Kingdom of Morocco
|Motto: "Allāh, al Waţan, al Malik" (transliteration)|
"God, Nation, King"
|Anthem: "Hymne Chérifien"|
The striped area on the map shows Western Sahara, most of which is de facto administered by Morocco as its "Southern Provinces". The flag of Morocco ( Amazigh: Acnyal Amrrukan, علم المغرب) is made of a red field with a black-bordered green interwoven star The current coat of arms of Morocco (formally the royal coat of arms was introduced 14 August, 1957. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group Transliteration is the practice of Transcribing a Word or text written in one Writing system into another writing system or system of rules for such practice A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's The Hymne Chérifien, has been the anthem of the Kingdom of Morocco even before the country gained its independence in 1956. Western Sahara ( Arabic: الصحراء الغربية; transliterated: as-Ṣaḥrā' al-Gharbīyah; Sahara Occidental is a territory The Southern Provinces or Moroccan Sahara are the Moroccan names for Western Sahara in reference to the provinces of Río de Oro and Saguia el-Hamra Its sovereignty, however, is currently in dispute. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa
|Official languages||Arabic, others commonly used unofficially. Rabat ( Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ) population 2 million ( 2007 estimate) is the Most Moroccans are Sunni Muslims of Berber, Arab or mixed Arab-Berber stock Casablanca (in Standard Arabic: الدار البيضاء ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ; Moroccan Arabic: dar beïda الدار البيضا An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language|
|-||Prime Minister||Abbas El Fassi|
|-||from France||March 2, 1956|
|-||from Spain||April 7, 1956|
|-||Total||446,550* km² (57th)|
172,414 sq mi
|-||2007 estimate||33,757,175 (37th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2006 estimate|
|-||Total||$152. A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Most Moroccans are Sunni Muslims of Berber, Arab or mixed Arab-Berber stock For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is This is a partial list of rulers in Morocco, including the historical precursors to the modern state King Mohammed VI (محمد السادس born in 1963 is the King of Morocco. The Prime Minister (رئيس الوزراء is the head of the government of Morocco but the Prime Minister is appointed by the King of Morocco as the Monarch is Abbas El Fassi ( Arabic: عباس الفاسي; born on September 18, 1940) has served as the Prime Minister of Morocco since Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions  Areas between 10000 km² and 100000 km² are listed here This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 5 billion (54th)|
|-||Per capita||$4,600 (109th)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 646 (medium) (126th)|
|Currency||Moroccan dirham (|
|Time zone||WET (UTC+0)|
|-||Summer (DST)||WEST (UTC+1)|
|*All data excludes Western Sahara, much of which is under Moroccan de facto administrative control. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The dirham (درهم plural درهمان, دراهم or درهما is the currency of Morocco. ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Western European Time ( WET, UTC+0, and commonly known as Greenwich Mean Time in the United Kingdom) is the Time zone Daylight saving time ( DST Western European Summer Time ( WEST) is a summer Daylight saving time scheme 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E|
|1||French is widely used in the government in official texts, and in the business community, though neither instance is 'official. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people ' Moroccan Arabic, an Arabic vernacular is the most common native language. Moroccan Arabic (also known as Darija, الدارجة) is the variety of Arabic spoken in the Arabic -speaking areas of Morocco Amazigh or Berber languages are also widely spoken. Nomenclature The term Berber has been used in Europe since at least the 17th century and is still used today|
Morocco (Arabic: المغرب "al-Maghrib"), officially the Kingdom of Morocco (Arabic: المملكة المغربية), is a country in North Africa with a population of 33,757,175. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan It has a coast on the Atlantic Ocean that reaches past the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea. The Strait of Gibraltar ( Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the Strait that connects the Atlantic Morocco has international borders with Algeria to the east, Spain to the north (a water border through the Strait and land borders with two small Spanish autonomous cities, Ceuta and Melilla), and Mauritania to the south. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain located on the Mediterranean, on the North African side of the Strait of Gibraltar, which Melilla is an autonomous city of Spain located on the Mediterranean, on the North African coast Mauritania (موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country 
Morocco is the only African country that is not currently a member of the African Union. The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other working languages is a Confederation consisting of 53  African However, it is a member of the Arab League at present, Arab Maghreb Union, the Francophonie, Organization of the Islamic Conference, Mediterranean Dialogue group, and Group of 77, and is a major non-NATO ally of the United States. The Arab League ( الجامعة العربية) officially called the League of Arab States ( جامعة الدول العربية The Arab Maghreb Union ( Arabic: اتحاد المغرب العربي transliterated: Ittihad al-Maghrib al-Araby French La Francophonie is an international organisation of French-speaking countries and governments and in French, the community of French-speaking peoples The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. The Mediterranean Dialogue first launched in 1994, is a forum of cooperation between NATO and seven countries of the Mediterranean. The Group of 77 at the United Nations is a loose coalition of Developing nations designed to promote its members' collective Economic interests and create Major non-NATO ally ( MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to exceptionally close allies who have close strategic working relationships
The full Arabic name Al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiya translates to "The Western Kingdom. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language " Al-Maghrib (meaning "The West") is commonly used. For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers used to refer to Morocco as Al-Maghrib al Aqşá ("The Farthest West"), disambiguating it from neighboring historical regions called al-Maghrib al Awsat ("The Middle West", Algeria) and al-Maghrib al Adna ("The Nearest West", Tunisia). Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. 
