird exploitation has resulted in a decline in the bird population. The Yellow-crested Cockatoo is nearing extinction on Sumbawa island. 
Since 1972, a commercial logging company has been operating in the area, which poses a large threat to the rain forest. Logging is the process in which Trees are cut down for Forest management and Timber. The logging company holds a timber-cutting concession for an area of 20,000 hectares (200 km²), or 25% of the total area. Lumber or timber is Wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural Material for Construction, or  Another part of the rain forest is used as a hunting ground. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. In between the hunting ground and the logging area, there is a designated wildlife reserve where deer, water buffalos, wild pigs, bats, flying foxes, and various species of reptiles and birds can be found. nature reserve ( natural reserve, nature preserve, natural preserve) is a Protected area of importance for Wildlife, flora A deer is a Ruminant Mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. The boar or wild boar ( Sus scrofa) is an Omnivorous, gregarious Mammal of the biological family Suidae. Bats of the genus Pteropus, belonging to the Megachiroptera sub-order are the largest Bats in the world Reptiles, or members of the class Reptilia are air-breathing Cold-blooded Vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. 
Indonesia's population has been increasing rapidly since the 1815 eruption. As of 2006, the population of Indonesia has reached 222 million people, of which 130 million are concentrated on Java and Bali islands. Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. Bali is an Indonesian Island located at, the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to  A volcanic eruption as large as the Tambora 1815 eruption would cause catastrophic devastation with more fatalities. Therefore, volcanic activity in Indonesia is continuously monitored, including that of Mount Tambora.
Seismic activity in Indonesia is monitored by the Directorate of Vulcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Indonesia. Seismology (from Greek grc σεισμός seismos, "earthquake" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of Earthquakes The monitoring post for Mount Tambora is located at Doro Peti village.  They focus on seismic and tectonic activities by using a seismograph. This article discusses the geologic usage for the philosophical or architectural usage see Architectonics ' Or see Plate tectonics. Seismometers (from Greek Seism - "the shakes" - and Metro - "I measure" are instruments that measure and record motions of the ground including Since the 1880 eruption, there has been no significant increase in seismic activity.  However, monitoring is continuously performed inside the caldera, especially around the parasite cone Doro Api Toi.
The directorate has defined a hazard mitigation map for Mount Tambora. Two zones are declared: the dangerous zone and the cautious zone.  The dangerous zone is an area that will be directly affected by an eruption: pyroclastic flow, lava flow and other pyroclastic falls. This area, including the caldera and its surroundings, covers up to 58. 7 km² (14,500 acres). Habitation of the dangerous zone is prohibited. The cautious zone includes areas that might be indirectly affected by an eruption: lahar flows and other pumice stones. A lahar is a type of Mudflow / Landslide composed of Pyroclastic material and Water that flows down from a Volcano, typically The size of the cautious area is 185 km² (45,700 acres), and includes Pasanggrahan, Doro Peti, Rao, Labuan Kenanga, Gubu Ponda, Kawindana Toi and Hoddo villages. A river, called Guwu, at the southern and northwest part of the mountain is also included in the cautious zone.