The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo (Spanish: Asociación Madres de Plaza de Mayo) is an association of Argentine mothers whose children "disappeared" during the Dirty War, the military dictatorship between 1976 and 1983. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. "Mom" "Mum" and "Mommy" redirect here A forced disappearance occurs when an organization forces a person to vanish from Public view either by Murder or by simple Sequestration. This article refers to the Argentine Dirty War for the British film of the same name see Dirty War (film. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar)
The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo is a unique organization of Argentine women who have become human rights activists in order to achieve a common goal. For over three decades, the Mothers have fought for the right to re-unite with their abducted children.
In protests, they wear white scarves to symbolize the white dove of peace. The name of the organization comes from the Plaza de Mayo in central Buenos Aires, where the bereaved mothers and grandmothers first gathered. Plaza_de_la_Victoriapng|thumb|225px|1867 view of the Plaza de la Victoria Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern They gather every Thursday afternoon for a half hour walk around the plaza.
The Mothers' association was formed by women who had met each other in the course of trying to find their missing sons and daughters, who were abducted by agents of the Argentine government during the years known as the Dirty War (1976–1983), many of whom were then tortured and killed. This article refers to the Argentine Dirty War for the British film of the same name see Dirty War (film. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) The 14 founders of the association, Azucena Villaflor de De Vincenti, Berta Braverman, Haydée García Buelas, María Adela Gard de Antokoletz, Julia Gard, María Mercedes Gard and Cándida Gard (4 sisters), Delicia González, Pepa Noia, Mirta Baravalle, Kety Neuhaus, Raquel Arcushin, Sra. Azucena Villaflor ( 7 April 1924, Avellaneda  &ndash- December 1977? was an Argentine social activist, one of the founders of De Caimi, started the demonstrations on the Plaza de Mayo, in front of the Casa Rosada presidential palace, on 30 April 1977. La Casa Rosada ( Spanish for "the Pink House" officially known as the Casa de Gobierno ("Government House" or Palacio Presidencial Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Villaflor had been searching for one of her sons and her daughter-in-law for six months. She was taken to the ESMA concentration camp on 10 December 1978. Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar)
The military have admitted that over 9,000 of those kidnapped are still unaccounted for, but the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo say that the number is closer to 30,000. The numbers are hard to determine due to the secrecy surrounding the abductions. Three of the founders of the mothers of the Plaza de Mayo have also "disappeared". After the fall of the military regime, a civilian government commission put the number of disappeared at close to 11,000.
In January 2005 the body of French nun Leonie Duquet, a supporter of the organization, was exhumed, without an established identity. A cadaver or corpse is a dead Body. "Cadaver" is normally used as a more formal term for a body being used in medical training or research This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Leonie Duquet (1916 – 1977 was a French nun who was killed in the Dirty War that took place during the military regime of Argentine President Duquet's disappearance had caused international outrage towards the Argentine military government. DNA tests concluded, on August 30 of that year, that the body exhumed in January was that of Duquet. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and
Azucena Villaflor's remains, together with those of two other pioneer Mothers, Esther Careaga and María Eugenia Bianco, were also identified by a forensics team in mid-2005. Villaflor's ashes were buried at the foot of the May Pyramid in the Plaza on 8 December 2005. Events 1609 - Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room the second public library of Europe. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The Mothers' association sought to keep the memory and spirit of their disappeared children alive, through the creation of an independent university, bookstore, library and cultural centre. Through these projects, subsidised and free education, health and other facilities are offered to the public and students, promoting the revolutionary ideals of many of their children. This has made their headquarters an important focal point for progressive leaders visiting Buenos Aires, including Hugo Chavez, Tabare Vazquez, and Brazil's Lula.
In later years, the association grew and became more persistent, demanding answers from the government as to where their missing children were. After the military gave up its authority to a civilian government in 1983, the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo have pressed the new government to help find answers to the kidnappings that took place in the Dirty War years. Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar)
In 1986, the Mothers association split into two factions. The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo – Founding Line focuses on legislation to help in recovering remains and bringing ex-officials to justice.
In the course of their struggle, most part of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo began to see themselves as inheritors of their children's dreams and responsible for carrying forward their children's work, even to the adopting the radical agenda embraced by some of their disappeared sons and daughters. As a result, the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo Association faction led by Hebe de Bonafini takes a more political approach. Hebe Pastor de Bonafini (born 1928 is an Argentine activist one of the founders of the Association of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, a protest organization This group does not doubt the fact that their children disappeared, and they are aware that the majority of them faced torture and most of them were ultimately murdered. Nevertheless, they are refusing any help offered by the government as compensation for their children's absence. Many still maintain that they will not recognize the deaths until the government admits its fault and its connection to the dirty war and its systematically forced disappearances.