The Latinized name "Morocco" originates from medieval Latin "Morroch," which referred to the name of the former Almoravid and Almohad capital, Marrakech. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Almoravids, was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian peninsula during The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i Marrakesh or Marrakech ( Amazigh: Murakush, Arabic مراكش Murrakush) known as the "Red City"  The Persians straightforwardly call it "Marrakech" while the Turks call it "Fas" which comes from the ancient Idrisid and Marinid capital, Fès. The Idrisids ( Arabic, الأدارسة) were the first Sayyid Shia dynasty in the western Maghreb ruling from 788 The Anglicised name used for this article derives from the Arabic Banu Marin (also Benī Merīn, which is the source of the Spanish name Fes or Fez ( Arabic: فاس, French Fès is the fourth largest City in Morocco, after Casablanca, Rabat 
The word "Marrakech" is presumably derived from the Berber word Mur-Akush meaning Land of God. Nomenclature The term Berber has been used in Europe since at least the 17th century and is still used today
The area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Neolithic times (at least since 8000 BC, as attested by signs of the Capsian culture), a period when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today. The Capsian culture brought Morocco into the Neolithic about 8000 BC at a time when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos The Capsian culture (named after the town of Gafsa in Tunisia) was a Mesolithic culture of the Maghreb, which lasted from about 10000 to 6000 The Maghreb (المغرب العربي al-Maġrib al-ʿArabī) also rendered Maghrib (or rarely Moghreb) meaning "place of Sunset Many theorists believe the Amazigh people, commonly referred to as Berbers or by their regional ethnic identity (e. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. g. Chleuh), probably arrived at roughly the same time as the inception of agriculture in the region. The Chleuh people (or Shleuh: the 'ch' is the French equivalent of the English 'sh' native name 'ašəlḥi' pl Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture In the classical period, Morocco was known as Mauretania, although this should not be confused with the modern country of Mauritania. In Antiquity Mauretania was originally an independent Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa (named after the Mauritania (موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country
North Africa and Morocco were slowly drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by Phoenician trading colonies and settlements in the late Classical period. The arrival of Phoenicians heralded a long engagement with the wider Mediterranean, as this strategic region formed part of the Roman Empire, as Mauretania Tingitana. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Mauretania Tingitana was a Roman province located in northwestern Africa coinciding roughly with the northern part of modern Morocco and spanish cities of Ceuta In the fifth century, as the Roman Empire declined, the region fell to the Vandals, Visigoths, and then Byzantine Greeks in rapid succession. The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East During this time, however, the high mountains of most of modern Morocco remained unsubdued, and stayed in the hands of their Berber inhabitants.
By the seventh century, Islamic expansion was at its greatest. The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. In 670 AD, the first Islamic conquest of the North African coastal plain took place under Uqba ibn Nafi, a general serving under the Umayyads of Damascus. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Uqba ibn Nafi () (also referred to as Uqba bin Nafe Uqba Ibn al Nafia or Akbah (622&ndash683 was an Arab general under the Umayyad dynasty who began the Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. His delegates went to what is now Morocco, which he called "Maghreb al Aqsa" or "The Far West," in the year 683. The delegates supported the assimilation process that took about a century.
What became modern Morocco in the seventh century, was an area of Berbers influenced by the Arabs, who brought their customs, culture, and Islam, to which most of the Berbers converted, forming states and kingdoms such as the Kingdom of Nekor and Barghawata, sometimes after long-running series of civil wars. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Kingdom of Nekor (مملكة نكور was an emirate in the Rif area of modern day Morocco, with its capital initially at Temsaman but later The Barghawata (also Barghwata or Berghouata) were a medieval Berber tribe confederation of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state Under Idris ibn Abdallah who founded the Idrisid Dynasty, the country soon cut ties and broke away from the control of the distant Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad and the Umayyad rule in Al-Andalus. Idris I (or Idris ibn Abdullah) ( إدريس بن عبدالله) was the first ruler and founder of the Idrisid Dynasty ruling from 788 to The Idrisids ( Arabic, الأدارسة) were the first Sayyid Shia dynasty in the western Maghreb ruling from 788 Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or The Idrisids established Fes as their capital and Morocco became a centre of learning and a major regional power. Fes or Fez ( Arabic: فاس, French Fès is the fourth largest City in Morocco, after Casablanca, Rabat In International relations, a regional power is a State that has power within a geographic Region.
After the reign of the Idrisids, Arab settlers lost political control in the region of Morocco. After adopting Islam, Berber dynasties formed governments and reigned over the country. Morocco would reach its height under these Berber dynasties that replaced the Arab Idrisids after the 11th century. The Almoravids, the Almohads, then the Marinid and finally the Saadi dynasties would see Morocco rule most of Northwest Africa, as well as large sections of Islamic Iberia, or Al-Andalus. The Almoravids, was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian peninsula during The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i The Anglicised name used for this article derives from the Arabic Banu Marin (also Benī Merīn, which is the source of the Spanish name The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or
After the Saadi, the Arab Alaouite Dynasty eventually gained control. The Saadi Dynasty (Arabic سعديون) (in English also Saadite or Saadian original name Bani Zaydan began with the reign of Sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh The Alaouite Dynasty is the name of the current Moroccan royal family Morocco was facing aggression from Spain and the Ottoman Empire that was sweeping westward. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Alaouites succeeded in stabilizing their position, and while the kingdom was smaller than previous ones in the region, it remained quite wealthy. In 1684, they annexed Tangier. Tangier or Tangiers ]] ( Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish
Morocco was the first nation to recognize the fledgling United States as an independent nation in 1777. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In the beginning of the American Revolution, American merchant ships were subject to attack by the Barbary Pirates while sailing the Atlantic Ocean. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The Barbary pirates, also sometimes called Ottoman corsairs, were Muslim Pirates and Privateers that operated from North Africa, from At this time, American envoys tried to obtain protection from European powers, but to no avail. On 20 December 1777, Morocco's Sultan Mohammed III declared that the American merchant ships would be under the protection of the sultanate and could thus enjoy safe passage. Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Year 1777 ( MDCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Mohammed Ben Abdellah al-Qatib (c 1710-1790 (محمد الثالث بن عبد الله الخطيب was Sultan of Morocco from 1757 to 1790 under the Alaouite
The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship stands as the U. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship was signed by Thomas Jefferson and the Moroccan king Muhammad III in 1786 S. 's oldest non-broken friendship treaty. A Treaty is an agreement under International law entered into by actors in international law namely States and International organizations. Signed by John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, it has been in continuous effect since 1786. John Adams (October 30 1735 July 4 1826 was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence Following the reorganization of the U.S. federal government upon the 1787 Constitution, President George Washington wrote a now venerated letter to the Sultan Sidi Mohamed strengthening the ties between the two countries. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the The United States legation (consulate) in Tangier is the first property the American government ever owned abroad.  The building now houses the Tangier American Legation Museum. The American Legation, located at 8 Zankat America (Rue d'Amerique in the old city of Tangier, Kingdom of Morocco, commemorates the historic cultural and diplomatic
Successful Portuguese efforts to invade and control the Atlantic coast in the fifteenth century did not profoundly affect the Mediterranean heart of Morocco. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. After the Napoleonic Wars, Egypt and the North African maghreb became increasingly ungovernable from Istanbul, the resort of pirates under local beys, and as Europe industrialized, an increasingly prized potential for colonization. The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions The Maghreb (المغرب العربي al-Maġrib al-ʿArabī) also rendered Maghrib (or rarely Moghreb) meaning "place of Sunset Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Bey is a Turkish title for "chieftain" traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups The Maghreb had far greater proven wealth than the unknown rest of Africa and a location of strategic importance affecting the exit from the Mediterranean. For the first time, Morocco became a state of some interest in itself to the European Powers. France showed a strong interest in Morocco as early as 1830. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.  Recognition by the United Kingdom in 1904 of France's sphere of influence in Morocco provoked a German reaction; the crisis of June 1905 was resolved at the Algeciras Conference, Spain in 1906, which formalized France's "special position" and entrusted policing of Morocco to France and Spain jointly. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A sphere of influence ( SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural economic military or political domination The Algeciras Conference of 1906 took place in Algeciras Spain, and lasted from January 16 to April 7. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. A second Moroccan crisis provoked by Berlin, increased tensions between European powers. The Agadir Crisis, also called the Second Moroccan Crisis, was the international tension sparked by the deployment of the German gunboat ''Panther'' Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. The Treaty of Fez (signed on March 30, 1912) made Morocco a protectorate of France. By the Treaty of Fez (معاهدة فاس signed March 30, 1912, Sultan Abdelhafid gave up the Sovereignty of Morocco Events 240 BC - 1st recorded Perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect By the same treaty, Spain assumed the role of protecting power over the northern and southern Saharan zones on November 27 that year. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. A protecting power is a state which somehow protects another and/or the interest of its citizens in a third state The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest Events 1095 - Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont
Many Moroccan soldiers (Goumieres) served in the French army in both World War I and World War II, and in the Spanish Nationalist Army in the Spanish Civil War and after (Regulares). Goumier is a term used for Moroccan soldiers who served in auxiliary units attached to the French Army, between 1908 and 1956 The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Land Army is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and its largest World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of Regulares (Spanish for "Regulars" officially called the Fuerzas Regulares Indígenas) was the name commonly used to designate the volunteer Infantry
Nationalist political parties, which subsequently arose under the French protectorate, based their arguments for Moroccan independence on such World War II declarations as the Atlantic Charter (a joint U. The Atlantic Charter was negotiated at the Atlantic Conference (codenamed Riviera) by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U S. -British statement that set forth, among other things, the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live). A manifesto of the Istiqlal Party (Independence party in English) in 1944 was one of the earliest public demands for independence. The Istiqlal or Independence Party ( Arabic: حزب الإستقلال hizb al-istiqlāl, French: Parti de l'Istiqlal) is a Political That party subsequently provided most of the leadership for the nationalist movement.
France's exile of Sultan Mohammed V in 1953 to Madagascar and his replacement by the unpopular Mohammed Ben Aarafa, whose reign was perceived as illegitimate, sparked active opposition to the French protectorate all over the country. Exile means to be away from one's home (ie city state or country while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return Mohammed V ( August 10, 1909 &ndash February 26, 1961) (محمد الخامس was Sultan of Morocco from 1927 to Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern Mohammed Ben Aarafa, or Ben Arafa (1889 - 1976 was a distant relative of Sultan Mohammed V of Morocco (محمد بن عرفة بن محمد was put in The most notable occurred in Oujda where Moroccans attacked French and other European residents in the streets. Oujda (وجدة is a city in eastern Morocco with an estimated population of half a million inhabitants Operations by the newly created "Jaish al-tahrir" (Liberation Army), were launched on October 1, 1955. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) Jaish al-tahrir was created by "Comité de Libération du Maghreb Arabe" (Arab Maghreb Liberation Committee) in Cairo, Egypt to constitute a resistance movement against occupation. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Its goal was the return of King Mohammed V and the liberation of Algeria and Tunisia as well. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. France allowed Mohammed V to return in 1955, and the negotiations that led to Moroccan independence began the following year.
All those events helped increase the degree of solidarity between the people and the newly returned king. For this reason, the revolution that Morocco knew was called "Taourat al-malik wa shaab" (The revolution of the King and the People) and it is celebrated every August 20. Events 636 - Battle of Yarmouk: Arab forces led by Khalid ibn al-Walid take control of Syria and Palestine
On November 18, 2006, Morocco celebrated the 50th anniversary of its independence. Events 326 - The old St Peter's Basilica is consecrated 1302 - Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising Morocco recovered its political independence from France on March 2, 1956, and on April 7, France officially relinquished its protectorate. Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Through agreements with Spain in 1956 and 1958, Moroccan control over certain Spanish-ruled areas was restored, though attempts to claim other Spanish colonial possessions through military action were less successful. The Ifni War, sometimes called the Forgotten War in Spain ( la Guerra Olvidada) was a series of armed incursions into Spanish West Africa by The internationalized city of Tangier was reintegrated with the signing of the Tangier Protocol on October 29, 1956 (see Tangier Crisis). Tangier or Tangiers ]] ( Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish Tangier Protocol is an agreement signed between France, Spain and the United Kingdom by which Tangier, Morocco became an International Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The First Moroccan Crisis (also known as the Tangier Crisis) was the International crisis over the colonial status of Morocco between March 1905 and May Hassan II became King of Morocco on March 3, 1961. King Hassan II (صاحب الجلالة الملك الحسن الثاني class Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. His early years of rule would be marked by political unrest. The Spanish enclave of Ifni in the south was reintegrated to the country in 1969. Ifni was a Spanish province on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, south of Agadir and across from the Canary Islands. Morocco annexed the Western Sahara during the 1970s after demanding its reintegration from Spain since independence, but final resolution on the status of the territory remains unresolved. Western Sahara ( Arabic: الصحراء الغربية; transliterated: as-Ṣaḥrā' al-Gharbīyah; Sahara Occidental is a territory (See History of Western Sahara. The history of Western Sahara can be traced back to the times of Carthaginian explorer Hanno the Navigator on the 5th century BCE )
Political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997. Morocco was granted Major non-NATO ally status by the United States in June 2004 and has signed free trade agreements with the United States and the European Union. Major non-NATO ally ( MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to exceptionally close allies who have close strategic working relationships See also List of free trade agreements This is article is on free international trade
Morocco is a de jure constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. Politics of Morocco take place in a framework of a parliamentary Constitutional monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Morocco is the Head of government A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those The King of Morocco, with vast executive powers, can dissolve government and deploy the military, among other prerogatives. This is a partial list of rulers in Morocco, including the historical precursors to the modern state The Royal Moroccan Armed Forces is the summation of the armed forces of the kingdom of Morocco. Opposition political parties are legal, and several have been formed in recent years.