A scholar of the movement, Marguerite Guzman Bouvard, wrote that the association faction wants "a complete transformation of Argentine political culture" and "envisions a socialist system free of the domination of special interests. " The Mothers association is backed by younger militants who openly support a Cuban-style revolution in Argentina. On the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks, Bonafini defended the actions of the airline hijackers calling them "courageous", stating that many people "had been avenged", and connecting their ideals with the cause of the guerrilla groups in 1970s' Argentina. . Speaking for the Mothers, she also rejected the investigations of the alleged Iranian involvement in the AMIA Bombing (the 1994 terrorist attack on the AMIA Jewish community center), denouncing the Argentine government was manipulating them to serve U. The AMIA Bombing was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (AMIA Argentine Israelite Jewish Mutual Association building in Buenos Aires on S. interests. . The Mothers have published a book with a compilation of Saddam Hussein's writings, among others forms of support to the Baathist regime in Iraq 
On 26 January 2006, members of the Madres de la Plaza de Mayo Association made their final annual March of Resistance around the Plaza de Mayo, saying no more such marches are needed because they do not perceive the current government as hostile or indifferent to the fate of the Dirty War missing. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Their weekly Thursday marches will continue, however, in pursuit of action on other social causes. And the Founding Line faction will continue both the Thursday marches and the annual marches. Today, despite having faced a crippled economy, Argentina is considered the 3rd most democratic country in Latin America (Lagos, 134). Argentina is an example of how peaceful activism may be able to bring about public awareness, but that democracy does not work in a political system rife with corruption and "mafioso" tactics.
On a speech on December 3, 2007, Hebe de Bonafini said "We are brothers of the FARC". The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo also known by the Acronym of FARC is a leftist guerrilla group that, for the last 40 years, has fought a civil war against right-wing paramilitaries and death squads linked to the government in Colombia. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo also known by the Acronym of FARC tactics have included sharing in the profits of drug trafficking and kidnapping. Bonafini's antipathy toward the Colombian government (and sympathy with the FARC) is partly due to the historic similarities between the human rights abuses of the Colombian state (both in recent times and over the past three decades and the crimes committed by Argentina's former dictatorship (1976-1983). During the same speech, she blamed the government of Colombia and its president, Alvaro Uribe, for the difficulties in the Humanitarian exchange affair. Álvaro Uribe Vélez ('alβ̞aɾo u'ɾiβ̞e 'β̞eles born July 4 1952 in Medellín) is a Colombian politician and lawyer who is currently the 39th President The Humanitarian Exchange or Humanitarian Accord (Acuerdo Humanitario Intercambio Humanitario or Canje Humanitario refers to the possible accord to exchange
Although the FARC has been branded as a terrorist group by the US state department and the European Union, many remember that it began as a peasant army inspired by Che Guevara, and their strategy of guerrilla warfare is seen by their supporters to have been legitimated in the first place by the historic repression of union leaders, activists and leftist politicians. Attempts at transitions to peace have seen mass-butcherings of former guerrillas, leading few in the FARC to trust the Colombian government and rightist death-squads. On the other hand, few condone the FARC's often brutal tactics,such as their use of kidnapping, for example, making Bonafini's comments more surprising.
However, the attempted coup by the oligarchy, media barons and parts of the armed forces against Venezuela's democratically-elected President in April 2001, for example, is seen by the mothers as demonstrating the continuing anti-democratic intent of national elites desperate to maintain their dominant position over Latin American societies at any cost. It seemed evidence that little therefore had changed since General Pinochet's military coup against Salvador Allende's democratic socialism in Chile in 1973, or the Argentinian military coup in 1976. The Mothers' fury at the USA's historic role in the region, supporting continent-wide military dictatorships under the 'Operation Condor' plan in the seventies and eighties (leading to hundreds of thousands of opponents being tortured, abused and killed in countless countries from Argentina and Chile in the south to Nicaragua and Guatemala in the north) leads Bonafini to be deeply suspicious of Colombia, as the main American ally of the in the region.
The FARC has additionally been accused by Amnesty International of underage recruiting. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to Others allege that underage teenage girls are forcibly used for combat against Colombian security forces and to give sexual favors to the on-ground commanders, although the Mothers of Plaza de Mayo would likely dismiss such suggestions as propaganda/misinformation. Bonafini, as a staunch feminist, would be very unlikely to support the FARC in this manner if she believed the allegations to be true. Such soldiers, when pregnant, most of them are forced to abort by chemical or mechanical ways. If they keep the pregnancy, the child is taken away months after birth. Many of them end up in Colombian child-welfare system.
The cause of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo was immortalized both in the Sting song They Dance Alone and in the U2 song Mothers of the Disappeared. Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner, CBE (born October 2, 1951) better known by his Stage name Sting, is a three time Academy Award The Joshua Tree is the fifth Studio album by Irish rock band U2, released 9 March 1987 on Island Records. At an Amnesty International concert in Buenos Aires in 1988 and in a concert in Buenos Aires in 1998, the Mothers appeared on stage with Sting and years later U2 to dance with Sting and Peter Gabriel and during the U2 concert to announce their children's names to the crowd as the song was performed. Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner, CBE (born October 2, 1951) better known by his Stage name Sting, is a three time Academy Award Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner, CBE (born October 2, 1951) better known by his Stage name Sting, is a three time Academy Award Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950 in Chobham, Surrey, England) is an English Musician and Songwriter. Singer and activist Joan Baez prominently featured the Mothers in her 1981 documentary There But for Fortune. Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941 in Staten Island, New York) an American Folk singer and Songwriter known Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981
The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo (Spanish: Asociación Civil Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo) is an organization who has the aim of finding the stolen babies during the "Dirty War". The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo (Asociación Civil Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo is a Human rights organization with the aim of finding the babies stolen during de Argentine Its president is Estela B. de Carlotto.
In 2008, an opera entitled Las Madres de la Plaza premiered in Leffler Chapel at Elizabethtown College in Pennsylvania, telling the story of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo. Elizabethtown College is a small comprehensive College located in Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania in Lancaster County. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern It was written by a collaboration of students, staff, and faculty of the school, headed up by James Haines and John Rohrkemper.
"Latin America's Smiling Mask. " Journal of Democracy by Marta Lagos.