Morocco's history after independence and at the beginning of the reign of Hassan II was marked by a period of political tensions between the monarchy and opposition parties. Morocco’s human rights record is mixed On the one hand Morocco has made considerable improvements since the repressive Years of Lead under King King Hassan II (صاحب الجلالة الملك الحسن الثاني class Those years of tension are labeled by the opposition as the Years of Lead. Years of Lead may refer to The Brazilian military dictatorship ( anos de chumbo) from 1964 to 1985 Years of Lead (Italy ( Politically-motivated persecutions were common, especially when General Oufkir became responsible for home security.
However, during the last decade of the rule of King Hassan II, especially under the reign of Mohammed VI and with the launch of the Equity and Reconciliation Commission (IER) to investigate abuses committed in the name of the state, Morocco is trying to reconciliate with the victims. King Mohammed VI (محمد السادس born in 1963 is the King of Morocco. The Equity and Reconciliation Commission (هيئة الإنصاف و المصالح ( French acronym IER for Instance Equité et Réconciliation is a Moroccan Many new laws and codes concerning all aspects of life are being or have been passed, most notable of which was the creation of the Mudawana — a family code which represented the first unique initiative of its kind in the Arab and Muslim world. Mudawana ( مدونة) is the family code of Morocco. Based on the Maliki school of Sunni Islam, the code has been praised The code gives women more rights. Other issues such as the abolition of capital punishment and the reform of the Moroccan nationality law are being debated. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Moroccan Nationality law is the subject of the Moroccan Dahir ( Decree) of September 6 1958 official Bulletin Number 2394 The Moroccan parliament is due to vote on these issues in spring 2007. The Parliament of Morocco is located in Rabat, the capital of Morocco.
The 2003 Casablanca bombings and the need to fight the terrorist threat have led the government to pass a controversial anti-terrorism law that cracked down on terror suspects. The 2003 Casablanca bombings were a series of Suicide bombings on May 16, 2003, in Casablanca, Morocco. Moroccan and international organizations continue to criticize the human rights situation in Morocco, mainly the arrests of suspected Islamist extremists during 2004 and 2005 in relation to the 2003 Casablanca bombings, and in Western Sahara. 
In mid-February 2007, a study published by the Center for Strategic and International Studies called "Arab Reform and Foreign Aid: Lessons from Morocco" concluded that Morocco provides a valuable lesson in political and economic reform, which others in the Arab world can draw on and that the Moroccan model confirms that it is possible to adopt both forms of reform simultaneously. The Center for Strategic and International Studies is a Washington D 
Morocco is divided into 16 regions, and subdivided into 62 prefectures and provinces. Regions of Morocco As part of a 1997 decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature 16 new regions (provided below were created The article is about the geographic sense of the term For other uses including Regions and Regional, see Region (disambiguation. For subsequent types of praefectura, see Prefect. Prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. 
As part of a 1997 decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature, sixteen new regions were created. These regions are:
Because of the conflict over Western Sahara, the status of both regions of "Saguia el-Hamra" and "Río de Oro" is disputed. Chaouia-Ouardigha (الشاوية ورديغة is one of the sixteen Regions of Morocco. Doukkala-Abda (دكالة عبدة is one of the sixteen Regions of Morocco. Fès-Boulemane (فاس بولمان is one of the sixteen Regions of Morocco. Gharb-Chrarda-Béni Hssen (الغرب شراردة بني حسين is one of the sixteen Regions of Morocco. Greater Casablanca ( French: Grand Casablanca Arabic: جهة الدار البيضاء الكبرى is Guelmim-Es Semara (كلميم السمارة is one of the sixteen Regions of Morocco. Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra (العيون بوجدور الساقية الحمراء is one of the sixteen Regions of Morocco. Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz (مراكش تانسيفت حاوز is one of the sixteen Regions of Morocco. Meknès-Tafilalet ( Amazigh: Amknas-Tafilalt) is one of the sixteen Regions of Morocco. Oriental ( Amazigh: Agmuḍan) is one of the sixteen Regions of Morocco. Oued Ed-Dahab-Lagouira (وادي الذهب لكويرة is one of the sixteen Regions of Morocco. Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer (الرباط سلا زمور زعير is one of the sixteen Regions of Morocco. Souss-Massa-Draâ (سوس ماسة درعة is one of the sixteen Regions of Morocco. Tadla-Azilal (تادلة أزيلال is one of the sixteen Regions of Morocco. Tangier-Tétouan ( Arabic: طنجة تطوان is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate (تازة الحسيمة تاونات is one of the sixteen Regions of Morocco. Western Sahara ( Arabic: الصحراء الغربية; transliterated: as-Ṣaḥrā' al-Gharbīyah; Sahara Occidental is a territory Saguia el-Hamra, in Arabic الساقية الحمراء al-Saqiyah al-Hamra'a ("Red Canal" is with Río de Oro, one of the two territories Río de Oro ( Spanish for " Gold River" Arabic: وادي الذهب wādī-að-ðahab, often transliterated as Oued Edhahab is with
The government of Morocco has suggested that a self-governing entity, through the Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (CORCAS), should govern the territory with some degree of autonomy for Western Sahara. Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of Organization. The Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (المجلس الملكي الاستشاري للشؤون الصحراوية or Corcas, from the French abbreviation Autonomy for Western Sahara is proposed in a plan by Morocco as a solution to the Western Sahara conflict. The project was presented to the United Nations Security Council in mid-April 2007. The stalemating of the Moroccan proposal options has led the UN in the recent "Report of the UN Secretary-General" to ask the parties to enter into direct and unconditional negotiations to reach a mutually accepted political solution.  The autonomy is rejected by the group Polisario which fought against the Spanish colonial rule and now for the Western Sahara decolonization with the name of Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. The Polisario, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Po pular de Li beración de Sa Spanish Sahara was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was ruled as a territory by Spain between 1884 and 1975 Decolonization refers to the undoing of Colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic ( SADR) (' الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية) is a partially
At 172,402 sq. Introduction Morocco is a Northern African country bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria See List of cities in Morocco List of cities in Western Sahara mi (446,550 sq. km), Morocco is the fifty-seventh largest country in the world (after Uzbekistan). Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly It is comparable in size to Iraq, and is somewhat larger than the US state of California. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean.
Algeria borders Morocco to the east and southeast though the border between the two countries has been closed since 1994. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's There are also four Spanish enclaves on the Mediterranean coast: Ceuta, Melilla, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, Peñón de Alhucemas, and the Chafarinas islands, as well as the disputed islet Perejil. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain located on the Mediterranean, on the North African side of the Strait of Gibraltar, which Melilla is an autonomous city of Spain located on the Mediterranean, on the North African coast Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera is one of the Spanish occupied territories in North Africa off the Moroccan coast ( Plazas de soberanía) Peñón de Alhucemas, or "Lavender Rock" is one of the Spanish Plazas de soberanía just off the Moroccan coast Islas Chafarinas (Chafarinas Islands are a group of three small Islets located in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Morocco with an aggregate area Off the Atlantic coast the Canary Islands belong to Spain, whereas Madeira to the north is Portuguese. The Canary Islands ( English pronunciation kəˈnæriː ˈaɪləndz Spanish: Islas Canarias, ˈizlas kaˈnarjas are a Spanish Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. History See also History of Madeira Pre-Portuguese times Pliny mentions certain Purple Islands the position of which with reference to the Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. To the north, Morocco is bordered by and controls part of the Strait of Gibraltar, giving it power over the waterways in and out of the Mediterranean sea. The Strait of Gibraltar ( Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the Strait that connects the Atlantic The Rif mountains occupy the region bordering the Mediterranean from the north-west to the north-east. For the Eleventh Century Talmudist see Isaac Alfasi The Rif ( Berber: Arabic:جبال الريف is a mainly mountainous The Atlas Mountains run down the backbone of the country, from the south west to the north east. The Atlas Mountains ( Kabyle: Idurar n leṭles جبال الأطلس) is a Mountain range across a northern stretch of Africa extending about 2400 Most of the south east portion of the country is in the Sahara Desert and as such is generally sparsely populated and unproductive economically. The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest Most of the population lives to the north of these mountains, while to the south is the desert. To the south, lies the Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony that was annexed by Morocco in 1975 (see Green March). Western Sahara ( Arabic: الصحراء الغربية; transliterated: as-Ṣaḥrā' al-Gharbīyah; Sahara Occidental is a territory The Green March was a strategic mass demonstration in November 1975 coordinated by the Moroccan government to force Spain to hand over the disputed autonomous semi-metropolitan  Morocco claims that the Western Sahara is part of its territory and refers to that as its Southern Provinces. The Southern Provinces or Moroccan Sahara are the Moroccan names for Western Sahara in reference to the provinces of Río de Oro and Saguia el-Hamra
Morocco's capital city is Rabat; its largest city is its main port, Casablanca. Rabat ( Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ) population 2 million ( 2007 estimate) is the Casablanca (in Standard Arabic: الدار البيضاء ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ; Moroccan Arabic: dar beïda الدار البيضا
Other cities include Agadir, Essaouira, Fes, Marrakech, Meknes, Mohammadia, Oujda, Ouarzazat, Safi, Salè, Tangier and Tétouan. Agadir ( Arabic ~since it is not an Arabic word it is modified as follows أڴادير or أغادير, Berber (Amazigh) is a city in Essaouira (الصويرة eṣ-ṣauīrah formerly known as Mogador, its older name is a City / Wilaya and tourist resort in the western Moroccan Fes or Fez ( Arabic: فاس, French Fès is the fourth largest City in Morocco, after Casablanca, Rabat Marrakesh or Marrakech ( Amazigh: Murakush, Arabic مراكش Murrakush) known as the "Red City" Meknes (مكناس is a city in northern Morocco, located 130 kilometres from the capital Rabat and 60 kilometres from Fes. Mohammédia (also called Fedhala (in Arabic المحمدية is a port city located 15 miles northeast of Casablanca in western Morocco. Oujda (وجدة is a city in eastern Morocco with an estimated population of half a million inhabitants Ouarzazate ( Arabic, ورزازات Warzāzāt) (called The door of the desert) is a City Safi (Safi آسفي is a city in western Morocco on the Atlantic Ocean. For the Canadian figure skater see Jamie Salé. For the Finnish Union of Sex Workers see Salli. Tangier or Tangiers ]] ( Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish Tétouan ( Arabic: تطوان (meaning eyes in the Berber language) also spelled Tetuan, sometimes Tettawen or Tettawan, is a city
The climate is Mediterranean, which becomes more extreme towards the interior regions where it is mountainous. A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the Climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide The terrain is such that the coastal plains are rich and accordingly, they comprise the backbone for agriculture. In Geography, a plain is an area of land with relatively low relief — meaning that it is flat Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Forests cover about 12% of the land while arable land accounts for 18%. A forest is an area with a high density of Trees There are many definitions of a forest based on various criteria 5% is irrigated.
Morocco is known for its wildlife biodiversity. Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants animals and other organisms Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. Birds represent the most important fauna. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Fauna is all of the Animal life of any particular region or time  The avifauna of Morocco includes a total of 454 species, of which five have been introduced by humans, and 156 are rare or accidental. An introduced species (also known as naturalized species or exotic species) is an Organism that is not indigenous to a given location but 
Morocco is represented in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 geographical encoding standard by the symbol MA. This is a list of the bird species recorded in Morocco. The avifauna of Morocco includes a total of 454 species (Bergier & Thévenot 2006 of which five have been ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter Country codes in the ISO 3166-1 standard to represent countries and dependent territories.  This code was used as the basis for Morocco's internet domain, . ma. 
According to the African Development Bank, the GDP of Morocco accounts for 7% of the African continent. The African Development Bank ( ADB) is a development bank established in 1964 with the intention of promoting economic and social development in Africa.  Morocco is the fifth economic power of Africa with a 2006 GDP of $152. 5 billion at PPP ($58. The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 1 billion at official exchange rates), after South Africa, Egypt, Algeria and Nigeria. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal (2001)
Morocco's largest industry is the mining of phosphates. Phosphate rock or Phosphorite is a general description applied to several kinds of rock which contain significant concentrations of Phosphate minerals Its second largest source of income is from nationals living abroad who transfer money to relatives living in Morocco. Remittance can also refer to the Accounting concept of a monetary payment transferred by a customer to a business Remittances are transfers The country's third largest source of revenue is tourism; 7. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel 45 million tourists visited the country in 2007. 
Morocco ranks among the world’s largest producers and exporters of cannabis, and its cultivation and sale provide the economic base for much of the population of northern Morocco. Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp The cannabis is typically processed into hashish. Hashish (from Arabic: ar حشيش, lit "grass" also hash) is a preparation of cannabis composed of the compressed This activity represents about 0. 5% of Morocco's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A UN survey estimated cannabis cultivation at about 1,340 square kilometres (515 sq mi) in Morocco's five northern provinces. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. This represents 10 % of the total area and 27 per cent of the arable lands of the surveyed territory and 1. 5 per cent of Morocco's total arable land. Morocco is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and in 1992 Morocco passed legislation designed to implement the Convention.
Morocco has an unemployment rate of 7. Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work. 7% (2006 Data) and a 1999 estimate by the CIA puts 19% of the Moroccan population under the poverty line. The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of Income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate Standard of living in a given country .
Though working towards change, Morocco historically has utilized child labor on a large scale. In 1999, the Moroccan Government stated that over 500,000 children under the age of 15 were in the labor force. 
Morocco has signed Free Trade Agreements with the European Union (to take effect 2010) and the United States of America. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States Senate approved by a vote of 85 to 13, on July 22, 2004, the US-Morocco Free Trade Agreement, which will allow for 98% of the two-way trade of consumer and industrial products to be without tariffs. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The US-Morocco Free Trade Agreement (or Morocco FTA) is a Bilateral Trade agreement between the United States and Morocco. The agreement entered into force in January 2006.
Morocco is the third most populous Arab country, after Egypt and Sudan. Most Moroccans are Sunni Muslims of Berber, Arab or mixed Arab-Berber stock This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa.  Most Moroccans are Sunni Muslims of Arab, Berber, or mixed Arab-Berber stock. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic About three-quarters of all present-day Moroccans are of Berber descent, while Arabs form the second largest ethnic group. The Arabs invaded Morocco in the seventh century and established their culture there.
There is no significant genetic difference between Moroccan Arabs and Moroccan non-Arabs (i. Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is e. Berbers). Thus, it is likely that Arabization was mainly a cultural process without genetic replacement. Arabization ( Arabic: تعريب) describes a growing cultural influence on a non-Arab area that gradually changes into one that speaks Arabic and/or  However, according to the European Journal of Human Genetics, North-Western Africans were genetically closer to Iberians and to other Europeans than to sub-Saharan Africans. The European Journal of Human Genetics is an official monthly Human genetics Publication. The Iberians were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodot and Strabo Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries 
Morocco's official language is classical Arabic. Classical Arabic (CA also known as Qur'anic or Koranic Arabic, is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad The country's distinctive Arabic dialect is called Moroccan Arabic. Moroccan Arabic (also known as Darija, الدارجة) is the variety of Arabic spoken in the Arabic -speaking areas of Morocco Approximately 12 million (40% of the population), mostly in rural areas, speak Berber – which exists in Morocco in three different dialects (Tarifit, Tashelhiyt, and Tamazight) – either as a first language or bilingually with the spoken Arabic dialect. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time Nomenclature The term Berber has been used in Europe since at least the 17th century and is still used today Rifi redirects here for the location of the same name in Greece, see Rifi Greece Tarifit is a Northern Berber language Tashelhiyt (also Tashelhit or Tachelhit or Tachelhiyt or Shilha, native name tašlḥiyt, French: tachelhit Nomenclature The term Berber has been used in Europe since at least the 17th century and is still used today  French, which remains Morocco's unofficial second language, is taught universally and still serves as Morocco's primary language of commerce and economics. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people It also is widely used in education and government. About 20,000 Moroccans in the northern part of the country speak Spanish as a second language in parallel with Tarifit. Rifi redirects here for the location of the same name in Greece, see Rifi Greece Tarifit is a Northern Berber language English, while still far behind French and Spanish in terms of number of speakers, is rapidly becoming the third foreign language of choice among educated youth (after Arabic and French). English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States As a result of national education reforms entering into force in late 2002, English will be taught in all public schools from the fourth year on. French however, will remain the second foreign language because of Morocco's close economic and social links with other French-speaking countries and especially France.
Most people live west of the Atlas Mountains, a range that insulates the country from the Sahara Desert. The Atlas Mountains ( Kabyle: Idurar n leṭles جبال الأطلس) is a Mountain range across a northern stretch of Africa extending about 2400 The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest Casablanca is the center of commerce and industry and the leading port; Rabat is the seat of government; Tangier is the gateway to Morocco from Spain and also a major port; Fez is the cultural and religious center; and Marrakech is a major tourist center. Casablanca (in Standard Arabic: الدار البيضاء ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ; Moroccan Arabic: dar beïda الدار البيضا Rabat ( Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ) population 2 million ( 2007 estimate) is the Tangier or Tangiers ]] ( Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Fes or Fez ( Arabic: فاس, French Fès is the fourth largest City in Morocco, after Casablanca, Rabat
There is a European expatriate population of 100,000, mainly of French or Spanish descent; many are teachers or technicians and more and more retirees, especially in Marrakech. Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( Marrakesh or Marrakech ( Amazigh: Murakush, Arabic مراكش Murrakush) known as the "Red City"
Education in Morocco is free and compulsory through primary school (age 15). Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Nevertheless, many children – particularly girls in rural areas – still do not attend school. The country's illiteracy rate has been stuck at around 50% for some years, but reaches as high as 90% among girls in rural regions. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, On September 2006, UNESCO awarded Morocco amongst other countries; Cuba, Pakistan, Rajasthan (India) and Turkey the "UNESCO 2006 Literacy Prize". The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Rājasthān ( Devanāgarī: राजस्थान raːdʒəst̪ʰaːn is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches 
Morocco has about 230,000 students enrolled in fourteen public universities. The Mohammed V University in Rabat and Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane (a private university) are highly regarded. Mohammed V University ( Rabat, Morocco) was founded in 1957 under a royal decree ( Dahir) Al Akhawayn University or AUI ( جامعة الأخوين, literally meaning The Two Brothers' University referring to the King of Saudi Arabia Ifrane ( Amazigh: Ifran) (nicknamed Little Switzerland) is a town and Ski resort in the Middle Atlas region of Morocco (population Al-Akhawayn, founded in 1993 by King Hassan II and King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, is an English-language American-style university comprising about 1,000 students. King Hassan II (صاحب الجلالة الملك الحسن الثاني class King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, ( 1921 - August 1, 2005) was the King of the Kingdom The University of Al Karaouine, in Fez, is considered the oldest university in the world and has been a center of learning for more than 1,000 years. The University of Al-Karaouine or Al-Qarawiyyin (جامعة القرويين (other transliterations of the name include Qarawiyin Kairouyine Kairaouine Qairawiyin Qaraouyine
Morocco's Jewish minority has decreased significantly and numbers about 7,000 (see Jewish exodus from Arab lands). Moroccan Jews constitute an ancient community Before the founding of Israel in 1948, there were about 250000 Jews in the country but fewer Antisemitism in the Arab world|Islam and Antisemitism The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion or mass departure of Jews primarily of Sephardi Prior to mass emigration, Morocco was home to more Jews than any other Muslim country in the world. The Jewish community of Morocco, which dates back more than 2,000 years, has experienced various waves of both tolerance and discrimination. The worst outbreaks of antisemitic violence occurred during the Middle Ages, when Jews were massacred in Fez in 1033 and in Marrakech in 1232. Following the establishment of the French protectorate in 1912, Jews began to enjoy greater equality.
Morrocan Jews are of two main stocks. One group is composed by those descended from the Jewish community of Spain (known as Sephardi Jews), who emigrated and settled in Morocco after a wave of anti-Jewish rioting in 1391, and especially after the expulsion of the Jews in 1492. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Sephardi Jews ( Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Səfardi Tiberian Səp̄arədî; plural An example of such a community was the Jewish population of Debdou, who constituted a majority of the town's population. Debdou is a town in Morocco. It is known for its multi-ethnic population including Moroccan Arabs Jews and Berbers The other grouping is Jews of indigenous descent, probably Berber converts to Judaism. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley.
Morocco is an ethnically diverse country with a rich culture and civilization. Culture of Morocco - Morocco is a country of multi-ethnic groups with a rich Culture and Civilization. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements Through Moroccan history, Morocco hosted many people coming from East (Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Jews and Arabs), South (Sub-Saharan Africans) and North (Romans, Vandals, Andalusians (including Moors and Jews)). The Capsian culture brought Morocco into the Neolithic about 8000 BC at a time when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent All those civilizations have had an impact on the social structure of Morocco. It conceived various forms of beliefs, from paganism, Judaism, and Christianity to Islam. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.
Each region possesses its own specificities, thus contributing to the national culture and to the legacy of civilization. A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements Morocco has set among its top priorities the protection of its diverse legacy and the preservation of its cultural heritage.
Culturally speaking, Morocco has always been successful in combining its Berber, Jewish and Arabic cultural heritage with external influences such as the French and the Spanish and, during the last decades, the Anglo-American lifestyles.
Moroccan cuisine has long been considered as one of the most diversified cuisines in the world. Moroccan cuisine is one of the most diversified cuisines in the world This is a result of the centuries-long interaction of Morocco with the outside world. The cuisine of Morocco is a mix of Berber, Spanish, Corsican, Portuguese, Moorish, Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, and African cuisines. The cuisine of Morocco has been influenced by the native Berber cuisine, the Arabic Andalusian cuisine brought by the Moriscos when they left Spain, the Turkish cuisine from the Turks and the Middle Eastern cuisines brought by the Arabs, as well as Jewish cuisine. The Berber cuisine is considered as a traditional cuisine which evolved little in the course of time A morisco (Spanish " Moor -like" or mourisco (Portuguese was any Muslim of Spain or Portugal Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern and The term Middle Eastern cuisine refers to the various Cuisines of the Middle East. Jewish cuisine is a collection of international Cookery traditions linked by Jewish Dietary laws ( Kashrus) and Jewish holiday traditions
Spices are used extensively in Moroccan food. A spice is a dried Seed, Fruit, Root, Bark or vegetative substance used in Nutritionally insignificant quantities as a Food additive While spices have been imported to Morocco for thousands of years, many ingredients, like saffron from Tiliouine, mint and olives from Meknes, and oranges and lemons from Fez, are home-grown. Saffron ( Kurdish/Persian زَعْفَرَان is a Spice derived from the dried Stigma of the Flower of the saffron crocus ( Crocus sativus Mentha ( mint) is a Genus of about 25 Species (and many hundreds of varieties) of Flowering plants in the family The Olive ( Olea europaea) is a Species of small Tree in the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern An orange —specifically the sweet orange —is the Citrus fruit Citrus sinensis ( syn The lemon ( Citrus × limon) is a hybrid in cultivated wild plants Chicken is the most widely eaten meat in Morocco. The chicken ( Gallus gallus, sometimes G gallus domesticus) is a domesticated Fowl which is traditionally believed to have descended from The most commonly eaten red meat in Morocco is beef; lamb is preferred, but is relatively expensive. Beef is the Culinary name for Meat from Bovines especially domestic Cattle (cows Couscous is the most famous Moroccan dish along with pastilla, tajine, and harira. For the possum species see Cuscus Couscous or kuskus as it is known in Morocco Algeria Tunisia and Libya (ˈkuːskuːs in the US /ˈkʊskʊs/ Bastilla redirects here For the Moth Genus, see Bastilla (moth. A tajine or tagine (tɑːˈʒiːn Arabic: طاجين tˁaːdʒiːn is a type of dish found in the North African cuisines of Morocco,which Harira is the traditional Maghreb soup (Morocco and Algeria) It is usually eaten during dinner in the Muslim holy month of Ramadan to break the The most popular drink is green tea with mint. Green tea is a type of Tea made solely with the leaves of Camellia sinensis, that has undergone minimal Oxidation during processing The tea is accompanied with hard sugar cones or lumps.
Moroccan literature is written in Arabic, Berber and French. Moroccan literature is a Literature written in (Moroccan Arabic, Berber or French, and of course particularly by people of Morocco It also contains literature produced in Al-Andalus. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or Under the Almohad dynasty Morocco experienced a period of prosperity and brilliance of learning. The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i The Almohad built the Marrakech Koutoubia Mosque, which accommodated no fewer than 25,000 people, but was also famed for its books, manuscripts, libraries and book shops, which gave it its name; the first book bazaar in history. Marrakesh or Marrakech ( Amazigh: Murakush, Arabic مراكش Murrakush) known as the "Red City" The Koutoubia Mosque ( جامع الكتبية is the largest Mosque in Marrakech, Morocco. The Almohad Caliph Abu Yakub had a great love for collecting books. Abu Ya'qub Yusuf or Yusuf I (أبو يعقوب يوسف (died on July 29, 1184) was the second Almohad Amir. He founded a great library, which was eventually carried to the Casbah and turned into a public library. The Casbah ( French) or as transliterated from Arabic Qasba (from qasba, قصبة ' Citadel ' is specifically the citadel of Algiers A public library (also called circulating library) is a Library which is accessible by the Public and is generally funded from public sources (such
Modern Moroccan literature began in the 1930s. Two main factors gave Morocco a pulse toward witnessing the birth of a modern literature. Morocco, as a French and Spanish protectorate left Moroccan intellectuals the opportunity to exchange and to produce literary works freely enjoying the contact of other Arabic literature and Europe. Spanish protectorate of Morocco (حماية إسبانيا في المغرب (Protectorado español de Marruecos was the area of Morocco under colonial rule by the Arabic literature ( Arabic: الأدب العربي Al-Adab Al-Arabi) is the writing produced both Prose and Poetry, by speakers
During the 1950s and 1960s, Morocco was a refuge and artistic centre and attracted writers as Paul Bowles, Tennessee Williams and William S. Burroughs. Paul Frederic Bowles ( December 30, 1910 – November 18, 1999) was an American Expatriate Composer, Author, Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26 1911 &ndash February 25 1983 better known as Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright who received many of the top theatrical William Seward Burroughs II ( – ˈbʌroʊz was an American Novelist, Essayist, Social critic, painter and Spoken word Moroccan literature flourished with novelists such as Mohamed Zafzaf and Mohamed Choukri, who wrote in Arabic, and Driss Chraïbi and Tahar Ben Jelloun who wrote in French. Mohamed Zafzaf (1942-2001 was a Moroccan Novelist and Poet from Kenitra writing in Classical Arabic. Mohamed Choukri ( Arabic: محمد شكري; July 15, 1935 — November 15, 2003) was a Moroccan Author who is Driss Chraïbi ( July 15, 1926, El Jadida &ndash April 1, 2007, Drôme, France) was a Moroccan Tahar Ben Jelloun ( Arabic: طاهر بنجلون (born in Fes Morocco, December 1, 1944) is a Moroccan Poet and Other important Moroccan authors include, Abdellatif Laabi, Fouad Laroui, Mohammed Berrada and Leila Abouzeid. Abdellatif Laâbi is a Moroccan poet born in 1942 in Fes, Morocco. Fouad Laroui (1958 - is a Moroccan economist and writer born in Oujda, Morocco. Mohammed Berrada ( Arabic:محمد برادة also transliterated Muhammad Baradah, (born 1938 in Rabat) is a Moroccan novelist literary critic Leila It should be noted also, that orature (oral literature) is an integral part of Moroccan culture, be it in Moroccan Arabic or Amazigh. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley.
Moroccan music is predominantly of Arab origins. Morocco is inhabited mostly by Arabs along with Berbers and other minorities There also exist other varieties of Berber folk music. The Berbers are an Ethnic group in North and West Africa. Their music is widely varying across the area they inhabit but is best known for its place in Andalusian and other imported influences have had a major effect on the country's musical character. This article is on the music of Andalusia, a region in Spain. Rock-influenced chaabi bands are widespread, as is trance music with historical origins in Muslim music. Chaabi, also known as Chaâbi, Sha-bii, or Sha'bii, refers to two different Music genres in North Africa: Algerian Trance is a style of Electronic dance music that developed in the 1990s Islamic music is Muslim religious Music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions
Morocco is home to Andalusian classical music that is found throughout North Africa. Andalusian classical music (or Arabo-Andalusian music, moussiqua al-âla) is a style of Arabic music found across North Africa, though it evolved It probably evolved under the Moors in Cordoba, and the Persian-born musician Ziryab is usually credited with its invention. ||-||-||} Córdoba ( Cordova in English is a City in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. Abu l-Hasan ‘Ali Ibn Nafi‘ ( Persian and Arabic: أبو الحسن علي ابن نافع) (c
Chaabi (popular) is a music consisting of numerous varieties which are descended from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. Chaabi, also known as Chaâbi, Sha-bii, or Sha'bii, refers to two different Music genres in North Africa: Algerian Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at any celebration or meeting.
Popular Western forms of music are becoming increasingly popular in Morocco, such as fusion, rock, country, metal and particularly hip hop. A fusion genre is a music genre which combines two or more genres Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums. In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with
The military of Morocco is composed of the following main divisions:
|United Nations||since November 12, 1956|
|Arab League||since October 1, 1958|
|International Olympic Committee||since 1959|
|Organization of African Unity||co-founder May 25, 1963; withdrew November 12, 1984|
|Group of 77||since June 15, 1964|
|Organization of the Islamic Conference||since September 22, 1969|
|World Trade Organization||since January 1, 1995|
|Mediterranean Dialogue group||since February 1995|
|Major non-NATO ally of the United States||since January 19, 2004|